Theme3 spain and portugal


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Theme3 spain and portugal

  1. 1. The Portuguese Empire History 140 By Ryan Babers
  2. 2. History of Portugal <ul><li>Dates back to early Middle Ages </li></ul><ul><li>Roman name- Portus Cale, and early settlement located at the mouth of the Duro River </li></ul><ul><li>2000 B.C. Romans took the Iberian Peninsula from the Carthaginians during the 2nd Punic Wars. Renamed Portus Cale (Port of Cale) </li></ul><ul><li>The name would eventually evolve into Portugal </li></ul><ul><li>Almost all of the peninsula was annexed to the Roman Empire </li></ul><ul><li>The Carthaginians were expelled from their coastal colonies </li></ul><ul><li>Rome installed a colonial regime, and Lusitania Grew in prosperity and many of modern day Portugal’s cities were founded </li></ul><ul><li>15th & 16th century Portugal Ascended to world power status during European Age of Discovery </li></ul><ul><li>Military decline with battle of Alcacer Wuibir in Morocco 1578 and Spain’s aborted attempt to conquer England in 1588 </li></ul>
  3. 3. Portuguese history cont. <ul><li>Early 5th century Germanic tribes, the Suevi & Buri invaded the Iberian peninsula and colonized Gallaecia (Modern Northern Portugal and Galicia) </li></ul><ul><li>The Buri settled in the region Terras de Boiro (Lands of the Buri) </li></ul><ul><li>In 711 A.D. the Islamic Moors (Berbers & Arabs) from North Africa invaded the peninsula and destroyed the Visigothic kingdom </li></ul><ul><li>War broke out after the Moors kicked the Goths out and they fought to reclaim land. Known as war of Reconquest </li></ul><ul><li>In 1065 Portugal gained it’s independence under rule of Garcia II due to Feudal power struggles, Portuguese and Garcian nobles rebelled </li></ul><ul><li>The country rejoined under Garcia II’s brother, Alfonso VI of Leon </li></ul><ul><li>On June 24, 1128, Portugal officially declares its national origin with the battle of Sao Mamede </li></ul><ul><li>Alfonso proclaimed himself first prince of Portugal and eventually first King of Portugal </li></ul><ul><li>In 1249 to 1250 the Algarve (Southernmost Region) was reconquered from the Moors </li></ul><ul><li>Portugal advanced in maritime, geographic, mathematical technology </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Portuguese Empire <ul><li>Also known as the Portuguese Overseas Empire or Portuguese Colonial Empire </li></ul><ul><li>Was the first global empire in history </li></ul><ul><li>Longest-lived of the modern European colonial empires spanning almost 6 centuries </li></ul><ul><li>With recent gains in science and technology, Portuguese sailors started to explore the coast of Africa in 149 to find a sea route to the valuable Asian spice trade market </li></ul><ul><li>In 1500, Pedro Alvares accidentally discovers Brazil </li></ul><ul><li>A string of outposts or “padroes” were created along African, Middle Eastern, and Asian coastlines </li></ul><ul><li>Between 1580 & 1640 Portugal partnered with Spain but ruled separately </li></ul><ul><li>Portugal became subject of attacks by France, Britain, and the Netherlands due to new partnership with Spain which also began the decline for Portugal </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>During the 17th century, Portuguese trade monopoly collapsed in the Indian Ocean with losses to the Dutch in Portuguese India and Southeast Asia </li></ul><ul><li>Brazil had become Portugal’s prized possession until Brazil broke away in 1822 </li></ul><ul><li>Portuguese empire was reduced to colonies on the African coastline </li></ul>
  6. 6. Colonial Brazil <ul><li>In 1500 Pedro Alvares Carbal landed in Brazil and made claim under King Manuel I of Portugal </li></ul><ul><li>Portuguese extracted brazil wood from the rainforest for it’s value and red dye </li></ul><ul><li>The Treaty of Tordesillas signed in 1494 created the Tordestillas Meridian, dividing the world between the Kings of Portugal & Castile (Spain) </li></ul><ul><li>All Land discovered or to be discovered east of the meridian was to be property of Portugal, west of it Spain </li></ul><ul><li>Treaty was most likely the most decisive event in Brazilian history </li></ul><ul><li>The Treaty of Madrid likewise mapped out Brazil’s coastline </li></ul><ul><li>In 1534, King John III divided land into 15 captavies of Brazil which were given to Portuguese noblemen </li></ul><ul><li>Only Pernambuco and San Vicente prospered </li></ul><ul><li>Most captaincies failed due to the resilience of indigenous peoples, shipwrecks, and internal disputes, between the colonies </li></ul><ul><li>City of Olinda prospered from sugarcane mills which sugar was very valuable to Europe empires at the time </li></ul>
  7. 7. Colonial Brazil <ul><li>Sao Vincente profited more traffic of indigenous slaves </li></ul><ul><li>A large fleet led by Tome de Sousa set sail to Brazil to establish a government in the colony </li></ul><ul><li>Tome became the first Governor-General of Brazil </li></ul><ul><li>He established the capital City, Sulvador da Bahia (Northeastern Brazil) </li></ul><ul><li>During the establishment of the government much of the inhabitants rebelled and resisted </li></ul><ul><li>In 1763, the capital was moved to Rio de Janeiro </li></ul><ul><li>Governor Tome brought over the first Jesuits who also helped in the founding of Rio de Janeiro </li></ul><ul><li>Most Jesuits were successful at converting the natives due to the understanding of their culture </li></ul><ul><li>During 1530-1700, Brazil profited from it’s sugarcane industry as well as its cotton and tobacco but declined with competition from the French and Dutch </li></ul>
  8. 8. The Spanish Empire
  9. 9. The History of Spain <ul><li>Rome in the 4th century much like the Portuguese ruled most of present day Spain in the Iberian Peninsula (known as Hispania) </li></ul><ul><li>After the Roman empire had collapsed from invading Germanic tribes, the Iberian Peninsula was controlled mostly by the Visigoths </li></ul><ul><li>Some of the late Roman empire’s influence remained with the Visigothic empire </li></ul><ul><li>With the arrival of the Moors in the 8th century, they had begun to control much of the Iberian Peninsula </li></ul><ul><li>The Battle of Covadonga had signified a Muslim defeat and under King Pelagrus of Asturias a monarchy was created being one of the first stages of the Reconquista </li></ul><ul><li>The spread of Christianity had rivaled Islam rule in the area and drove out many Muslims however, they had influence the peninsula with their technology, culture, and society </li></ul><ul><li>During the reconquista, new Christian kingdoms arose </li></ul><ul><li>The Kingdom of Castile and Kingdom of Aragon had become most important kingdoms </li></ul><ul><li>The Catholic monarchs, Isabella of Castile and Ferdinand of Aragon married in 1469 laying down the foundation for the Kingdom of Spain </li></ul><ul><li>In 1492 Christopher Columbus had been authorized to explore the “New World” and was the first European to do so </li></ul><ul><li>Isabella had strategize for long-term political stability by arranging special marriages for her five children </li></ul><ul><li>A vast majority of Jews and Muslims from former Islam rule and Jewish settlement were given an ultimatum to convert to Christianity or face expulsion from Spain </li></ul><ul><li>Gypsies who also inhabited the area also shared the same fate or were ordered for execution </li></ul>
  10. 10. Habsburg Spain <ul><li>Hapsburg Spain is the history of Spain over 16th & 17th centuries (1506-1700) where Spain was ruled by the major branch of the Hapsburg dynasty under Charles V and Philip II of Spain </li></ul><ul><li>Spain had reached its peak under Hapsburg rule and began to decline near the end of the 17th century </li></ul><ul><li>The Spanish Habsburg had created the first de facto unified state in the Iberian Peninsula with the inclusion of Portugal </li></ul><ul><li>Through several political changes, Spain eventually was united under a single ruler, Ferdinand II of Aragon </li></ul><ul><li>Before Ferdinand II’s rise to power a confederacy was in place if kingdoms: Aragon, Castile, Leon, and Navarre </li></ul><ul><li>In 1516m Ferdinand II died which led to the ascension of the young Charles to the throne as Charles I of castile and Aragon which founded the monarchy of Spain </li></ul><ul><li>Charles had inherited all of the new world claimed by Spain </li></ul><ul><li>With territorial Habsburg acquisitions, Charles eventually would become Emperor Charles V </li></ul>
  11. 11. Hapsburg Spain <ul><li>France facing being surrounded by Habsburg territories invaded Spain’s territories mostly in Italy and Navarre (2nd Franco-Spanish conflict) </li></ul><ul><li>France was easily defeated and forced to abandon Milan again </li></ul><ul><li>After the death of Charles in 1558, Philip II came to power and repelled the French once more </li></ul><ul><li>Spain relied heavily on it’s assets overseas </li></ul><ul><li>It’s most important colonial city establishment in the new world was Mexico city in 1524 which served as an administrative HQ in the region </li></ul>
  12. 12. The Spanish Empire <ul><li>The Spanish empire was one of the first modern global empires and one of the largest in world history </li></ul><ul><li>Religion played a very strong role in the spread of the Spanish empire </li></ul><ul><li>The ideology that Spain could bring Christianity to the new world played a strong role in the expansion of Spain’s empire </li></ul><ul><li>Spanish sea exploration and expansion opened up trade routes across the Atlantic to the Americas and across the Pacific between East Asia and Mexico through the Philippines </li></ul><ul><li>After arrival, Spanish conquistadors had disintegrated the Aztec, Inca, and Mayan governments </li></ul><ul><li>Spain was dominating the seas and hit a cultural golden age in the 16th & 17th centuries </li></ul><ul><li>Disease had wiped out much of the natives in Spain’s new territories who were seen as potential growth to their economy </li></ul><ul><li>Spain experienced a golden age in the 17th century which was a period of arts and letter in the Spanish empire coinciding with the political decline and fall of the Habsburgs </li></ul><ul><li>A Greek artist El Greco settled in Spain and infused Spanish art with Italian renaissance styles and helped create a unique Spanish style of painting </li></ul><ul><li>Spanish literature was also in the spotlight that showcased the famous work of Miguel de Cervantes and Lope de Vega </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Hernan Cortez had achieved Spanish conquest of the Aztec empire in 1519-521 </li></ul><ul><li>The new territory would become Viceroyalty of New Spain or present day Mexico </li></ul><ul><li>The conquest of the Incas by Francisco Pizarro was of equal significance as well (Viceroyalty of Peru) </li></ul><ul><li>In the Pacific (1565), the Spanish made its first Spanish settlement in the Philippines founded by Miguel Lopez de Legazpi and the service of Manila galleons was instituted </li></ul><ul><li>The galleons shipped goods from all over Asia across the Pacific to the Mexican coast </li></ul><ul><li>Goods would then be shipped to Spanish treasure fleets for shipment to Spain </li></ul><ul><li>The Spanish post of Manila was established for trade in 1572 </li></ul><ul><li>The islands of Guam, Mariana Islands, Caroline Islands, and Palau followed </li></ul>
  14. 14. Struggle & Survival in Colonial America: The people of the Portuguese and Spanish Colonies in America
  15. 15. (Por) Damiana da Cunha <ul><li>(Female) , Tribal group: Caiapo </li></ul><ul><li>Origin: Goias, Brazil </li></ul><ul><li>Luis da Cunha is the godfather of Damiana </li></ul><ul><li>Damiana is the Indian heroine of Goias- granddaughter of Angrai-oxa </li></ul><ul><li>Was a teacher, missionary, mediator, frontierswoman, and expedition leader </li></ul><ul><li>Was baptized and given the Christian name, Damiana in honor of her godfather </li></ul><ul><li>In her teenage years she went to live in the new village of Maria Primera as a hostage in the governor’s household to be raised in European fashion as an ambassador of (Caiapo) </li></ul><ul><li>She may have possibly attended a domestic school in spinning cotton and weaving on wooden looms where she had received extensive training from non-white women </li></ul><ul><li>Her 1st husband from Portugal left but she remarried to a Brazilian Manuel Pereira da Cruz, a civilian, former militia corporal, and poor Mulatto peasant </li></ul>Present day Goias, Brazil
  16. 16. Damiana continued <ul><li>Damiana lived in the context of the late colonial aldeia , the secular descendant of the old frontier mission-station of earlier times </li></ul><ul><li>Her ideals regarding the conditions of Indian life were developed there </li></ul><ul><li>She had distinguished herself as a communal leader </li></ul><ul><li>Supporter of the church and mediator between inhabitants and colonial and Brazilian state </li></ul><ul><li>Principal Indian leader of the community </li></ul><ul><li>She Died in 1831 </li></ul>
  17. 17. (Por) Catarina de Monte Sinay <ul><li>Female, Nun and Entrepreneur </li></ul><ul><li>Desterro Convent of Bahia Brazil </li></ul><ul><li>Became Madre Catarina de Monte Sinay (Nun) </li></ul><ul><li>Vowed to God, the Virgin, Saint Francis, and Saint Clare she would forever honor her sacred promise to live in poverty, chastity, and obedience </li></ul><ul><li>Signified a spiritual wedding; “Bride of Christ” </li></ul><ul><li>For 6 years she lived as a pupil and secular ward of the nuns </li></ul><ul><li>Bahia was the leading sugar producer but lost it’s edge to British, French, and Dutch Islands emerging as sugar producers in the Caribbean and pacific </li></ul><ul><li>Bahia was left in a state of depression </li></ul>
  18. 18. Catarina continued <ul><li>The church had been so well integrated with the natural order in Bahia which was known as the Bay of All Saints and All Sinners </li></ul><ul><li>Catarina felt her relationship with God was direct and immediate because of her passion for the lord </li></ul><ul><li>She had been drawn to the faith by the procession, the colors, the rhythm of movement and sound </li></ul><ul><li>She also felt purified by performing such rituals and believed the convent life was satisfying. She had participated in elaborate rituals </li></ul><ul><li>The convent life provided her with companionship of her sister and other friends </li></ul><ul><li>Catarina felt the humility within taking much interest in her intelligence and skill at business and financial dealings </li></ul><ul><li>She had accumulated an immense amount of wealth from her father and herself which she had made profits from making sweets </li></ul><ul><li>Most of her wealth she had given away </li></ul>
  19. 19. (Esp.) Diego Vasicuio <ul><li>Male, Native priest of Peru </li></ul><ul><li>Mission was to convert Indians of Peru into sincere, observant Catholics </li></ul><ul><li>He and others were influential member(s) of Indian communities, and worked through individual, informal contacts with their neighbors to hand down Gods and gospels from one generation of believers to another </li></ul><ul><li>Was taught to recite proper prayers and perform the specific ceremonies of the cult </li></ul><ul><li>Diego and other had been key elements to converting the Indians of Peru </li></ul><ul><li>He had defended the Sormina Cult from a parish priest who wanted to eradicate them </li></ul><ul><li>Diego was over 90 years at the time he had testified to the parish priest </li></ul><ul><li>He had left his home to serve in the militia or to find a praying job to meet tribute obligations </li></ul>
  20. 20. Diego continued <ul><li>Due to heavy deaths in the mita mines, he had to serve in the mita more frequently than hoped </li></ul><ul><li>The working conditions had been brutal for many Indians who made up majority of the workers </li></ul><ul><li>The mid 17th century saw the cult flourishing again </li></ul>
  21. 21. (Esp.) Isabel Moctezuma <ul><li>Aztec female, Mexico-New Spain </li></ul><ul><li>(Donas Isabel (Tecuichpo Ixcaxochitzin) - daughter of Moctezuma II </li></ul><ul><li>Daughter of Emperor and Cathololic queen of Spain </li></ul><ul><li>Devout Catholic and Hispanicized woman who bridged the worlds of Spanish and Indian together </li></ul><ul><li>Was a symbol of great legal and sociological importance to the Hispanization and Christianization of Mexico </li></ul><ul><li>Awarded encomienda of Tacuba by Hernan Cortes </li></ul><ul><li>Encomienda would provide her with a suitable dowry for marriage which was seem as a signifier to the evangelization of Mexico </li></ul><ul><li>Mix of races in New Spain was to be founded on principle of the legitimate grounds of holy matrimony, providing a solid matrix for a new society </li></ul><ul><li>Isabel was thought to hasten evangelization of the country </li></ul><ul><li>Had become wife of Cortes (as mistress) </li></ul>
  22. 22. Isabel continued
  23. 23. (Esp.) Miguel Hernandez <ul><li>Male, free mulatto (mixed black/white ancestry) </li></ul><ul><li>Born in Mexico city </li></ul><ul><li>Lived a good, full life in the 16th century </li></ul><ul><li>Married with kids, his wife a Mexican Indian (Aztec) </li></ul><ul><li>Miguel faced racism, at the time life was difficult for people of mixed blood </li></ul><ul><li>Very average man who wasn’t spiritual or adventurous </li></ul><ul><li>Has a distinct signature, was literate, and wrote out worlds </li></ul><ul><li>Unusual for mulattos, blacks, and Indians </li></ul><ul><li>Legitimate son of Pedro & Ana Hernandez </li></ul><ul><li>2nd generation Mexican </li></ul>
  24. 24. Miguel continued <ul><li>Was a muleteer- A person who drives mules </li></ul><ul><li>Moved to the provinces for opportunities to avoid harsh racism in city </li></ul><ul><li>The town of Queretaro promoted economic growth that generated social opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Miguel became one of the leading mulatto citizens (due to his skills and traits) </li></ul><ul><li>He had become friends with commoners and higher class citizens, whites </li></ul><ul><li>Defied stereotypes </li></ul><ul><li>Constructed own freighting business </li></ul><ul><li>Many of his friends had lived next to him </li></ul>
  25. 25. (Esp.) Micaeia Angela Carrillo <ul><li>Female, Mexico-New Spain </li></ul><ul><li>Labored fields, manufactured pulque, a intoxicating drink, proded, rode horseback </li></ul><ul><li>Her daughter Maria Antonia also participated in same work </li></ul><ul><li>Prior to her death Micaeia provided her kids with property and training in a craft </li></ul><ul><li>Lived in Nuestra Senora de Asucron Amozoque, a predominantly Indian village near Puebla de los Angeles </li></ul><ul><li>Puebla was in a good location for commercial trade between the colonial capital and its principal port </li></ul>
  26. 26. Micaeia continued <ul><li>Puebla was in a good location for commercial trade between the colonial capital and its principal port </li></ul><ul><li>Amozoque was comprised of Spaniards, mestizos, and malattoes, and also some local Indians </li></ul><ul><li>Dona Micaela and her family rented and owned lands within Indian Amozoque </li></ul><ul><li>Micaela had purchased land worth more than 1000 pesos </li></ul><ul><li>She married a cacique, Juan Tapia y Luna and increased her nobility in the town </li></ul><ul><li>They occupied a halfway position between Indian and Spanish society. They embraced the privileges of the Indian nobility </li></ul><ul><li>Her husband died in 1730 and had begun to rent maguey plants on other people’s land </li></ul><ul><li>The plants sap had helped Micaeia raise her kids and supported her with wealth </li></ul>