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Elaich module 1 topic 1.3 - How should we preserve cultural heritage?
 

Elaich module 1 topic 1.3 - How should we preserve cultural heritage?

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ELAICH - Educational Linkage Approach in Cultural Heritage.

ELAICH - Educational Linkage Approach in Cultural Heritage.
For more information and presentations, please visit: http://elaich.technion.ac.il/
How should we preserve cultural heritage?

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    Elaich module 1 topic 1.3 - How should we preserve cultural heritage? Elaich module 1 topic 1.3 - How should we preserve cultural heritage? Presentation Transcript

    • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Dr. Anna Lobovikov-Katz -Technion – Israel Institute of Technology Values and Awareness Module 1 Basic Course Topic 1.3 How to preserve cultural heritage? Teaching Material Educational Toolkit
    • Dr. Anna Lobovikov-Katz -Technion – Israel Institute of Technology Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Slide Copyright ©ELAICH Beneficiaries 2009-2012 This material is an integral part of the “ELAICH – educational toolkit” and developed as part of the project ELAICH – Educational Linkage Approach in Cultural Heritage within the framework of EuroMed Cultural Heritage 4 Programme under grant agreement ENPI 150583. All rights reserved to the ELAICH Beneficiaries.   This material, in its entirety only, may be used in "fair use" only as part of the ELAICH – educational toolkit for the educational purposes by non-profit educational establishments or in self-education, by any means at all times and on any downloads, copies and or, adaptations, clearly indicating “©ELAICH Beneficiaries 2009-2011” and making reference to these terms.   Use of the material amounting to a distortion or mutilation of the material or is otherwise prejudicial to the honor or reputation of ELAICH Beneficiaries 2009-2011 is forbidden.   Use of parts of the material is strictly forbidden. No part of this material may be: (1) used other than intended (2) copied, reproduced or distributed in any physical or electronic form (3) reproduced in any publication of any kind (4) used as part of any other teaching material in any framework; unless prior written permission of the ELAICH Beneficiaries has been obtained. Disclaimer This document has been produced with the financial assistance of the European Union. The contents of this document are the sole responsibility of the ELAICH Consortium and can under no circumstances be regarded as reflecting the position of the European Union. Photographs: Courtesy of Anna Lobovikov-Katz
    • Dr. Anna Lobovikov-Katz -Technion – Israel Institute of Technology Abstract Topic 1.3. How should we preserve cultural heritage? is an introduction to the field of conservation of cultural (built) heritage. It contributes to a basic awareness of the metamorphoses undergone over time by the field of the conservation of cultural heritage. It provides the first general introduction to contemporary inter- and multi-disciplinary conservation of cultural heritage to be discussed systematically in further Modules – a field which comprises such different areas as arts, history, architecture, crafts, technology, engineering and scientific research in different fields, e.g. chemistry, mathematics, physics, biology and nano-materials. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Slide
    • Dr. Anna Lobovikov-Katz -Technion – Israel Institute of Technology Content Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Slide Content of Topic 1.3 1.3. How should we preserve cultural heritage? 1.3.1. Conservation: theory and practice 1.3.2. Contemporary interdisciplinary conservation 1.3.3. Awareness
    • 1.3. How to preserve Cultural Heritage: ? Dr. A. Lobovikov-Katz, Arch.– Topic 1.3: How to preserve cultural heritage? Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage What is conservation? Slide Conservation : all efforts designed to understand cultural heritage, know its history and meaning, ensure its material safeguard and, as required, its presentation, restoration and enhancement. (Cultural heritage is understood to include monuments, groups of buildings and sites of cultural value as defined in article one of the World Heritage Convention). THE NARA DOCUMENT ON AUTHENTICITY (1994) http://www.international.icomos.org/charters/nara_e.htm
    • 1.3. How to preserve Cultural Heritage: ? Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage What is conservation? Slide Conservation : all efforts designed to understand cultural heritage, know its history and meaning , ensure its material safeguard and, as required , its presentation, restoration and enhancement . (Cultural heritage is understood to include monuments, groups of buildings and sites of cultural value as defined in article one of the World Heritage Convention). THE NARA DOCUMENT ON AUTHENTICITY (1994) http://www.international.icomos.org/charters/nara_e.htm Dr. A. Lobovikov-Katz, Arch.– Topic 1.3: How to preserve cultural heritage?
    • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage 1.3.1. Conservation theory and practice Dr. A. Lobovikov-Katz, Arch.– Topic 1.3: How to preserve cultural heritage? Basic t erminology Slide Scope of conservation intervention Here, listed briefly, are the main terms used for activities aimed at preserving built heritage. Historically, they were linked to specific grades of intervention – here they are in increasing order upward. (Rehabilitation) Adaptation to modern use Reconstruction Restoration Conservation Preservation
    • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage 1.3.1. Conservation theory and practice Dr. A. Lobovikov-Katz, Arch.– Topic 1.3: How to preserve cultural heritage? Basic t erminology Slide Scope of conservation intervention The traditional meaning of the main terms may be briefly explained as following: Minimum intervention in order to stabilize and keep a historic building/ site safe in the current condition. Intervention which includes recreating the selected elements which were lost over time. Building anew a historic building or a major part which was lost over time. Adapting a historic building to modern technical and functional requirements (elevators, air conditioning, etc.) Often includes social factors (Rehabilitation) Adaptation to modern use Reconstruction Restoration Conservation Preservation
    • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage 1.3.1. Conservation theory and practice Dr. A. Lobovikov-Katz, Arch.– Topic 1.3: How to preserve cultural heritage? Basic t erminology Slide Scope of conservation intervention Preservation is a general term, and similar to conservation may cover the whole spectrum of activities aimed at preserving built heritage. Therefore, conservation can mean a relatively limited scope of works undertaken on a specific historic building, or the field of conservation in general. (Rehabilitation) Adaptation to modern use Reconstruction Restoration Conservation Preservation
    • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage 1.3.1. Conservation theory and practice Dr. A. Lobovikov-Katz, Arch.– Topic 1.3: How to preserve cultural heritage? Basic t erminology Slide Scope of conservation intervention Terminology is influenced by local conservation history. Therefore common use and meaning of terms slightly differ in different countries. Conservation is more commonly used in Europe, while preservation is more common in the U.S.A.. Conservation is more common in Britain, while in France often restoration will be used, etc.. (Rehabilitation) Adaptation to modern use Reconstruction Restoration Conservation Preservation
    • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage 1.3.1. Conservation theory and practice Dr. A. Lobovikov-Katz, Arch.– Topic 1.3: How to preserve cultural heritage? Slide What does conservation consist of? PHASE 1 It starts with study, documentation, investigation, analysis of a historic building/ site. Study, documentation , investigation, analysis On site Laboratory
    • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage 1.3.1. Conservation theory and practice Dr. A. Lobovikov-Katz, Arch.– Topic 1.3: How to preserve cultural heritage? Slide What does conservation consist of? PHASE 2 It starts with study, documentation, investigation, analysis of a historic building/ site. Study, documentation , investigation, analysis On site Laboratory Conservation project and strategy is based on the results of the analysis Conservation project
    • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage 1.3.1. Conservation theory and practice Dr. A. Lobovikov-Katz, Arch.– Topic 1.3: How to preserve cultural heritage? Slide What does conservation consist of? PHASE 3 It starts with study, documentation, investigation, analysis of a historic building/ site. Study, documentation , investigation, analysis On site Laboratory Conservation project and strategy is based on the results of the analysis Conservation project Then actual conservation works should be undertaken Conservation works
    • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage 1.3.1. Conservation theory and practice Dr. A. Lobovikov-Katz, Arch.– Topic 1.3: How to preserve cultural heritage? Slide What does conservation consist of? PHASE 4 It starts with study, documentation, investigation, analysis of a historic building/ site. Study, documentation , investigation, analysis On site Laboratory Conservation project and strategy is based on the results of the analysis Conservation project Then actual conservation works should be undertaken Conservation works Post-conservation: evaluation of conservation, prevention of deterioration, maintenance And finally the post-conservation phase begins, which is the unending care of a building, which might include parts of all previous phases: study, conservation when needed.
    • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage 1.3.1. Conservation theory and practice Dr. A. Lobovikov-Katz, Arch.– Topic 1.3: How to preserve cultural heritage? Slide What should be preserved? MATERIALS STRUCTURE VALUES
    • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage 1.3.1. Conservation theory and practice Dr. A. Lobovikov-Katz, Arch.– Topic 1.3: How to preserve cultural heritage? Slide How do conservators decide what parts of building should be preserved? What if a specific part is badly deteriorated, and endangers other parts of the building – should all efforts be made to restore it? Or it can be removed?
    • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage 1.3.1. Conservation theory and practice Dr. A. Lobovikov-Katz, Arch.– Topic 1.3: How to preserve cultural heritage? Slide Modern principles of conservation prescribe making efforts to preserve all values of a historic building, and not removing some of its parts merely according to priority of a conservator. Today we approach a historic building not only as an architectural masterpiece, but also as a historic document, taking care of its original “authentic” qualities. Since the mid-20 th century, many important international documents, guidelines and charters have been formulated and adopted by the international community of conservation experts, scientists, architects, engineers, and technicians. This provides an internationally agreed upon understanding on the main principles of conservation. The approach to conservation has undergone changes over time, and in the past conservators often preserved parts of building which they “liked most” and destroyed parts and elements which were not in line with current preferences in architectural history.
    • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage 1.3.1. Conservation theory and practice Dr. A. Lobovikov-Katz, Arch.– Topic 1.3: How to preserve cultural heritage? Slide At different times in the past, different architectural periods were preferred, hence priority was given to preservation of some historic buildings, e.g. interest in classic ancient art brought an interest in, study, and even copying and building “fake” ancient ruins, like this “Roman ruin” built in 18 th century Vienna.
    • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage 1.3.1. Conservation theory and practice Dr. A. Lobovikov-Katz, Arch.– Topic 1.3: How to preserve cultural heritage? Slide Over time , the approach towards preservation and restoration of historic monuments has undergone further development. In the restoration of the Arch of Titus in Rome, 1821-1823 , architects Stern and Valadier applied some of principles of restoration which were formulated 140 years later in the Charter of Venice of 1964: -restoration based on thorough research and precise data on the original form of the building; -precise restoration of the overall shape based on the analysis and investigation of a building on site; -distinguishing the “new” parts from the original ones by use of a similar, but different types and texture of building and decoration material.
    • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage 1.3.1. Conservation theory and practice Dr. A. Lobovikov-Katz, Arch.– Topic 1.3: How to preserve cultural heritage? Slide The project of restoration of the Arch of Titus in Rome, 1821-1823, by architects Stern and Valadier. View of the Arch of Titus before restoration: Piranesi, Courtesy of The Knights of Columbus Museum.
    • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage 1.3.1. Conservation theory and practice Dr. A. Lobovikov-Katz, Arch.– Topic 1.3: How to preserve cultural heritage? Slide The Arch of Titus in Rome in before restoration: Piranesi, Courtesy of the Hallie Ford Museum of Willamette University, Salem, Oregon.
    • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage 1.3.1. Conservation theory and practice Dr. A. Lobovikov-Katz, Arch.– Topic 1.3: How to preserve cultural heritage? Slide The restoration of the Arch of Titus in Rome , 1821-1823, by architects Stern and Valadier. View of the Arch of Titus after restoration (photo: 1993) “ New” – 19 th century “ Old” – 1 st century
    • Text Dr. A. Lobovikov-Katz, Arch.– Topic 1.3: How to preserve cultural heritage? Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Slide 1.3.2. Contemporary interdisciplinary conservation Contemporary interdisciplinary conservation comprises such different areas as arts, history, architecture, crafts, technology, engineering and scientific research in different fields, e.g. chemistry, mathematics, physics, biology and nano-materials.
    • Text Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Dr. A. Lobovikov-Katz, Arch.– Topic 1.3: How to preserve cultural heritage? Investigation & diagnosis Slide Conservation materials and technologies are being specially developed for conservation of historic buildings and sites (conservation materials tested in a laboratory) 1.3.2. Contemporary interdisciplinary conservation
    • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Dr. A. Lobovikov-Katz, Arch.– Topic 1.3: How to preserve cultural heritage? Investigation & diagnosis Slide Many advanced investigation techniques are applied in the conservation of monuments, in order to understand causes and types of their deterioration. Some of them are presented in Modules 2, 3, 4, 5. 1.3.2. Contemporary interdisciplinary conservation
    • Dr. A. Lobovikov-Katz, Arch.– Topic 1.3: How to preserve cultural heritage? Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Slide 1.3.2. Contemporary interdisciplinary conservation Conservation treatment: buildings’ structural stability Consolidation of buildings’ foundations, Venice Consolidation of a pillar in the Cathedral in Seville
    • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Dr. A. Lobovikov-Katz, Arch.– Topic 1.3: How to preserve cultural heritage? Slide This historic building in Jerusalem, built in 1935, still provides the same function – post office. In historic buildings, even if used for non-cultural purposes, it is important that every simple minor repair or maintenance work be done by or under the control of conservation experts. 1.3.3. Awareness Everybody - not only conservators, - should approach built heritage with attention to its values.
    • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Dr. A. Lobovikov-Katz, Arch.– Topic 1.3: How to preserve cultural heritage? Slide This historic building in Jerusalem, built in 1935, still provides the same function – post office. In historic buildings, even if used for non-cultural purposes, it is important that every simple minor repair or maintenance work be done by or under the control of conservation experts. 1.3.3. Awareness Please note that announcements are glued directly on the original stone surfaces (an example of interior design of the 30-s of the 20 th century) which can cause their deterioration.
    • Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Dr. A. Lobovikov-Katz, Arch.– Topic 1.3: How to preserve cultural heritage? We should approach every simple action on cultural heritage with the utmost attention. Even seemingly “safe” locations of cultural heritage objects does not always guarantee their preservation. In this picture, in the museum area of Vienna, the access sign was attached to the sculpture without taking into consideration modern conservation principles: metal bolts attached directly to the stone, may cause stone cracking and loss of stone material in the future. Slide 1.3.3. Awareness
    • © Anna Lobovikov-Katz Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Thank you for your attention Dr. A. Lobovikov-Katz, Arch. Slide © Anna Lobovikov-Katz