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2014 e learning innovations conference mwale jotham mmu transforming he thru social media enhanced e learning-final


2014 e learning innovations conference

2014 e learning innovations conference

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  • 1. By Jotham Kilimo Mwale Multimedia University of Kenya eLearning Innovations Conference & Expo 31st July 2014
  • 2. OUTCOMES  By the end of this session, you will be able to  Identify learning theories that support use of social media  Relate social media and eLearning  Evaluate readiness of higher education institutions to integrate social media in eLearning
  • 3. Introduction  Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) in Kenya are today in a competitive environment.  According to Commission for University Education (CUE), the numbers at 30 June 2013:  Public universities = 22 (+ 9 Constituent Colleges)  Chartered private universities = 17 (+5 Constituent Colleges)  Private universities with Letters of Interim Administration = 11 (+2 registered universities)  TOTAL HEIs in Kenya = 66.  Number of students enrolled 1st year = 93,000: 53,000 public, 30,000 public self-sponsored, 10,000 private (2013/14)  KCSE Candidates 432,443 (2012), 444,696 (2013).  Working class back to school Sources: CUE (2014); Kenya Economic Report 2013
  • 4. Introduction …  Mobile subscribers = 31.3 million (76.9% penetration)  Internet subscriptions = 11.6 million  Internet users = 19.1 million (access: 47.1 per 100 people)  Broadband subscriptions = 1.39 million  In Africa, Kenya is:  2nd highest Twitter usage (SA)  4th highest user of Internet (NIG, EGY, MOR)  7th highest user of Facebook (EGY, NIG, SA, MOR, ALG, TUN) Source: CCK Report Q1 2013/14; Africa Internet Statistics 2012
  • 5. Research Aim  Seeks to establish whether the popularity and common usage of social networking software and associated Web 2.0 services and applications could be translated into tools for academic use in institutions of higher education.
  • 6. Research Objectives  To obtain information from the lecturing staff on e- Learning, social media usage and Web 2.0 technologies in order to establish their readiness for the pedagogical change.  To obtain information on the student knowledge and/or experience of social media so as to determine acceptance level of Web 2.0 enhanced eLearning environment.  To develop a strategy to implement the Web 2.0 e- Learning solution based on analysis of the information obtained above.
  • 7. The Location  The project is mainly carried out at the Multimedia University of Kenya, where the researcher works as a lecturer.  Multimedia University of Kenya (MMU) is a public university chartered on 1st March 2013.  1948 Central Training School (EAP&TC)  1992 Kenya College of Communications Technology (KCCT)  2008 Multimedia University College of Kenya (JKUAT)
  • 8. Learning Theories  Behaviorism – the learner is passive (no prior knowledge or processing), only responding to environmental stimuli. Since learner responds purely to the environment, it can be assumed the role of technology will be minimal if any.  Cognitivism – the learner processes information (through thinking, knowing, and problem-solving) and thus action is a consequence of thinking. This has more emphasis on internal processing systems of the learner and the role of technology would be minimal, probably enabling the provision of the inputs into the internal processing system. Source: Learning Theories (2008)
  • 9. Learning Theories …  Constructivism – the learner constructs information from prior knowledge or context. Technology can play a major role by defining the context for the learner in terms of multimedia environment presentation.  Humanism – the learner has cognitive needs and acts to fulfill one’s potential. The goal is self-actualization of the student and hence technology can facilitate this process through an online learning environment.  Vygotsky’s Social Development Theory helps create learning contexts where student is more active in learning process. Source: Learning Theories (2008)
  • 10. Development of the Web  Web 1.0 – read only (one-way), static content  HTML, HTTP, URL  Web 2.0 – read/write, social web  Dynamic web technologies, ASP, AJAX, SNS, podcasts  Web 3.0 (Semantic web) – read/write/request/collaborate big data, linked data  RDF, XML, OWL, 3D
  • 11. The Web and e-learning  Web 1.0 – Content management, one-way  CBT, LMS, VLEs, eBooks  Pedagogy  Web 2.0 – Blended learning, content authoring, two-way, multimedia content  LCMS, social networks, Video conference, VLEs , mashups  Andragogy  Web 3.0 – learner-centred, ubiquitous learning, knowledge representation  PLEs, social semantic web, second life, personal avatars  Heutagogy
  • 12. Elearning and Social Media  As stated by McLoughlin and Lee (2008), Web 2.0-based social software tools such as blogs, wikis, social networking sites, media sharing applications, and social bookmarking utilities are also pedagogical tools that stems from their enabling the sharing, communication, and information discovery.  McLoughlin and Lee (2008) have described this as “pedagogy 2.0”, which they define as “a framework that aims to focus on desired learning outcomes in order to exploit more fully affordances and potential for connectivity enabled by Web 2.0 and social software tools.” McLoughlin, C., Lee, M. (2008) The Three P's of Pedagogy for the Networked Society: Personalization, Participation and Productivity
  • 13. Pedagogy 2.0  Pedagogy 2.0 has three principles:  Personalization entails the student engages in making personal choices in a ‘learner-centred’ e-learning environment.  Participation captures the social nature of Web 2.0 in enabling the student interact with peers and even teachers in a social learning space, much unlike the traditional classroom where the teacher-student relationship is one of the giver and the receiver of knowledge. The emphasis here is the student- to-student peer relationship (community) and connectivity for purposes of learning.  Productivity is the contribution of knowledge by the student through learner-centred activities through peer-to-peer file and media content sharing.
  • 14. Pedagogy 2.0 …
  • 15. Conceptual Framework  The framework is derived from the works of Khan (1997) Framework for E-learning, and McLoughlin and Lee (2008) Framework for Knowledge Creation in Web 2.0 and Pedagogy 2.0 as discussed above.  Applying the synergy of Web 2.0 tools and affordances in e-learning with the 3 P’s of Pedagogy 2.0 result in knowledge creation, which is a social constructivist learning paradigm that uniquely identifies with Web 2.0 enhanced e-learning environment  This new framework is then applied to Khan’s Pedagogical Dimension. Khan, B. (1997) E-learning model framework. Retrieved from
  • 16. Conceptual Framework For E- learning Knowledge Creation Productivity Personalization Participation Creativity Idea Generation Awareness Connection Conversation Collaboration Individuals Ideas Community & networks Knowledge Creation Pedagogy 2.0 Web 2.0 PEDAGOGICAL DIMENSION Lecturer enabled Technology enabled Student experience
  • 17. Research Design  Study based at Multimedia University of Kenya  Targets faculty staff and students for primary data  Self-administered questionnaires based on Conceptual Framework to test hypotheses  Samples  Lecturers: Population of 86; sample size of 70 for 95 confidence rating  Students: Population of 1,850; sample size of 318. For response rate of 60%, actual sample is 528.
  • 18. Research Design …  Questionnaires will collect the following data:  Lecturers:  preparedness for e-learning (computer literacy, access to Internet, current use in teaching, which courses suitable for e- learning)  preparedness for Web 2.0 (social networking exposure, access frequency)  Willingness to convert some courses to e-learning platform.
  • 19. Research Design …  Students  Current exposure to the Web and which activities dominate (email, blogging, social networking, information search, etc)  Social networking experience (how much time spent, main activities, access frequency)  Willingness to use Web for education purposes.  Data analysis  Quantitative methods, using SPSS  Qualitative methods: deductive approach
  • 20. Data Collection FACULTY POPULATION ACTUAL 1 Business 16 3 2 Engineering 42 5 3 Computing & IT 17 7 4 Media & Communication 11 6 TOTAL 86 21
  • 21. Data Collection … FACULTY POPULAT ION SAMPLE SIZE TARGET FOR 60% RESPONS E ACTUAL 1 Business 413 71 118 66 2 Engineering 350 60 100 76 3 Computing & IT 475 82 135 103 4 Media & Comm. 612 105 175 56 TOTAL 1,850 318 528 301
  • 22. Data Analysis Lecturer Questionnaire … Mean = 3.11 SD = 1.243
  • 23. Data Analysis Lecturer Questionnaire … Mean = 4.32 SD = 0.478
  • 24. Data Analysis Lecturer Questionnaire … Mean = 4.16 SD = 0.375
  • 25. Lecturer Analysis  The respondents were too few, thus statistically insignificant for any meaningful analysis and generalization.  However, the sample shows results close to another by Pearson (2013) in personal use of social media frequency and by site. Seaman, J., Tinti-Kane, H (2013) Social Media for Teaching and Learning SURVEY DAILY - MONTHLY RARELY DO NOT USE PEARSON 70.3% 13.6% 16.1% MMU 87.6% 12.4% 0%
  • 26. Lecturer Analysis …  Social media usage by site  “E-learning enables tutors to give students better individual attention than traditional classroom”  Mean = 3.11; Standard deviation =1.243  Lecturers opinions very divergent SITE PEARSON MMU Twitter 10.5% 9.5% LinkedIn 24.4% 23.8% Facebook 57.0% 42.9%
  • 27. Data Analysis Student Questionnaire … Mean = 3.54 SD = 1.181
  • 28. Data Analysis Student Questionnaire … Mean = 3.92 SD = 0.978
  • 29. Data Analysis Student Questionnaire … Mean = 4.16 SD = 0.821
  • 30. Data Analysis Student Questionnaire … Mean = 3.88 SD = 1.088
  • 31. Data Analysis Student Questionnaire … Mean = 3.73 SD = 1.144
  • 32. Student Analysis  Most agreed on “my learning is improved when I share my ideas with fellow students”  Mean = 4.45; SD = 0.674  Most diverse opinion was on “I prefer e-learning to traditional classroom because of the flexibility and convenience of studying it gives me”  Mean = 3.54; SD = 1.181  Correlation highest in collaborating/sharing ideas and belonging to community of choice  Weak association between strong opinion on usefulness of social networks for creativity, collaboration, community and access frequency.
  • 33. Student Analysis …  Internet access frequency  Use of social media by site DAILY WEEKLY MONTHLY NEVER 59.4% 29.7% 5% 2% SITE USAGE Facebook 54.1% Twitter 20.1% LinkedIn 5.9%
  • 34. Findings  Lecturer proposition:  The lecturers who frequent the Internet and social networking sites are more likely to adopt Web 2.0 enhanced e-learning as a teaching tool.  Test results:  Not valid as sample was statistically insignificant.  Sample had converged positive opinion on use of social media tools for teaching.
  • 35. Findings …  Students proposition:  The students who frequent social networking sites are more likely to be ready for the adoption of Web 2.0 technologies in e-learning.  Test results:  Weak association between strong opinion on usefulness of social networks for creativity, collaboration, community and access frequency.  Web 2.0 (social media) tools present the technological platform for the realization of social constructivist learning theory.  Students are inclined to social constructivist aspects such as sharing, collaboration and creativity, hence more likely to engage in such an environment for education purposes.
  • 36. Discussions  The lecturers were surveyed to establish their readiness for the pedagogical change envisioned.  The response was poor and hence cannot be generalized.  However, it’s worth noting that those who access the Internet and have social networking experience gave favourable opinions on the issues of pedagogy and Web 2.0.  This shows willingness and ability to teach in this new environment.
  • 37. Discussions …  The students also showed appreciation for the Web 2.0 environment by answering favourably to the questions on social networking experience that touched on the creativity, sharing and collaboration aspects, which are social constructivists learning tenets.  Thus it can be concluded that these students are ready and will most likely accept and benefit learning on this environment.  However, it must be emphasized that Pedagogy 2.0 is the catalyst to having students apply social networking experiences in education.
  • 38. Conclusions …  From the Multimedia University of Kenya study, it has been found that:  Lecturers are ready but not yet using social media or Web 2.0 tools for elearning.  Students are most likely going to make good use of the social media or Web 2.0 tools to enhance eLearning experience when engaged by the lecturer  Elearning enhanced by the use of social media tools will transform the teaching and learning experience by the infusion of social constructivist concepts of creativity, collaboration and community.  The result would be knowledge creation; a transformation in higher education
  • 39. Implementation  Equip lecturers with basic instructional design skills with emphasis on productivity, participation and personalization to create eLearning courses  Expect lecturers to use the in-built Web 2.0 tools in the LMS/LCMS for supporting students  Encourage lecturers to use existing social media (i.e Facebook, Twitter, etc) to enrich student support
  • 40. Implementation …  Challenges to overcome:  Lack of Institutional support  Strategic plan, policy  Sufficient funding  Transforming lecturers pedagogically  Training on e-pedagogy  Motivation to convert courses, use social media tools  Leveraging student social network experience for academic opportunity  Move from notifications to academic discussions, collaborations
  • 41. Implementation …  MMU Experience  Established Centre for Open, Distance and eLearning (CODeL)  Training of lecturers on ID and e-Pedagogy ongoing (started with ‘champions’)  Blended learning used for the course units already uploaded on eLearning platform (Moodle)  Expect to launch short courses in 2014 and full degree course in 2015  Unique challenge:  Most of our courses are practical/technical
  • 42. Thank you