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Learning Disabilities  and  Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Chapter 7
Which are learning disabilities?
LEARNING DISABILITIES <ul><li>A relatively new area of exceptionality that has only recently been identified and defined (...
Fig. 7-2, p. 162 Prevalence
What Is a Learning Disability? <ul><li>A disorder of one or more of the basic  psychological processes  involved in unders...
Diagnostic Criteria <ul><li>Achievement commensurate with age and ability, given appropriate educational experiences. </li...
INTELLIGENCE <ul><li>Above average or near average intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>Variability between measured intelligenc...
Learning Disabilities are NOT <ul><ul><li>Does  not  include  learning problems which are  primarily  the results of visua...
 
Identification Criteria (LD) <ul><li>Figure 7.1 </li></ul><ul><li>Page 159 </li></ul>
CHARACTERISTICS See handout
“ Misunderstood Minds” Characteristics
ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT
COGNITION AND INFORMATION PROCESSING <ul><li>Definition: The way a person acquires, retains, and manipulates information <...
LEARNING CHARACTERISTICS
CAUSATION
LD Simulations <ul><li>Designed to mirror a few specific learning disabilities </li></ul><ul><li>SLD are intrinsic to the ...
Reading Memory Activity <ul><li>We've all had difficulty concentrating when trying to read. But imagine what it would be l...
How did you do? <ul><li>Question 1 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>B </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Question 2 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>D </li>...
Mathematics Activities <ul><li>Learning basic math facts is a critical step that allows children to progress efficiently t...
Most people learn basics facts on a table like the one below. Do you remember how to use it?
Use the addition and multiplication tables below to solve the following problems on your paper.   Addition table Multiplic...
Answers
Spatial Activity <ul><li>Visualizing three-dimensional objects presented on the flat surface of a piece of paper or comput...
What shape will result when the plane intersects the three-dimensional object? Select shape A or B.
In this example, the figure has been made intentionally ambiguous. It could be interpreted as either a cube or a pyramid ,...
BREAK!
ASSESSMENT <ul><li>Formal and Informal Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Screening </li></ul><ul><li>Intelligence </li></ul><ul...
INTERVENTIONS <ul><li>Elementary School Years </li></ul><ul><li>Adolescent Years </li></ul><ul><li>Multidisciplinary Colla...
ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER
Federal disability codes/conditions <ul><li>Intellectual disability </li></ul><ul><li>Hearing impairments </li></ul><ul><l...
ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER <ul><li>People with ADHD may exhibit a variety of characteristics </li></ul><ul><...
CHARACTERISTICS of ADHD <ul><li>Impulsivity (affecting social as well as academic decisions) </li></ul><ul><li>Self-regula...
ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER <ul><li>ADHD  -  a set of symptoms that can accompany other conditions  </li></ul...
ADHD AND OTHER DISABILITIES <ul><li>Learning Disabilities - up to 70% overlap </li></ul><ul><li>Tourette’s Syndrome </li><...
ADHD DEFINITIONS
DSM IV Criteria, p183 <ul><li>Persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity that is  more frequent/se...
Too Much Attention?
PREVALENCE Male: Female 3% to 7% of all school-aged children Variation between subgroups of age, gender, and comorbidity.
CAUSATION
Attention Activity <ul><li>Reading independently is an activity all children must learn to do well in order to succeed in ...
INTERVENTIONS <ul><li>Academic interventions must target the area where the child is experiencing difficulty. </li></ul><u...
INTERVENTIONS <ul><li>Medical </li></ul><ul><li>Non-medical </li></ul><ul><li>Prescribed by doctor </li></ul><ul><li>Priva...
Supporting Students with LD and/or ADHD Presentation Response Timing Setting Prompting
Graphic Organizers
Collaboration Activity <ul><li>Groups of 3-4 </li></ul><ul><li>Use co-teaching models </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss: </li></ul...
Chapter Eight  EMOTIONAL/BEHAVIORAL DISORDERS
Think about the last time you were really upset. <ul><li>What caused you to become upset?  </li></ul><ul><li>How did you f...
INTRODUCTION <ul><li>Emotional disorders:  behavioral problems exhibited by difficulties in expressing emotions evoked in ...
DEFINITIONS <ul><li>IDEA: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A condition exhibiting one or more of the following characteristics over a...
DEFINITION, CONT’D <ul><li>Does NOT include children who are socially maladjusted, unless it is determined that they are a...
PREVALENCE <ul><li>Estimated 3-6% of all school children have E/BD </li></ul><ul><li>Significant numbers of children remai...
Characteristics of E/BD <ul><li>COMMON, but not definite for all students with E/BD </li></ul>
BEHAVIORS
Social and Adaptive Behavior (These OFTEN occur) <ul><li>Defiance </li></ul><ul><li>Disruption </li></ul><ul><li>Aggressio...
Major Groups of Childhood Disorders <ul><li>Attention-deficit and disruptive behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Feeding and eatin...
BEHAVIOR MANAGEMENT <ul><li>Functional Behavior Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>To determine the functions of the child’s beh...
ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT <ul><li>Difficulty in all academic areas </li></ul><ul><li>Rarely catch up </li></ul><ul><li>Students...
CAUSATION is MULTIDIMENSIONAL <ul><li>Family and home environment </li></ul><ul><li>Socioeconomic status </li></ul><ul><li...
ASSESSMENT <ul><li>Screening, prereferral interventions,and referral </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Response to Intervention </li><...
INTERVENTIONS <ul><li>Multidisciplinary collaboration (wraparound) </li></ul><ul><li>PBS (Positive Behavioral Support) - B...
Misunderstood Minds <ul><li>http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/misunderstoodminds/index.html </li></ul>
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Learning Disabilities, ADHD, and Emotional/Behavioral Disorders

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Learning Disabilities, ADHD, and Emotional/Behavioral Disorders

  1. 1. Learning Disabilities and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Chapter 7
  2. 2. Which are learning disabilities?
  3. 3. LEARNING DISABILITIES <ul><li>A relatively new area of exceptionality that has only recently been identified and defined (1960’s) </li></ul><ul><li>Learning disabilities can occur at all intelligence levels , although most people with LD have average to above average IQ scores. </li></ul><ul><li>Learning disabled = heterogeneous group of individuals with highly variable, complex characteristics, and needs </li></ul>
  4. 4. Fig. 7-2, p. 162 Prevalence
  5. 5. What Is a Learning Disability? <ul><li>A disorder of one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or using language, spoken or written, which may manifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or do mathematical calculations. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Three general “types”: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reading (dyslexia) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Written Language (dysgraphia) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mathematics (dyscalculia) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Other types affect memory, executive functions, and social skills </li></ul></ul></ul>This means it’s neurological.
  6. 6. Diagnostic Criteria <ul><li>Achievement commensurate with age and ability, given appropriate educational experiences. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Severe discrepancy” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Achievement vs. Potential (IQ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Debate: what is “severe”? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>IDEA no longer requires to show a discrepancy to diagnose </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Response to Intervention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Student response to instructional, research-based interventions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allows diagnosis for younger students who may not yet be failing “enough” for severe discrepancy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Video clip on wiki </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. INTELLIGENCE <ul><li>Above average or near average intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>Variability between measured intelligence and performance (discrepancy) </li></ul><ul><li>Intraindividual differences between skill areas </li></ul>Refer to your bell curve
  8. 8. Learning Disabilities are NOT <ul><ul><li>Does not include learning problems which are primarily the results of visual, hearing, or motor disabilities, of mental retardation, of emotional disturbance, or of environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage </li></ul></ul>An IEP team cannot diagnose a child with SLD if any of these factors exist as the primary cause of learning difficulties.
  9. 10. Identification Criteria (LD) <ul><li>Figure 7.1 </li></ul><ul><li>Page 159 </li></ul>
  10. 11. CHARACTERISTICS See handout
  11. 12. “ Misunderstood Minds” Characteristics
  12. 13. ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT
  13. 14. COGNITION AND INFORMATION PROCESSING <ul><li>Definition: The way a person acquires, retains, and manipulates information </li></ul><ul><li>Poor memory function </li></ul><ul><li>Attention problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Short attention spans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Selective attention </li></ul></ul>
  14. 15. LEARNING CHARACTERISTICS
  15. 16. CAUSATION
  16. 17. LD Simulations <ul><li>Designed to mirror a few specific learning disabilities </li></ul><ul><li>SLD are intrinsic to the individual! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not everyone with a SLD experiences it the same way </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Consider classroom effects </li></ul>
  17. 18. Reading Memory Activity <ul><li>We've all had difficulty concentrating when trying to read. But imagine what it would be like if that problem never went away. For some children, struggling to remember things they've just read becomes a way of life. </li></ul><ul><li>The next exercise is designed to simulate the effect that memory and attention problems can have on reading comprehension. You will first read a passage, then answer questions based on that passage. </li></ul>
  18. 19. How did you do? <ul><li>Question 1 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>B </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Question 2 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>D </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Question 3 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>B </li></ul></ul>
  19. 20. Mathematics Activities <ul><li>Learning basic math facts is a critical step that allows children to progress efficiently to higher levels of mathematical thinking. If a middle-school student cannot quickly recall basic facts this will likely slow him down when working on a more complex problem. </li></ul><ul><li>For many people, math facts come easily. Some people with math disabilities, however, who lack an intuitive understanding of numbers or symbols or place value, may struggle endlessly with these basic mathematical concepts. </li></ul>
  20. 21. Most people learn basics facts on a table like the one below. Do you remember how to use it?
  21. 22. Use the addition and multiplication tables below to solve the following problems on your paper. Addition table Multiplication table
  22. 23. Answers
  23. 24. Spatial Activity <ul><li>Visualizing three-dimensional objects presented on the flat surface of a piece of paper or computer screen is challenging for many of us. For people with math disabilities this sort of spatial interpretation can be particularly problematic. And depending on the manner in which geometric information is presented, interpreting objects in the exact way a teacher intended may be next to impossible. </li></ul><ul><li>Consider the two figures shown below. </li></ul>
  24. 25. What shape will result when the plane intersects the three-dimensional object? Select shape A or B.
  25. 26. In this example, the figure has been made intentionally ambiguous. It could be interpreted as either a cube or a pyramid , and either of the figures you had to choose from might result when the plane intersects it. (And either result might be considered wrong, depending on how the teacher interpreted the figure.)
  26. 27. BREAK!
  27. 28. ASSESSMENT <ul><li>Formal and Informal Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Screening </li></ul><ul><li>Intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptive Skills </li></ul><ul><li>Academic Achievement </li></ul>©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  28. 29. INTERVENTIONS <ul><li>Elementary School Years </li></ul><ul><li>Adolescent Years </li></ul><ul><li>Multidisciplinary Collaboration </li></ul>
  29. 30. ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER
  30. 31. Federal disability codes/conditions <ul><li>Intellectual disability </li></ul><ul><li>Hearing impairments </li></ul><ul><li>Speech-language impairments </li></ul><ul><li>Visual impairments </li></ul><ul><li>Serious emotional disturbance </li></ul><ul><li>Orthopedic impairments </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple disabilities </li></ul><ul><li>Other health impairments </li></ul><ul><li>Specific learning disabilities </li></ul><ul><li>Autism </li></ul><ul><li>Traumatic brain injury </li></ul>
  31. 32. ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER <ul><li>People with ADHD may exhibit a variety of characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms may interfere with life activities </li></ul><ul><li>ADHD is a life long condition </li></ul><ul><li>Can exist with other disabilities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Overlaps with LD up to 70% </li></ul></ul>
  32. 33. CHARACTERISTICS of ADHD <ul><li>Impulsivity (affecting social as well as academic decisions) </li></ul><ul><li>Self-regulation </li></ul><ul><li>Hyperactivity </li></ul><ul><li>Executive functioning: ability to monitor and regulate one’s own behavior, to exercise impulse control, and to anticipate the consequences of actions. Impacts decision-making skills! </li></ul>Misunderstood Minds
  33. 34. ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER <ul><li>ADHD - a set of symptoms that can accompany other conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Learning Disabilities comorbid with ADHD from 25% to 70% </li></ul>
  34. 35. ADHD AND OTHER DISABILITIES <ul><li>Learning Disabilities - up to 70% overlap </li></ul><ul><li>Tourette’s Syndrome </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioral, conduct, and emotional disorders </li></ul>
  35. 36. ADHD DEFINITIONS
  36. 37. DSM IV Criteria, p183 <ul><li>Persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity that is more frequent/severe than typically observed in individuals at a comparable level of development </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms present before age 7 </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms present in at least two settings (e.g., home and school) </li></ul><ul><li>Clear evidence of interference with social, academic, or occupational functioning </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms do not occur exclusively during the course of a pervasive developmental disorder, schizophrenia, or other psychotic disorder and not better accounted for by another mental disorder (mood, anxiety, etc). </li></ul>
  37. 38. Too Much Attention?
  38. 39. PREVALENCE Male: Female 3% to 7% of all school-aged children Variation between subgroups of age, gender, and comorbidity.
  39. 40. CAUSATION
  40. 41. Attention Activity <ul><li>Reading independently is an activity all children must learn to do well in order to succeed in school. </li></ul><ul><li>The ability to focus on a reading assignment and understand its content is critical to successful independent reading. But busy classrooms are seldom optimal for a student's concentration. </li></ul><ul><li>The following activity simulates what a child with an attention problem might experience during a classroom reading assignment. </li></ul>
  41. 42. INTERVENTIONS <ul><li>Academic interventions must target the area where the child is experiencing difficulty. </li></ul><ul><li>Strategies involving structure along with explicit instruction may be beneficial. </li></ul><ul><li>A multimodal approach is more effective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Both drug and behavior therapies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul></ul>
  42. 43. INTERVENTIONS <ul><li>Medical </li></ul><ul><li>Non-medical </li></ul><ul><li>Prescribed by doctor </li></ul><ul><li>Private information! </li></ul><ul><li>Controversial topic in the community: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Age </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Type of drug </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Length of use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Side effects </li></ul></ul>Misunderstood Minds
  43. 44. Supporting Students with LD and/or ADHD Presentation Response Timing Setting Prompting
  44. 45. Graphic Organizers
  45. 46. Collaboration Activity <ul><li>Groups of 3-4 </li></ul><ul><li>Use co-teaching models </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Which models would benefit a student with a LD or ADHD? Why? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Which models might produce challenges? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What related service providers might be valuable collaborators? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Share </li></ul>
  46. 47. Chapter Eight EMOTIONAL/BEHAVIORAL DISORDERS
  47. 48. Think about the last time you were really upset. <ul><li>What caused you to become upset? </li></ul><ul><li>How did you feel? </li></ul><ul><li>What did you do? </li></ul><ul><li>Would most people feel and act this way, in your position? </li></ul><ul><li>How did you calm down, and how long did that take? </li></ul><ul><li>How did the event impact you for the rest of the day? </li></ul>
  48. 49. INTRODUCTION <ul><li>Emotional disorders: behavioral problems exhibited by difficulties in expressing emotions evoked in normal, everyday experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioral disorders: conditions in which the emotional or behavioral responses of individuals significantly differ from those of their peers and seriously impact their relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals generally experience great difficulty in relating appropriately to other people </li></ul>
  49. 50. DEFINITIONS <ul><li>IDEA: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A condition exhibiting one or more of the following characteristics over a long period of time and to a marked degree, which adversely affects academic performance: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inability to learn not explained by intellectual, sensory, or health factors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inability to build/maintain relationships with peers/teachers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inappropriate types of behavior of feeling under normal circumstances </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>General pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears associated with school problems </li></ul></ul></ul>
  50. 51. DEFINITION, CONT’D <ul><li>Does NOT include children who are socially maladjusted, unless it is determined that they are also seriously emotionally disturbed </li></ul>
  51. 52. PREVALENCE <ul><li>Estimated 3-6% of all school children have E/BD </li></ul><ul><li>Significant numbers of children remain unidentified and receive no services. </li></ul><ul><li>Disproportionate number of African American males identified as having E/BD </li></ul><ul><ul><li>overrepresentation </li></ul></ul>
  52. 53. Characteristics of E/BD <ul><li>COMMON, but not definite for all students with E/BD </li></ul>
  53. 54. BEHAVIORS
  54. 55. Social and Adaptive Behavior (These OFTEN occur) <ul><li>Defiance </li></ul><ul><li>Disruption </li></ul><ul><li>Aggression </li></ul><ul><li>Not completing tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty sharing </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty playing games </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty apologizing </li></ul><ul><li>Inability to appropriately deal with strong feelings </li></ul><ul><li>Problem solving difficulties </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of self-control </li></ul><ul><li>Trouble accepting consequences </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty expressing affection </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty meeting classroom demands </li></ul><ul><li>75% also have language deficits </li></ul><ul><li>School avoidance </li></ul><ul><li>Somatic complaints </li></ul><ul><li>Poor school performance </li></ul>
  55. 56. Major Groups of Childhood Disorders <ul><li>Attention-deficit and disruptive behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Feeding and eating disorders </li></ul><ul><li>Tic disorders (Tourette’s) </li></ul><ul><li>Elimination disorders and childhood anxiety disorders </li></ul><ul><li>Reactive attachment disorder </li></ul><ul><li>Childhood schizophrenia </li></ul>Psychiatric diagnosis is made by a medical doctor Educational disability diagnosis (“ED”) is made by school psychologist
  56. 57. BEHAVIOR MANAGEMENT <ul><li>Functional Behavior Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>To determine the functions of the child’s behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotional expression? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Data collection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ ABC” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Influences the BIP </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior Intervention Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Specific plan to teach the child new behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Respects function of behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Targets “replacement” behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Unique to the child </li></ul>©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  57. 58. ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT <ul><li>Difficulty in all academic areas </li></ul><ul><li>Rarely catch up </li></ul><ul><li>Students with EBD have the poorest academic outcomes of all high incidence disabilities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor teacher preparation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor quality of instruction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>51-70% of students with EBD drop out of school </li></ul>
  58. 59. CAUSATION is MULTIDIMENSIONAL <ul><li>Family and home environment </li></ul><ul><li>Socioeconomic status </li></ul><ul><li>Child abuse </li></ul>
  59. 60. ASSESSMENT <ul><li>Screening, prereferral interventions,and referral </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Response to Intervention </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Assessment factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Functional behavior assessment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Behavior Intervention Plan (“BIP”) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Assessment techniques </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strength-based assessment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rating scales </li></ul></ul>©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  60. 61. INTERVENTIONS <ul><li>Multidisciplinary collaboration (wraparound) </li></ul><ul><li>PBS (Positive Behavioral Support) - BIP </li></ul><ul><li>Inclusive education </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Separate programming in more restrictive environment is common </li></ul></ul>
  61. 62. Misunderstood Minds <ul><li>http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/misunderstoodminds/index.html </li></ul>

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