PREHISTORICIBERIA 1.500.00 BC-900 BCHominin inhabitation of the IberianPeninsula dates from thePaleolithic. Early Hominin remainshave been discovered at a numberof sites on the peninsula.Significant evidence of anextended occupation of Iberia byNeanderthal man has also beendiscovered in ATAPUERCA.It contains several caves, wherefossils and stone tools of theearliest inhabitants in West Europehave been found. The earliesthominids may have dated to 1.2million years ago, representing thefirst in Europe. "The ArcheologicalSite of Atapuerca" has beendesignated a UNESCO worldHeritage site.
CELTS 900 BC- 400 BCDuring the iron age celts came to Iberia peninsula Celts lived in “Castros” which is a type of fortifiedfrom middle Europe. They were mainly fishermen, settlements with a nonuniform distribution. Theirfarmers and miners. houses were circular with onluy one room and theyr were made with adobe and straw.
IBERIANS 400BC- 130 BCIberians lived in walled cities forming well- They worked mainly on agriculture and livestock.organized streets. Their houses were rectangular Iberian had their own currency and they also knewwith two independent rooms. the writing.
ANCIENTROME409 AC 139 BC-The Roman occupation lasted almost200 years, culminating in theconquests of Julius Caesar the Celts ofAsturias and Cantabria, achieving fullcontrol of the peninsula under Romanrule and its conversion in the provinceunder the name of Hispania. Hispaniasname means "land of rabbits"The people of Spain adopted Romanculture, language and laws, gainedimportance in the empire, as eventhree Roman emperors, Trajan,Hadrian and Theodosius also thephilosopher Lucius Seneca Anneo andother important personalities wereborn on the peninsula .
ANCIENT ROME 139 BC- 409 ACPeninsular division in the Roman Empire
VISIGOTHS409- 711 The first idea of Spain as acountry is materialized withthe Visigothic monarchy. TheVisigoths aspired to theterritorial unity of Hispaniaand they got all the successivedefeats on the Suabians,Basques and Byzantines. Theywere characterized by workdone in bronze and goldjewelry. The Visigothickingdom also established acentralized capital bothpolitical and religious powerin Toledo.
AL-ÁNDALUS711 - 1492•Al –Andalus ( )الندلسwas theArabic name of the Iberian Peninsulagoverned by Muslins in the periodbetween 711 and 1492 (Middle Ages)• Due to several wars with theChristian Kingdoms, and thebeginning of the Reconquista, theterritorial boundaries underwentconstant changes.•Al-Andalus existed in conflict withChristian Kingdoms, to the North,which at first were forced intosubservience, but eventuallyoverpowered their Muslimneighbours to the South.•In 1492, the Emirate of Granada wassurrendered to the CatholicMonarchs. The surrender concludedAl-Andalus as a political entity but thecultural and social contributionsunder Muslim rule still persist in thePeninsula. (I.e. La Alpujarra).
DISCOVERY OFAMERICA 1492In the 1492, the voyages ofColumbus initiated Europeanexploration of the AmericancontinentCristobal Colón was a navigatorfor Castilla, a country that laterfounded modern Spain. Hemade four voyages to theAmericas, with his first in 1492,which resulted in what is widelyreferred to as the Discovery ofAmerica He did not actuallyreach the mainland until his thirdvoyage, in 1498, when hereached South America, and thefourth voyage, when he reachedCentral America.
SPANISH GOLDEN CENTURY XVI- XVIIOne of the most important writers in Spain was Miguel de Cervantes, who worte “DonQuijote de la Mancha”. This book is considered the most influence book in Spanish literature
SPANISH GOLDEN CENTURY XVI- XVIIThis century was specially famous by its writers. Francisco Quevedo and Luis de Gónogorawere fighting “Poetically” each other during their holw lifes.• LOPE DE VEGA • FRANCISCO DE QUEVEDO• CALDERÓN DE LA BARCA • LUIS DE GÓNGORA
RAILWAYACROSS SPAINXIXIn the mid-19thcentury the IndustrialRevolution began tochange Spain. Thefirst railway in Spainwas built in 1848 andby the 1860s railwayshad spread acrossSpain.
INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION XIXMining and the iron and steel industries in Spain grew in the late 19th century. However in1900 Spain was still mainly an agricultural country and it was still poor. Illiteracy wascommon in Spain and in 1880-1882 there was a famine in the South .
SPANISH CIVILWAR 1936- 1939The Spanish Civil War was asocial conflict, political andmilitary (who later also wouldaffect an economic conflict)that began in Spain after thefailed coup of 17 and 18 July1936 carried out by the armyagainst the government ofthe Second Spanish Republic,and that he would be finishedon April 1, 1939 with the lastpart of war signed byFrancisco Franco, declaredvictory and established adictatorship that lasted until1975.