S D H D Power Point


Published on

Published in: Education, Health & Medicine
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

S D H D Power Point

  1. 1. ADHD and Gifted Children Elizabeth Jamison Kristin King Blake Tippens Elsa Brown
  2. 2. Definition of Dual Exceptionalities: <ul><li>  Term refers to those who are gifted and have a disability or are gifted and have ADHD . Although the disability can be a physical disability such as a hearing impairment, it is most commonly used in reference to a learning disability such as dyslexia. Children with dual exceptionalities are difficult to identify because their strengths from their giftedness hide their weaknesses from their disability. This means that their giftedness hides their giftedness and their giftedness hides their disability. Consequently, they appear to be average children. When they are not properly identified, they do not get the appropriate services they need for either their disability or their giftedness. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Defining ADHD and Dual ADHD/Gifted <ul><li>ADHD: A Syndrome characterized by serious and persistent difficulties in the following three specific areas: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attention Span </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impulse Control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hyperactivity (sometimes) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>It is a chronic disorder that affects 3-5% of school-aged children. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Diagnosis of ADHD <ul><li>To be diagnosed as having ADHD, the clinician must note the presence of at least 6 of the 9 following criteria for either attention span or hyperactivity/impulsivity. </li></ul><ul><li>Attention Span Criteria: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pays little attention to details </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Has short attention span </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does not listen when spoken to directly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Has difficulty organizing tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoids tasks that require sustained mental effort (this is problematic in the gifted, because they want challenges). </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Attention Span Criteria Continued <ul><li>Loses things </li></ul><ul><li>Is easily distracted </li></ul><ul><li>Is forgetful in daily activities </li></ul><ul><li>How can we help our gifted students when they show these qualities? </li></ul>
  6. 6. Hyperactivity Criteria <ul><li>Fidgets; squirms in seat </li></ul><ul><li>Often leaves seat in classroom </li></ul><ul><li>Has difficulty being quiet and controlled. Wants to be active the whole time. </li></ul><ul><li>Talks excessively </li></ul>
  7. 7. Impulsivity Criteria <ul><li>Blurts out answers before questions are completed </li></ul><ul><li>Has difficulty awaiting turn </li></ul><ul><li>Often interrupts or intrudes on others </li></ul>
  8. 8. Gifted Children with ADHD <ul><li>ADHD is the most common behavioral disorder of childhood, and is marked by many symptoms. </li></ul><ul><li>The Controversy: </li></ul><ul><li>If a child meets the criteria but doesn’t show significant impairment, she will not be diagnosed. So, who is to decide what “significant impairment” is? </li></ul>
  9. 9. Wow! Who Knew… <ul><li>Identified Gifted ADHD children are more impaired than other ADHD children. </li></ul><ul><li>We are missing gifted children with milder forms of ADHD. </li></ul><ul><li>High Ability can mask ADHD </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers may tend to focus on negative behaviors and miss the “giftedness” of students. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Early Detection is Crucial <ul><li>Gifted students who are not detected as ADHD may fall into patterns of underachievement and learned helplessness. </li></ul>
  11. 11. How to tell Gifted From ADHD <ul><li>Research indicates that in many cases, a child is diagnosed with ADHD when in fact the child is gifted and reacting to an inappropriate curriculum (Webb & Latimer, 1993). The key to distinguishing between the two is the pervasiveness of the &quot;acting out&quot; behaviors. If the acting out is specific to certain situations, the child's behavior is more likely related to giftedness; whereas, if the behavior is consistent across all situations, the child's behavior is more likely related to ADHD. It is also possible for a child to be BOTH gifted and ADHD. The following lists highlight the similarities between giftedness and ADHD. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Characteristics of Gifted Students who are BORED <ul><li>Poor attention and daydreaming when bored </li></ul><ul><li>Low tolerance for persistence on tasks that seem irrelevant </li></ul><ul><li>Begin many projects, see few to completion </li></ul><ul><li>Development of judgment lags behind intellectual growth </li></ul><ul><li>Intensity may lead to power struggles with authorities </li></ul><ul><li>High activity level; may need less sleep </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty restraining desire to talk; may be disruptive </li></ul><ul><li>Question rules, customs, and traditions </li></ul><ul><li>Lose work, forget homework, are disorganized </li></ul><ul><li>May appear careless </li></ul><ul><li>Highly sensitive to criticism </li></ul><ul><li>Do not exhibit problem behaviors in all situations </li></ul><ul><li>More consistent levels of performance at a fairly consistent pace (Cline, 1999; Webb & Latimer, 1993) </li></ul>
  13. 13. Characteristics of Students with ADHD <ul><li>Poorly sustained attention </li></ul><ul><li>Diminished persistence on tasks not having immediate consequences </li></ul><ul><li>Often shift from one uncompleted activity to another </li></ul><ul><li>Impulsivity, poor delay of gratification </li></ul><ul><li>Impaired adherence to commands to regulate or inhibit behavior in social contexts </li></ul><ul><li>More active, restless than other children </li></ul><ul><li>Often talk excessively </li></ul><ul><li>Often interrupt or intrude on others (e.g., butt into games) </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty adhering to rules and regulations </li></ul><ul><li>Often lose things necessary for tasks or activities at home or school </li></ul><ul><li>May appear inattentive to details </li></ul><ul><li>Highly sensitive to criticism </li></ul><ul><li>Problem behaviors exist in all settings, but in some are more severe </li></ul><ul><li>Variability in task performance and time used to accomplish tasks. (Barkley, 1990; Cline, 1999; Webb & Latimer, 1993) </li></ul>
  14. 14. Questions to ask when differentiating between Gifted/ADHD <ul><li>Could the behaviors be responses to inappropriate placement, insufficient challenge, or lack of intellectual peers? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the child able to concentrate when interested in the activity? </li></ul><ul><li>Have any curricular modifications been made in an attempt to change inappropriate behaviors? </li></ul><ul><li>Has the child been interviewed? What are his/her feelings about the behaviors? </li></ul><ul><li>Does the child feel out of control? Do the parents perceive the child as being out of control? </li></ul><ul><li>Do the behaviors occur at certain times of the day, during certain activities, with certain teachers or in certain environments? </li></ul><ul><li>Gifted students with disabilities must be provided with appropriate challenges. The personal and societal costs of not developing their potential cannot be overstated. </li></ul>
  15. 16. Group Dynamics <ul><li>As a group, ADHD children tend to lag two to three yeas behind their age peers in social and emotional maturity. </li></ul><ul><li>Gifted ADHD children are no exception, and when placed with other high ability children without the disorder, ADHD children may find the advanced maturity of their classmates a challenge they are not prepared for. </li></ul>
  16. 17. Assessing ADHD in Gifted Children <ul><li>Characteristics of ADHD can often overlap with characteristics of Gifted: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intensity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perfectionism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Curiosity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impatience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Argumentative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oppositional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hyperactivity </li></ul></ul>
  17. 18. So What do we Do? <ul><li>Research suggests that we should not assume that all interventions recommended for ADHD are appropriate for gifted children with ADHD. </li></ul><ul><li>Some common ADHD interventions may even make ADHD worse in gifted (simplifying lessons, for example). </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.athealth.com </li></ul>
  18. 19. Teaching Students who are Gifted and who have ADHD <ul><li>Physical Accommodations: </li></ul><ul><li>Preferential seating (near teacher, between </li></ul><ul><li>well-focused students, away from distractions) </li></ul><ul><li>Post schedules on board </li></ul><ul><li>Post classroom rules </li></ul><ul><li>Organize workspace </li></ul><ul><li>Quiet area for study </li></ul><ul><li>Standing work station </li></ul><ul><li>“ Time out” spot </li></ul><ul><li>Provide hands-on opportunities for learning </li></ul>
  19. 20. Teaching Students who are Gifted and who have ADHD <ul><li>Instructional Accommodations: </li></ul><ul><li>Keep oral directions clear and simple </li></ul><ul><li>Ask child to repeat back directions when possible </li></ul><ul><li>Provide extra homework reminders </li></ul><ul><li>Make eye contact </li></ul><ul><li>Provide directions in written form </li></ul><ul><li>Break long-term assignments into manageable </li></ul><ul><li>tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Allow student to use tape </li></ul>
  20. 21. Teaching Students who are Gifted and who have ADHD <ul><li>Behavioral Accommodations: </li></ul><ul><li>Provide positive verbal or written feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Provide reward systems and incentives </li></ul><ul><li>Give tasks that can be completed </li></ul><ul><li>Develop private signals </li></ul><ul><li>Be consistent with rewards and consequences </li></ul><ul><li>Provide student with responsibilities </li></ul><ul><li>Assign jobs that can be performed well </li></ul><ul><li>Create tangible goals with timetable </li></ul><ul><li>Communicate with parents through letters, </li></ul><ul><li>meetings, and phone calls </li></ul><ul><li>Use school staff for support </li></ul>
  21. 22. Differentiation for Gifted/ADHD <ul><li>Offering high levels of challenge and </li></ul><ul><li>problem solving opportunities, especially in </li></ul><ul><li>areas of the students’ talents and interests , </li></ul><ul><li>results in students’ willful engagement and </li></ul><ul><li>sustained interest in learning activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Often when teacher talk was minimized so </li></ul><ul><li>that students were allowed to explore their </li></ul><ul><li>environments and to engage actively in </li></ul><ul><li>learning and inquiry, no symptoms of ADHD </li></ul><ul><li>surfaced. </li></ul>
  22. 23. Differentiation for Gifted/ADHD <ul><li>The teacher should encourage questions, encourage the child to think or outline, provide choices of challenging topics as well as choices in demonstrating knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>They need to be taught how to simplify, break down, or categorize assignments , projects, materials, and ideas, with checkpoints provided along the way. </li></ul><ul><li>The most helpful motivational strategies require teachers who give students individual attention and who take personal interest in them. </li></ul>