Andalusia: Challenges and Conservation of Heritage


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Challenges and conservation of tangible and intangible heritage in historic centres: the case study of Andalusia (Spain)

Presented during the VIVA EAST Thematic Seminar on Intangible Heritage, Cahul, Republic of Moldova, Sept. 2012

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Andalusia: Challenges and Conservation of Heritage

  1. 1. Challenges and conservation of Tangibleand Intangible heritage in historic center: cases studies in Andalusia (Spain)
  2. 2. Situation of Andalusia European countries of similar size to Andalusia Scotland 78.132 km2 5,2 millones hab. 64 hab/km2 UK 122.144 km2 46,4 millones hab. 383 hab/km2 Portugal 91.906 km2 11,3 millones hab. 123 hab/km2 Moldova 33.843 km2 4,6 millones hab. 136 hab/km2 Belgium 30.158 km2 10,3 millones hab. 338 hab/km2 Hungary 93.029 km2 10,1 millones hab. 110 hab/km2 Andalusía 87.595 km2 8,4 millones hab. 94 hab/km2 AndalusíaAndalusía connection European-Áfrican Moldova Cahul Andalusia
  3. 3. Andalusia’s very balanced city system isbased on a network of unpolarize System citiescities, and one or two major urbancenters as in other regions of Europe.This situation gives Andalusia, a varietyof urban environments very rich andvaried.Andalusia has nine sets urban regionalcenter level, complemented by asystem of medium-sized cities andnetworks of towns in rural areas thatensure a stable settlement distributedthroughout its territory.This system of cities, represents one ofits main social and economic heritage.At the same time, it has some definingcharacteristics that give it an uniqueposition to adapt its structure to therequirements of sustainability, such asits polycentricity, social and functionaldiversity and compactness.
  4. 4. The City we want: Compact orintegrated, democratic andparticipatory ... The Living CityThe compactcity, complex, efficient, cohesive iswhere we meet the parameters ofenvironmental sustainability, energyand economic exploitation of itsnatural resources.Sustainability must be not justenvironmental but democratic. Democracy is based on the activeparticipation of the population. Inorder for neighborhoods to beregenerated, they should be full oflife..The metabolism of the city shouldbe driven by its inhabitants.
  5. 5. This Mediterranean city model has beentransformed in the last 25 years, Diffuse city, dispersedembracing another model imported fromother cultural areas, based in thecreation of a diffuse city and thatfunctionally separates and segregatesthe population into the territory based ontheir economic capacity.The dispersion causes an unsustainablegrowth model that creates the followingnegative impacts: To reduce naturalspaces, to break the proximity tradingsystem, a detachment towards everydayspaces, a loss of social cohesion,increased mobility needs or increasedenergy expenditure, water consumptionor rate of generation of waste.This type of city provokes increasedconsumption of resources: land,materials, water and energy. This is atrend that continues as the opposite pathto urban sustainability.
  6. 6. In Spain the responsibilityfor planning and housingare the RegionalGovernmentsThe Central Governmentmark global criteria inhousing policy, on thisbasis, each regionindependently legislateaccording to their needsand criteria.Andalusia is a RegionalGovernment withresponsibility for UrbanPlanning and Housingsince 1984.
  7. 7. Sustainable Development StrategiesGenerating projects and actions that changementalities towards urban sustainabilityFor example: The bike-lanein Seville (2007), it is more than one type of greentransport, it is generating a change of mentality in thecity: in its use, as we valueour public space, creating a collective knowledgegreener and environmental ...
  8. 8. Centros históricos An integrated approach to urban policy means: Changing mindsets Generate Knowledge Innovate urban management Responsible participation Rediscovering neighborhoods, key elements of a Living City
  9. 9. • Why to define a Project of Renovation in Historical City?• Historical cities has :• Urban, social and heritage degraded environments, challenges accessibility and habitable standards, lack of life quality, pollution and marginalisation...• The overall target of the Project are,• To regenerate, revitalize and recover the urban, social and cultural heritage.• To support and strength the economic activities (touristic assets, shop, services…) and to support employment creation.• To regenerate live in the Historical City.• It is needed :• Political commitment and leadership.• Urban management tools.• To define a global revitalization and regeneration city project.• To promove the involvement of people, stakeholders, cultural agrupation… Feed-back
  10. 10. SWOT Analysis of a Historical City • Strengths • Weaknesses • Historical and Heritage richness• The ageing of the population. • Identification resident population• Residents depopulation • Diversified range of commerce activies.• High unemployment • Public Services (social care).• Buildings have deteriorated. • Leisure and free time attraction• Accessibility Problems • high quality in accommodation services for• Environmental and Landscape tourism development. contamination • Citizen and civil associations support to Historical• Urban compact and inaccessible (Albaicin Center. was islamic city). • Tradition tourist activities.• Housings empty.• Inmigration and poverty.• Low economic activity • Opportunities • Tourist Image. • University Buildings • Menaces • New residents parkings.• Disappearance resident population. • Creation Open Comercial Center. (shops• Increase Urban deterioration. association).• Monument Heritage rescue. • Introduce tourist voucher.• Obstacle to buildings rehabilitation. • To make our citizens awake of the Urban Problem.• Failure political of rehabilitation. • To recover the interest about Center.• Put up of price of housing. • Urban Planning of Historic Center.• Excessive use of private vehicles. • Specialized Urban Management System. • To lead Metropolitan transformation.
  11. 11. Convert weakness into opportunities The city is the problem, but it is the solution
  12. 12. Keys of new model:TerritorialityIntegralityParticipation
  13. 13. We must build a management model based on:Integrality: Addressing jointly coordinated and planned thenecessary actions to address the problems of the city, looking forthe potential of the city and the people.Territoriality: Having the territory. Generate solutions adapted tothe territory both in the organizational model, resources andmethodology.Participation: It is necessary the presence and involvement ofthe residents to decide what neighborhood/city want.
  14. 14. Who s decide, as it will be a Proyect of renovation in the historical city?The politician…? The technicals experts…? The citizens….? Or better.. All togheter…
  15. 15. The people ask:When ?Where ?What ?Who ?
  16. 16. Participation is: Listening Learning Sharing
  17. 17. Technique for stimulate/promote participation. Workshop
  18. 18. 1 Having the territory, flexibility: Adaptation to singularity of each city
  19. 19. 2 Intervention from knowledge. The integral actions must be based on knowledge of the territory Diagnosis, analysis, urban and social structure, uses of the building, heritage values​​, public facilities, accessibility, physical condition of buildings, distortions urban, planning analysis, legislation ...
  20. 20. 3 Management instrument: Specialized OfficesTraditional wood cover, integrate new technologies Recovering traditional crafts Social: Support programs for the elderly, immigrants ... Heritage: Policies to improve knowledge of the historical city
  21. 21. 3 Actions to produce a change in attitudetowards society and we manage urbanprojects.
  22. 22. Action 1 Heritage and tourism.Cultural-heritage-tourism can be a goodcombination to revalue the city, althoughwe should target a tourism that looks forthe quality and authenticity, which iscalled motivational tourism, and which isquantitative smaller than the onegenerated by the tour-operators. Howeverthis kind of tourism-cultural that interestsus make our historic cities attractivebecause it puts into value their greaterspending power and lower environmentalimpact, and targets a visitor who is anexperienced traveler and who demandsquality and authenticity.If we know our ideal tourist profile, wehave to ask ourselves what must we doto attract him?. Each city must give theright answer to this question, as we havecommented, by applying quality criteriabased ondiversity, authenticity, sustainability, which are necessary and essential to notbreak values ​and to allow the city thebalance between economic developmentand the active protection of its heritageand urban activity that occurs on a day today of a pulsating city living.
  23. 23. April Fair in Seville The historic city wants this cultural tourism, which is Flamenco performance outside of the big tour- operators, and which is based on autodidactic approach, and which investigates the city and its cultural events. It is also mixed in its activities (gastronomic, entertainment, fol klore, cultural), and sets its own routes and heritage itineraries of those who are eager for knowledge... It is the visitor who will spend the night in the city, with high purchasing power, respectful with city, and probably will repeat visits and thus can become a frequent regular temporary citizen. Intangible - Tangible Heritage Is it posibble to join heritage conservation measures and economic activities: flamenco tourism…?
  24. 24. Teruo Kabaya, is Japanese. He lives in Tokyo seven months, and 5 months inGranada. He enjoys flamenco (guitar), and he wants to know Spanish culture, gastronomy… He loves Albaicin and Granada city.
  25. 25. Teruo Kabaya bought a building on the square Carvajales (Albaicin. Granada). He will want to live in the Albaicin. But at the same time, he will want to create a small workshop of flamenco.Is this possible?, Housing rehabilitation combined with a flamenco workshop
  26. 26. Recover handicrafts, traditional techniques woodworking, combined with new technologies. (Intangible Heritage)
  27. 27. Interior courtyard and facade. Once rehabilitated building.Contrasts the wealth of the interior courtyard with the simplicity of the facade. (very common in Albaicin s homes)
  28. 28. courtyard and rooms used for flamenco workshopTeruo Kabaya now lives in his Albaicin s house. But on the ground floor there is a flamenco workshop and 3 housing. Teruo Kabaya rents this housingprotected price for 10 years to low income families. We combined tangible and intangible heritage. (1bedroom housing is rented at 80 € /month)
  29. 29. Action 2 Recovering urban identity, cultural, social and heritage. Rehabilitate and restore the city built giving life, sustainable action that we take our resources: urban, social and economic.Liberated galleries, courtyards, hallways occupied irregularly to improve habitability of the building and create opportunities for quality and local coexistence. Recover lifestyles associated with the house-courtyard
  30. 30. Leipzig Charter: Interaction between architecture and urban planning and human create attractive spaces. Baulkultur Concept: “Building culture". The addition of all aspects: cultural, economic, social, technological and ecological that have influence in quality and the process of construction of the city.
  31. 31. Recovering urban identity, cultural and social. (Intagible Heritage) Where does it begin the public space of the city?. Maybe, galleries, courtyards are street or square. Lifestyles associated with the urban. The housing is integrated in the city.
  32. 32. This is a courtyards for shared use (of the neighbors who live in the building). But it isused as an extension of the house owner. Where does it begin the public and privatespace?.In Mediterranean culture, the courtyards of the houses are the beginning of thestreet, in the square. The courtyard is also a meeting place, the neighbors courtyardsenables a citizen relationship
  33. 33. The altar of a Church, its symbols, its religious representation. It is very introducedin the memory of citizens ... These symbols are copied into the daily lives ofpeople, in the decorations of the house, the courtyard.. Identity. INTANGIBLE
  34. 34. Action 3 Urban management innovation: Negotiation and AgreementBerta: own a building of 5housing, with a total constructed areaof 485 m2. Each housing has about58m2.Urban Negotiation: Be able torehabilitate2 housing are occupied by Berta andthe tenant, 3 empty housing that Berta“temporal concession” to RegionalGovernment for 5 years.Berta rents this housing protectedprice for 10 years to low incomefamilies. ( housing 3 bedroom isrented at 140 € /month)Berta investment…. 125.000€Public funds………….162.000€ Total…… 287.000€(data 2004)2 years negotiation with Berta.Start work 2004.Work End 2006.
  35. 35. Urban management innovation: Negotiation and Agreement Rehabilitating one building, Can be considered a The answer is in the Micro?strategy for cohesion policy ?
  36. 36. Recovery of hidden elements in the Moorish house
  37. 37. Structural reinforcements and recoveryspatial courtyard of the house Moorish
  38. 38. Recover handicrafts, traditional techniques woodworking, combined with new technologies. (Intangible Heritage)
  39. 39. Each action must generate a “plus” credibility of the public in the city. Maintaining a critical vision and analytical, permanently in the intervention development. Adapting to the changing realities of the city
  40. 40. Politicians of the Regional GovernmentPresident Association Battered Women President Immigrant Assistance NGO
  41. 41. A multicultural city, we all do town. (Intangible heritage)Neighborhoods/historic centers with citizenship: the city for citizens
  42. 42. The best of project is our people Thanks for your attention. Federico Salmerón. Email: