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Photosynthesis
Photosynthesis
Photosynthesis
Photosynthesis
Photosynthesis
Photosynthesis
Photosynthesis
Photosynthesis
Photosynthesis
Photosynthesis
Photosynthesis
Photosynthesis
Photosynthesis
Photosynthesis
Photosynthesis
Photosynthesis
Photosynthesis
Photosynthesis
Photosynthesis
Photosynthesis
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Photosynthesis

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Biology

Biology

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  • 1. CHAPTER 6 6.1PHOTOSYNTHESIS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
  • 2. Chapter OutlinesDefine photosynthesisWrite overall chemical equation forphotosynthesisExplain light absorption spectrumName the photosynthetic pigmentsDescribe the structure ofchloroplast 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
  • 3. 1 hour st• By the end of lesson, students should be able to:• give the overall outline of photosynthetic process that leads to the production of glucose• list and explain the photosynthetic pigments involved in photosynthesis 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
  • 4. 6.1 WHAT IS PHOTOSYNTHESIS?Photosynthesis is the process wherebylight energy is converted to chemicalenergy that is stored in glucose orother organic compoundsIn the present of light, green plantproduce organic compounds and oxygenfrom carbon dioxide and water 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
  • 5. EQUATION FOR PHOTOSYNTHESIS6 CO2 + 12 H2O + 18 ATP + 12 NADPHC6H12O6 + 6O2 + 6H2O +18 ADP + 12 NADP+ +18 Pi 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
  • 6. PHOTOSYNTHETIC PIGMENTSPhotosynthesis occurs in thechloloplasts in which chlorophylls arethe most important pigmentsIn the centre of the chlorophyll ring is amagnesium atomAt the peripheral location of the ring isa long hydrocarbon tail that can beassociated with the hydrophobic regionof the thylakoid 10membrane17 18 19 20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 11 12 13 14 15 16
  • 7. CHLOROPHYLL STRUCTURE Mg atom Hydrocarbon tail 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
  • 8. Chlorophylls absorb lights 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
  • 9. PHOTOSYNTHETIC PIGMENTSThese chlorophylls absorb blue and redlightsOther accessory pigments absorb lightbetween the blue and the redwavelengths and transfer the energy tothe chlorophylls 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
  • 10. ABSORPTION SPECTRUMA graph of a pigment’s light absorptionversus wavelength is called an absorptionspectrum 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
  • 11. CHROMATOGRAPHYChromatography is a techniqueused to separate mixtures intotheir componentsFor photosynthesis, a paperchromatography is commonlyused 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
  • 12. The steps involved are as follows:1. The chlorophyll mixture is dissolved in a suitable solvent2. Drops of the resultant solution are repeatedly placed on top of each other to form a small concentrated spot near on end of a paper strip3. A line is drawn across the paper to mark the position of the spot4. When the solvent front moves up the paper and about 1 cm from the end, a line is drawn to mark the position4 of 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14front 18 19 20 1 2 3 5 6 the solvent 15 16 17
  • 13. Rf VALUEThe position of various pigments aremarked  The Rf  value of a solute / pigment iscalculated using the formulaRf = distance moved by solute distance moved by solvent front 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
  • 14. Chromatography techniques 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
  • 15. 6.2 CHLOROPLAST1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
  • 16. ChloroplastsAny green part of a plant haschloroplastsThe color of a leaf comes fromchlorophyll, the green pigment in thechloroplastsChlorophyll plays an important role inthe absorption of light energy duringphotosynthesis 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
  • 17. Chloroplasts are found mainly in mesophyllcells forming the tissues in the interior ofthe leafO2 exits and CO2 enters the leaf throughmicroscopic pores, stomata, in the leafVeins deliver water from the roots andcarry off sugar from mesophyll cells toother plant areas. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
  • 18. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
  • 19. Each chloroplast has two membranesaround a central aqueous space, the stromaIn the stroma are membranous sacs,the thylakoids - These have an internal aqueous space, the thylakoid lumen or thylakoid space - Thylakoids may be stacked into columns called grana 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
  • 20. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

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