Eachtra JournalIssue 14                                                     [ISSN 2009-2237]                Archaeological...
Archaeological Excavation Report,11 Patrick Street,Kilkenny,Co. Kilkenny                              July 2008Client:    ...
ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237                                                11 Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co....
ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237                                        11 Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenn...
ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237                                                 11 Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co...
ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237                                        11 Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenn...
ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237                                        11 Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenn...
ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237                                        11 Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenn...
ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237                                        11 Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenn...
ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237                                        11 Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenn...
ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237                                        11 Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenn...
ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237                                        11 Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenn...
ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237                                        11 Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenn...
ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237                                        11 Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenn...
ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237                                        11 Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenn...
ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237                                        11 Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenn...
ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237                                        11 Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenn...
ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237                                              11 Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. K...
ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237                                              11 Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. K...
ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237                                        11 Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenn...
ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237                                        11 Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenn...
ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237                                        11 Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenn...
ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237                                        11 Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenn...
ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237                                        11 Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenn...
ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237                                        11 Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenn...
ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237                                        11 Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenn...
ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237                                        11 Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenn...
ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237                                        11 Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenn...
ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237                                        11 Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenn...
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ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237                                                11 Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co....
Archaeological Report - 11 Patricks St, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - 11 Patricks St, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - 11 Patricks St, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - 11 Patricks St, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - 11 Patricks St, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - 11 Patricks St, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - 11 Patricks St, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - 11 Patricks St, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - 11 Patricks St, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - 11 Patricks St, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - 11 Patricks St, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - 11 Patricks St, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - 11 Patricks St, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - 11 Patricks St, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - 11 Patricks St, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - 11 Patricks St, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - 11 Patricks St, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - 11 Patricks St, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - 11 Patricks St, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - 11 Patricks St, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - 11 Patricks St, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - 11 Patricks St, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - 11 Patricks St, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - 11 Patricks St, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - 11 Patricks St, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - 11 Patricks St, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - 11 Patricks St, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - 11 Patricks St, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - 11 Patricks St, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - 11 Patricks St, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - 11 Patricks St, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - 11 Patricks St, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - 11 Patricks St, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - 11 Patricks St, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - 11 Patricks St, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - 11 Patricks St, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - 11 Patricks St, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - 11 Patricks St, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - 11 Patricks St, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - 11 Patricks St, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - 11 Patricks St, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - 11 Patricks St, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - 11 Patricks St, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - 11 Patricks St, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - 11 Patricks St, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - 11 Patricks St, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - 11 Patricks St, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - 11 Patricks St, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - 11 Patricks St, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - 11 Patricks St, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - 11 Patricks St, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - 11 Patricks St, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - 11 Patricks St, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - 11 Patricks St, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - 11 Patricks St, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - 11 Patricks St, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - 11 Patricks St, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - 11 Patricks St, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - 11 Patricks St, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - 11 Patricks St, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - 11 Patricks St, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - 11 Patricks St, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - 11 Patricks St, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - 11 Patricks St, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - 11 Patricks St, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - 11 Patricks St, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - 11 Patricks St, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - 11 Patricks St, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - 11 Patricks St, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - 11 Patricks St, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - 11 Patricks St, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - 11 Patricks St, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - 11 Patricks St, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - 11 Patricks St, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - 11 Patricks St, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - 11 Patricks St, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - 11 Patricks St, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - 11 Patricks St, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - 11 Patricks St, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - 11 Patricks St, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - 11 Patricks St, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - 11 Patricks St, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - 11 Patricks St, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny (Ireland)
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Archaeological Report - 11 Patricks St, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny (Ireland)

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Most of the archaeological features recorded during this excavation were pits, 26 in total, two walls and a well were also excavated.

Most of the contexts were dated according to the artefacts retrieved from their fills. Therefore, pits with exclusively or almost exclusively medieval pottery were classified as medieval, whereas pits with medieval and post-medieval finds were classified as post-medieval. However, as most of the excavated features were backfilled, it is possible that some of the cut features that contained deposits, with inclusions of post-medieval artefacts, were actually open and in use in the medieval period.

The remains uncovered can be divided into medieval, post-medieval and modern. The pits were in general sub-circular and oval in plan, and, with the exception of pit C.98, were on average 2.06 m in length by 1.36 m in width by 0.61 m in depth. The fills of the pits were a mix of dark grey brown silty clay with occasional inclusions of animal bone and pottery. A total of 26 pits, two walls and a well were recorded.

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Archaeological Report - 11 Patricks St, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny (Ireland)

  1. 1. Eachtra JournalIssue 14 [ISSN 2009-2237] Archaeological Excavation Report 06E0230 - 11 Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny Pits, a post-medieval stone-built well and two post-medieval walls
  2. 2. Archaeological Excavation Report,11 Patrick Street,Kilkenny,Co. Kilkenny July 2008Client: David Gillespie, Nolan Ryan Partnership 10 Ormond Street, Kilkenny.Licence No.: 06E0230Licensee: Jacinta KielyPlanning Register No.: 05/135 Contact details: The Forge,Written by: Jacinta Kiely & Antonia Doolan Innishannon, Co. Cork Tel.: 021 4701616 E-mail: info@eachtra.ie Web Site: www.eachtra.ie
  3. 3. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 11 Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 06E0230 Table of Contents 1 Summary..............................................................................................................1 2 Acknowledgements...............................................................................................1 3 Introduction.........................................................................................................2 4 Description of Development.................................................................................2 5 Site location and topography. ...............................................................................2 . 6 Background to the current development...............................................................3 7 Patrick Street: recent archaeological investigations...............................................3 8 Archaeological and Historical background...........................................................5 . 9 Excavation Results................................................................................................9 9.1 Medieval............................................................................................................10 9.2 Post-medieval.....................................................................................................11 9.3 Modern..............................................................................................................12 10 Discussion........................................................................................................... 13 11 Conclusion. ......................................................................................................... 15 . 12 References............................................................................................................ 16 13 Figures................................................................................................................. 19 14 Plates...................................................................................................................37 Appendix 1: Context register. .......................................................................................43 . Appendix 2: Matrix.......................................................................................................63 Appendix 3: Finds register............................................................................................64 . Appendix 4: Pottery Report..........................................................................................76http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/06e0230-11-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ iii
  4. 4. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 11 Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 06E0230 Appendix 5: Animal Remains....................................................................................... 83 Appendix 6: Plant Remains. .........................................................................................88 . Appendix 7: Catalogue of clay pipes..............................................................................98 Appendix 8: Catalogue of metal artefacts..................................................................... 106 Appendix 9: Catalogue of stone artefacts .................................................................... 107 Appendix 10: Catalogue of glass ................................................................................. 109 Copyright Notice: Please note that all original information contained within this report, including all original drawings, photographs, text and all other printed matter deemed to be the writer’s, remains the property of the writer and Eachtra Archaeological Projects and so may not be reproduced or used in any form without the written consent of the writer or Eachtra Archaeological Projects.http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/06e0230-11-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ iv
  5. 5. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 11 Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 06E0230 List of Figures Figure 1: Extract from OS Discovery Series map 67 showing site location............................. 19 Figure 2: Record of Monuments and Places map sheet 19 for County Kilkenny.................... 20 Figure 3: Urban Archaeological Survey map 4d of Kilkenny showing site location................ 21 Figure 4: Urban Place Map showing site location.. ................................................................ 22 . Figure 5: Rocque’s Survey of the city of Kilkenny 1758 showing site location........................ 23 Figure 6: Ordnance Survey five-foot plan of Kilkenny 1872 showing site location................. 24 Figure 7: 11 Patrick Street showing the area of the excavation................................................ 25 Figure 8: Post-excavation plan of the west end of the site....................................................... 26 Figure 9: Post-excavation plan of the east end of the site........................................................ 27 Figure 10: 11 and 12 Patrick Street showing possible boundaries of five burgage plots........... 28 Figure 11: West-facing sections of Sondage 1 showing pit C.40, east-facing section of Sondage 1 showing pit C.40 and east-facing section of Sondage 4 showing layers C61 and C.62............ 29 Figure 12: East-facing section of Sondage 2 showing pits C.80, C.56 and C.72..................... 30 Figure 13: West-facing section of Sondage 2 showing pits C.72, C.56 and C.80.................... 31 Figure 14: West-facing section of Sondage 3 showing pits C.68, C.76, and C.81................... 32 Figure 15: Section of pit C.53................................................................................................ 33 . Figure 16: Section of pit C.66................................................................................................ 34 Figure 17: Profile of the exterior & interior of the well C.24 and the cut C.22.. .................... 35 . Figure 18: Section of the well C.24 and the cut C.22............................................................ 36 List of Plates Plate 1: View of area of excavation from west......................................................................... 37 Plate 2: View of pits C.74 and C.75 at mid-excavation from east........................................... 37 Plate 3: View of pits C.40, C.74 and C.75 from east.............................................................. 38 Plate 4: View of pits C.32 and C.33 from south..................................................................... 38 Plate 5: View of pit C.53 from west........................................................................................ 39 Plate 6: View of pit C.91 from east......................................................................................... 39 Plate 7: View of western section of the site from south-east.................................................... 40 Plate 8: View of cess pit C.4 from north-west......................................................................... 40 Plate 9: View of well C.24 from west..................................................................................... 41 Plate 10: View of eastern section of the site from west............................................................ 41 Plate 11: Aerial view of central section of the site from south................................................. 42 Plate 12: Aerial view of eastern section of the site from south................................................. 42http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/06e0230-11-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ v
  6. 6. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 11 Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 06E0230 1 Summary Location No.11, Patrick Street Kilkenny County Kilkenny National Grid Reference 250700 155590 Sites and Monument Record KK19026 No. Excavation Licence no. 06E0230 ext OS Map Sheet no. Kilkenny sheet 19 Elevation OD 54 m 2 Acknowledgements The excavation field crew included Antonia Doolan, Finn Delaney, Sara Camplese, Filip Debniak, Raphael Wolanski, Adam O’ Leary, Simon Bolton and Ben Blakeman. Post-exca- vation work was carried out by Antonia Doolan, Sara Camplese, Enda O’ Mahony and Ben Blakeman. Specialists included Sara Camplese (medieval & post-medieval ceramics), Marga- ret McCarthy (animal bone) and Penny Johnston (plant remains).http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/06e0230-11-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 1
  7. 7. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 11 Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 06E0230 3 Introduction The following report details the results of an archaeological excavation undertaken in January and February 2007 to the rear of the existing HSE building at 11 Patrick Street, Kilkenny. Archaeological testing and an architectural survey had previously been carried out in early 2006 (O’ Donoghue and McQueen 2006). This work has been carried out in advance of a proposed development comprising of alterations to the existing building and construction of a 3-storey office building (P.05/135) to rear, on behalf of Mr David Gillespie, c/o Dalton & O’Donnell Architects. The features excavated comprised 26 pits, a post-medieval stone-built well, and two post-medieval walls. 4 Description of Development The Development Site currently comprises renovation of the existing HSE building front- ing onto Patrick Street to the west, with an extension for an office built onto the rear. A new building consisting of two offices, hallway and toilets is intended to be located against the eastern boundary wall. The extension of the building fronting onto Patrick’s Street will measure c. 34.7 m². The new building at the east of the site, which will occupy the northwest corner of the site, will measure c. 255.4 m². 5 Site location and topography Kilkenny city is located on a prominent bend on the River Nore in central County Kilkenny. Two bridges, John’s Bridge and Greens Bridge, traverse the Nore linking both sides of the city (figures 2 and 3). The River Nore flows in a southeast direction from Kilkenny and joins the River Barrow immediately north of New Ross. Kilkenny is located at the junction of several major roads, notably the N9/N10 between Carlow and Waterford, the N76 to Clonmel, the N77 to Durrow and the N78 to Athy. Kilkenny city is listed in the Record of Monuments and Places (RMP) as an Historic Town (RMP KK019-026) and is therefore protected under the National Monuments Acts 1930-2004 (figure 2). The historic core of the city contains numerous sub-elements of ar- chaeological and historical interest, which are detailed in the Urban Archaeological Survey of County Kilkenny (figure 3). The Proposed Development Site is located on the east side of Patrick Street in the city centre within the zone of archaeological potential for Kilkenny City, RMP number KK019 026 (figure 2). The Nore River is c. 200 m to the north of the PDS and Kilkenny castle is c.http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/06e0230-11-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 2
  8. 8. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 11 Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 06E0230 100 m to the northeast. The site of St.Patricks Church, after which the street and parish are named, is situated c. 150 m to the south of the PDS. A new hotel, The Pembroke, on the site of Stratham’s Garage is located adjacent to the PDS to the south. Lanigan and Tyler (1987) describe the South East Health Board (now the HSE) building, along with that of the adja- cent Stratham’s Garage, as being out of proportion with the surrounding Georgian terraces that lay along the eastern side of Patrick Street. 6 Background to the current development Previous archaeological work at the site consisted of an archaeological assessment, undertaken in 2006 by Julianna O’ Donoghue and Alison McQueen for Eachtra Archaeological Projects (O’ Donoghue & McQueen 2006, presented in www.excavations.ie as site 1999:450). Four trenches were opened, and archaeological material was recorded in each. Based on the results presented in the assessment report, the subsequent Grant of Planning contained a condition related to the archaeological aspects of the site. Condition 7 stipulated: (a) The developer shall engage a suitably qualified archaeologist to carry out a full archaeological excavation of the archaeological deposits to be impacted by the proposed development… (b) The substructure of the proposed building shall be designed to ensure minimal ground disturbance and preservation in situ of archaeological deposits… (c) A detailed report describing the results of all archaeological work, including any required specialist reports, shall be submitted to the Local Authority and the Department (DoEHLG) following the completion of archaeological work on site. The necessary archaeological excavations were carried out in January and February of 2007 under an extension to the testing licence (Licence number 06E0230 ext). 7 Patrick Street: recent archaeological investigations A large number of testing and excavation works have been undertaken on Patrick Street and the area around Pennyfeather Lane/Pudding Lane and St. Mary’s/ St. Patrick’s Ward be- tween 1990 and 2005 as follows: (Most of the following descriptions are taken from www.excavations.ie which details the results of excavations which have taken place between 1970 and 2002) In 1990 test excavation by Heather King at Pennyfeather Lane/Pudding Lane and St Mary’s/ St Patrick’s. Eighteen trenches were opened on the site, the front area of which was disturbed. Evidence for Anglo-Norman occupation was uncovered at the rear of the site alonghttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/06e0230-11-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 3
  9. 9. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 11 Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 06E0230 with part of the foundations of the medieval town wall and the town ditch, possibly dating to the 13th or 14th centuries. In 1995 test excavations were undertaken by Margaret Gowen Ltd. at Pudding Lane (Li- cence 95E224). Five trenches were opened, a cobbled surface was uncovered. In 1997 at Patrick Street/Pudding Lane/Pennyfeather Lane, nine test trenches were ex- cavated by Judith Carroll (Licence 97E468). Medieval pottery and slag was recovered from the layers and the remains of a wall were uncovered, along with a possible 17th to 18th century ditch. In 1998, archaeological excavation located in the back gardens of nos. 26-29 Patrick Street and at house no. 26 by Judith Carroll (Licence 98E0092) was undertaken. A dense concentration of pits was excavated with a possible 12th to 16th century date, along with a large possible palisade trench. Excavation at 33 Patrick St, undertaken by Judith Carroll (Licence 98E0402) led to the discovery of a dense concentration of medieval pits. In 1998, excavation at Patrick St./Pudding Lane/Pennyfeather Lane (Licence 97E0468) was undertaken by Judith Carroll. Five areas were excavated with the discovery of a large number of medieval and post-medieval pits and linear features, the foundations of earlier walls, structural trenches, hearths, metal working evidence and undated human remains, both articulated and disarticulated. In 1999 Eachtra Archaeological Projects undertook further excavations at 26 Patrick St under licence 99E0165. During this work a number of medieval pits were excavated and re- corded along with the foundations of a post-medieval building. Eachtra Archaeological Projects conducted further excavations at 33 Patrick Street in 1999 following design changes under licence 98E0402ext. A number of large deep pits were excavated which were interpreted to have served a variety of functions, from domestic cess pits to industrial pits. Two small drying kilns and iron working evidence were also recorded on the site. Eachtra Archaeological Projects conducted further excavations at Patrick St./Pudding Lane/Pennyfeather Lane in 1999 under an extension to licence 97E0468. This additional area was composed of a cluster of intercutting pits, with the partial remains of a post-medi- eval building.http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/06e0230-11-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 4
  10. 10. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 11 Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 06E0230 Anne Marie Lennon tested a development site at Patrick Street Upper for Mary Henry Archaeological Services Ltd. under excavation licence number 01E0272. The site was imme- diately northwest of the boundary wall of the site of St. Patricks Church. Two trenches at the southeast end of site, one contained a spread of material with sherds of 13th to 14th century Kilkenny type pottery and the other trench contained disarticulated human bone. In 2002 Daniel Noonan conducted an impact assessment at 101 Patrick’s St under licence 02E1570 for Eachtra Archaeological Projects. The five trenches opened contained no archaeo- logical remains. Also in 2002, No.4 Rose Inn Street was tested and excavated under licence number 01E0466 by Simon Ó Faoláin for Eachtra Archaeological Projects. This site is approximately 150 m north of the current PDS. A well was uncovered and excavated to a depth of 0.5 m. It was not possible to date the well. In 2005 Bruce Sutton undertook excavations at Stratham’s Garage (Sutton and Johnston 2007), immediately east of the PDS under the Pembroke Hotel, following testing carried out in 1999 by Jacinta Kiely for Eachtra Archaeological Projects, both of these phases were carried out under excavation licence number 99E0757. In total 80 pits were excavated with a small number of linear features and post-medieval structural elements also being present on-site. Overall, excavations over the past 10 years along Patrick Street have produced similar archaeological material characterised by large numbers of densely concentrated medieval pits in addition to a number of linear trenches and ditches. The pits served a variety of functions, from domestic cesspits to industrial metal working pits and hearths. Although structural remains of buildings and floor surfaces were recorded, these date to the post-medieval period and there is no structural evidence for the early Anglo-Norman occupation that founded Patrick Street. The preceding paragraphs have been adapted from Sutton and Kiely 2005. 8 Archaeological and Historical background (Adapted from Sutton & Johnston 2007) To date, no archaeological evidence for prehistoric settlement has been uncovered in Kil- kenny city, suggesting that it was first occupied in historic times, and it has been a country town for as long as historical records have existed (Bradley 1990, 63).http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/06e0230-11-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 5
  11. 11. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 11 Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 06E0230 Kilkenny is a corruption of Cill chainnigh which means ‘Canice’s Church’ and owes its name to the foundation of St. Canice’s Monastery in the 6th century AD. According to the Annals of Ulster, St. Canice died circa 600AD, but this date is based on later calculations (Bradley 1990, 64). There are different accounts of the life of St. Canice all of which were compiled in the 12th century. It is possible that St. Canice himself founded the monastery but alternatively it may have been one of his disciples. The monastery itself was founded on a small hill overlooking a fording point of the River Nore, at the present location of Green’s Bridge. Although St. Canice’s church provides the city of Kilkenny with its name, it was not the earliest religious structure. A second church, St. Patrick’s, is also mentioned in a Life of St. Canice and was located to the south, off what is now Patrick Street Lower (and south of the PDS), though nothing survives of it today (Farrelly et al. 1993, 79). This church is known to have pre-dated St. Canice’s and was possibly founded in the 5th century, with a later dedica- tion to St. Patrick (Bradley 2000, 1). Although nothing is known of this early monastery there must have been a central church building. There is evidence for a surrounding enclo- sure, similar to other ecclesiastical sites of this period, which can be seen in the curved pat- tern of Vicar Street, St. Canice’s Place and Dean Street (Bradley 1995, 156). Although not present today, a lane running north to Troy’s Gate of the then existing town wall is visible on Rocque’s map of 1758 (figure 5) and traces a possible continuation north of the enclosure (Bradley 1990, 65). By the time of the arrival of the Normans, a stone church was located at St. Patrick’s along with a round tower, which would have been a later 11th or 12th century addition to the site (ibid., 66). With the emergence of a powerful group known as the Osraige in the latter half of the first millennium, Kilkenny began to increase in importance due to the fact that the central base of power for this group comprised the fertile plains of Co. Kilkenny (Bradley 1990, 65). The location of the monastery towards the centre of these lands, and at a fording point of the River Nore, meant that its success as an ever growing settlement in size and importance was almost guaranteed (Bradley 1995, 154). By the 12th century, the successors to the Osraige, the Mac Gilla Patraic, held court at Kilkenny which suggests that even in pre-Norman times the settlement served not just a religious function, but also an administrative one (ibid., 156). This political importance most likely drew craftspeople and tradespeople to the settlement, further increasing its importance. The Anglo-Normans arrived in Ireland towards the end of the 12th century and quickly supplanted the Mac Gilla Patraic in Kilkenny. At this time, settlement in the country con- sisted of ports established by the Vikings and inland settlements concentrated around ec- clesiastical sites. The Anglo-Normans swiftly constructed a number of towns and boroughs around Ireland over the next hundred or so years, indicating a large influx of people into the country. Kilkenny is one such city that saw the construction of an Anglo-Norman borough in the town. The Normans were initially attracted to Kilkenny due to its strategic location on land and riverine routeways (Bradley 2000, 2).http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/06e0230-11-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 6
  12. 12. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 11 Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 06E0230 Kilkenny castle, most likely constructed on an earlier motte and bailey, was built in 1173 some 750 m south of St.Canice’s on a knoll overlooking a second fording point of the Nore. The existing structure dates to some time in the 13th century and served as an aristocratic residence, administrative centre and gaol (Bradley 2000, 2). The castle passed out of the Mar- shall family to the Norman de Clares in the mid 13th century. It passed to the Butlers in 1391 and stayed with this family until 1969 when the state took ownership (Bradley 1995, 158). Kilkenny Castle to the south and St. Canice’s to the north effectively defined the boundaries of the town. It is around the castle that the borough of Hightown or Englishtown was estab- lished with burgesses - the backbone of Anglo-Norman town planning – in existence here by 1176 (Bradley 1990, 66). The earlier pre-Norman settlement centred on St. Canice’s became known as Irishtown (Farrelly et al. 1993, 1), although care should be taken when referring to these as ethnically separate areas (Bradley 1985, 446). The 13th century saw large-scale development in Kilkenny, development which defined the town for centuries to come. Richard Fitzgilbert de Clare undertook the initial Norman settlement of Kilkenny, but it was not until his successor, William Marshall, visited Kilkenny in 1207 that much of the building works in the settlement commenced. In that year new foundation charters were issued to the town (Farrelly et al. 1993, 1) and after Marshall ne- gotiated with the Bishop of Ossary for the procurement of the land between the castle and St. Canice’s, the settlement began to expand. The settlement was centred on a single main street, High Street, which was wider in the centre to accommodate a market in the town. The burgage plots along the street would have been well-suited for commercial premises due to their narrow frontage area, allowing a large number of shops and houses to front onto the market and the main street (Bradley 1985, 439). Once burgage plots had been handed out, it is quite possible that their boundaries remained unchanged for many years, although some plots may have been divided or combined over time (ibid., 429) as owners bought or sold ad- jacent plots of land. It is also during the middle of the 13th century that the first references are made to a third borough, Donaghmore, which was located outside the town wall to the south of Hightown, at what is now the southern end of Patrick Street. It is likely that a pre-existing settlement was located here prior to this centred on St. Patrick’s Church. The 13th century also saw the construction and renovation of a number of religious estab- lishments, some of which later served as parish churches. Between 1207 and 1225 a Francis- can monastery was built in Hightown. Construction of an Augustinian priory commenced in 1211 and was completed in 1220. This was the first religious structure to be located on the eastern bank of the River Nore. It prompted the building of a road and a second bridge which linked the priory, and subsequent growth of settlement, to the town (Bradley 2000, 4). The Dominican priory, or ‘Black Abbey’, was established in 1225 outside the city walls and a small portion of it survives today (ibid., 4). St. Mary’s Church possibly began as a chapel for those living close to the castle and would have been established soon after the foundation of Hightown at the end of the 12th century. It later grew into a large Medieval parish church with council meetings and town plays performed here (ibid., 3). Perhaps the most impressivehttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/06e0230-11-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 7
  13. 13. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 11 Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 06E0230 religious structure to be constructed in the 13th century was the Cathedral, built at the loca- tion of the earlier Canice’s church by Bishop Hugh de Rous. Building of the various sections continued throughout the 13th century, long after de Rous’ death (Bradley 2000, 5). The Ca- thedral is the only religious structure to have been constructed in the Borough of Irishtown and continues to dominate the area to this day. Construction of town walls around Hightown also began in the 13th century, probably instigated by William Marshall after his visit in 1207, though they were not completed for many years. The final completion of the town walls is dated to 1400 and attributed to Robert Talbot, a man about which little is known (Prim 1949-51, 36). The walls are known to have been in a near perfect state in the 18th century as represented on Rocque’s map of 1758 (figure 5) (Birthistle 1966, 5), although only small sections survive at present. There are 11 known murage grants from Kilkenny dating to between 1250 and 1460 (Bradley 1990, 70) which suggest ongoing work on the walls. These grants were provided by the king and gave towns the right to impose tolls and taxes for the purpose of building the town’s defences, in order to lessen the cost to the inhabitants. Kilkenny Castle was incorporated into the southern line of the town wall, as often seen where castles are located at the edge of towns (Bradley 1985, 444). The western town wall ran along a natural ridge that commanded the approach from that side. The northern wall formed the boundary with Irishtown. There was no eastern wall as the river ran along this side creating a natural boundary. In total, the Hightown wall encompassed an area of roughly 29 hectares (Farrelly et al. 1993, 7). That the construction of the town walls took such a substantial length of time is evidenced by the fact that the wall is of varied thickness and the four known towers – only one of which survives – were of different types. This lack of uniformity suggests that the long length of time needed to build the walls resulted in a lack of continuous planning in their construction (Bradley 1985, 442). Seven gates are known to have existed along the length of the wall: one at the border to Irishtown, three along the western wall, one at John’s Bridge and two in the southern wall. The gates in the southern wall were located next to the castle with a second on Patrick Street, roughly between Upper and Lower Patrick Street. The latter was demolished at the end of the 19th century (Kenealy 1948, 34). Irishtown was protected by its own set of defences, although these were neither as sub- stantial nor as well maintained as those of Hightown, and little is known about them (Ke- nealy 1948, 32). It has been suggested though that these walls were completed prior to 1400, therefore before the completion of the Hightown wall. Four gates were located in the defences surrounding Irishtown. As with the Hightown walls, no wall was present to the east as the River Nore provided sufficient natural defence. During the 14th century Kilkenny saw a period of decline with the outbreak of the Black Plague. It was not until the 16th century when the Butler family were reinstated that the town once again began to expand (Bradley 1995, 151). Prior to this, Kilkenny was ruled by a number of rich merchant families. These families constructed many of the stone houses of Kilkenny, such as Rothe House on High Street. It was the work of these families in 1609 thathttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/06e0230-11-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 8
  14. 14. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 11 Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 06E0230 secured the elevation of Kilkenny to city status by James I (Farrelly et al. 1993, 2), although this was revoked in 1650 with the Cromwellian invasions. After its capture by Cromwell the importance of Kilkenny began to decline, although it was granted university status in 1690. The rise of Dublin and Waterford meant that Kilkenny would never again be the administra- tive centre it had been in the past. By the 18th century it had become a quiet country town, despite the development of some new industries. In 1843 the boroughs of Irishtown and Hightown were joined to form a single city with one corporation and although much had changed, the basic layout of the city remained con- stant to the early street pattern set out by the Normans, as can be seen by the first edition ordnance survey map and 1872 5ft map (figure 6). The HSE building currently fronting onto Patrick Street is a modern building dating to around the 1960’s/70’s. Both the northern and eastern perimeter walls of the property are protected structures and potentially date from before 1758, as there are walls in these loca- tions represented on Roque’s map (O’ Donoghue and McQueen 2006, 6-7). 9 Excavation Results Most of the archaeological features recorded during this excavation were pits, 26 in total (figures 7-9, plates 10-12) two walls and a well were also excavated. Full contextual details are listed in the context register Appendix 1 and the stratigraphic matrix Appendix 2. The catalogue of all artefacts found is in the finds register Appendix 3 and specialist report on the pottery is in Appendix 4. The results of analysis of environmental material are presented in the animal bone report Appendix 5 and the plant remains report Appendix 6. Catalogues of clay pipes are in Appendix 7, metal artefacts are in Appendix 8, stone artefacts in Appendix 9 and glass artefacts in Appendix 10. Most of the contexts were dated according to the artefacts retrieved from their fills. There- fore, pits with exclusively or almost exclusively medieval pottery were classified as medieval, whereas pits with medieval and post-medieval finds were classified as post-medieval. Howev- er, as most of the excavated features were backfilled, it is possible that some of the cut features that contained deposits, with inclusions of post-medieval artefacts, were actually open and in use in the medieval period. Prior to commencement of excavation works, the archaeologist monitored the removal of the garden soil horizon C.2 by machine to a depth of 0.3 m at the west end of the site and to a depth of 0.7m at the eastern end of the site. Sherds of medieval and post-medieval pottery were recovered from the garden soil. A section of the site, measuring c. 7 m NS by 8 m EW was left unexcavated (figure 7). This will be landscaped and will not be subject to intrusive groundworks. When the garden soil C.2 was removed from the east end of the site a large dark spread of material was observed along the centre of the area. Four sondages were excavated throughhttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/06e0230-11-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 9
  15. 15. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 11 Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 06E0230 the material to determine the nature and extent of it (figure 7). It was initially interpreted as a ditch, orienated east-west which had been cut and recut. However, in the fourth sondage a layer of dark material, 0.2 m in depth, was recorded. The layer located between Sondage 4 and Sondage 1 was removed, revealing two large pits in the process. Therefore it was decided that the best way of proceeding would be to remove this dark spread of material which was effectively masking the pits underneath. The remains uncovered can be divided into medieval, post-medieval and modern. The pits were in general sub-circular and oval in plan, and, with the exception of pit C.98, were on average 2.06 m in length by 1.36 m in width by 0.61 m in depth. The fills of the pits were a mix of dark grey brown silty clay with occasional inclusions of animal bone and pottery. A total of 26 pits, two walls and a well were recorded (plates 10-12). 9.1 Medieval A total of 21 pits (C.32, C.33, C.40, C.41, C.43, C.53, C.56, C.74, C.75, C.79, C.80, C.81, C.83, C.84, C.85, C.91, C.93, C.97, C.98, C.99 and C.100) were excavated (plates 2-4 and 6). They were in general sub-circular and oval in plan, and, with the exception of pit C.98, were on average 2.06 m in length by 1.36 m in width by 0.61 m in depth (figures 11-16). The fills of the pits were a mix of dark grey brown silty clay with occasional inclusions of animal bone and pottery. The pits were located in very close proximity to one another particularly at the eastern end of the site. Pit C.98 was the largest pit on site. It measured 6.6 m by 3.2 m by 0.95 m. The base sloped to the east. It cut pits C.81, C.99 and C.100. It is possible that the pit represents the remains of at least three intercut pits. Four of the pits (C.32, C.33, C.93 and C.97) were located at the western end of the site (figure 8). They were truncated by a stone-lined pit C.4, wall C.27 and a modern sewer C.10. They extended beyond the area of the excavation to the north and east and measured on aver- age 1.4 m. Fifteen pits (C.40, C.43, C.53, C.74, C.75, C.79, C.81, C.83, C.84, C.91, C.93, C.97, C.98, C.99 and C.100) containing inclusions of medieval pottery were excavated. A further six pits (C.32, C.33, C.41, C.56, C.80 and C.85) that did not contain any pottery are prob- ably medieval in date. Less than five sherds of pottery were recorded in the fills of nine of the pits (C.43, 74, C.84, C.91, C.93, C.97, C.98, C.99 and C.100). Between seven and eleven sherds of pottery were recovered from the fills of four of the pits (C.72, C.74, C.75, C.79 and C.81). 29 and 26 sherds of pottery were recovered from the fills of pits C.40 and C.53 respec- tively. Layer C.63, located at the eastern end of the site was cut by two pits C.68 and C.76. Three sherds of Kilkenny-type pottery were recovered from the layer. The medieval pottery recovered was a mix of Leinster cooking ware, Kilkenny-type coarse ware and Kilkenny-type. 73% of the medieval pottery recovered was Kilkenny-type, which dates to the 13th/14th cen- turies. The forms of Kilkenny-type pottery recovered are table vessels, mainly jugs.http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/06e0230-11-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 10
  16. 16. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 11 Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 06E0230 Plant remains were recorded in the fills of 12 of the pits (C.32, C.33, C.40, C.43, C.53, C.56, C.72, C.74, C.75, C.79, C.81 and C.93). The proportion of cereal grains differed from sample to sample but wheat and oats were the most common cereal types from all samples. Pit C.53 measured 2.5 m by 1.3 m by 0.55 m in depth (plate 5). It was not truncated by any of the other pits. It contained a large quantity of oat and wheat grains and a much smaller proportion of indeterminate grains than any of the other pits. The largest samples of bones came from pits C.40 and C.53 with lesser quantities of material occurring in eight other pits (C.32, C.33, C.43, C.74/75, C.79, C.81, C.84 and C.93). 9.2 Post-medieval The majority of the features dated to the post-medieval period were located at the western end of the site (figure 8, plate 7). A large well and its associated cut were located to the south of a large stone-lined pit C.4. A wall, C.27, was build on top of the western wall of the pit C.4. Only the basal course of the wall had survived in situ. It was aligned north-south and measured 0.5 m in width. The pit C.4 (plate 8) extended beyond the area of the excavation to the north. It measured 1.1m m NS by 2 m EW and was 0.8 m deep. Nine fills were recorded within the pit. With the exception of the basal two fills, C.19 and C.36, the fills were silty clays and included stone, pebbles, fragments of mortar, roof slates, ten sherds of post-medieval pottery, clay pipe stems and bottle glass. One of the basal fills C.19 was very rich in archaeobotanical and faunal remains. The evidence would indicate that it may have been used as a cess pit. The sample was rich in the remains of un-charred seeds, particularly blackberry, raspberry and figs. The presence of figs suggests a wealthy household’s diet. Bones from small domestic fowl, juvenile and adult, hake and dogfish were identified. The well C.24 was constructed within a large aperture C.22 (figures 17 and 18, plate 9). The large aperture measured c. 3.3 m by 2.6 m. The well was constructed within the aperture and the remainder of the cut was backfilled (C.11, C.12, C.16 and C.20). Occasional sherds of pottery and clay pipe fragments were retrieved from fills C.12 and C.16. The well was stone lined and measured 1 m in diameter. It was only partially excavated for safety reasons. The fills (C.7, C.8 and C.23) included sherds of post-medieval pottery. No water was recorded in well during excavation works. Four pits (C.66, C.68, C.72 and C.76) were dated to the post-medieval period. All were located on the northern side of the area of the excavation (figures 9 and 13). Three of the pits (C.66, C.68 and C.72) measured on average 2.7 m in diameter by 0.7 m in depth. Pit C.66 included 7 sherds of post-medieval pottery and 5 clay pipes fragments, pit C.68 included 1 sherd of medieval pottery, 11 sherds of post-medieval pottery and 58 clay pipes fragments and pit C.72 included 2 sherds of medieval pottery, 7 sherds of post-medieval pottery and 18 clay pipe fragments. No finds were recovered from pit C.76.http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/06e0230-11-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 11
  17. 17. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 11 Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 06E0230 9.3 Modern A sewer C.10, pit C.13 and the edge of the basement C.37 date to the recent past. The features were all located at the western end of the site (plate 10). The sewer was aligned east-west. Pottery Pottery from the site was examined by Sara Camplese (Appendix 4). A total of 183 sherds were counted from the site (after re-fitting) and almost 72% of these were medieval wares, with types dating from the late twelfth to the fourteenth centuries. Kilkenny-type pottery made up 73% of the medieval pottery, it dates to the 13th/14th centuries. The forms of Kilkenny-type pottery recovered were table vessels, mainly jugs. The remaining 51 sherds were post-medieval and date from 17th to late 19th Century. The medieval assemblage was predominantly local Kilkenny Type wares, but Leinster Cooking Ware and Bristol Redcliffe ware was also found. Imported ceramics included wares from England (Bristol Redcliffe ware, Tin glazed earthenware, North Devon wares, Sgraf- fito, Creamware, Pearlware, Glazed and Unglazed red earthenware, Transfer printed ware and Stoneware) Germany (Anglo-german slipware, German slipware) and Holland (Dutch glazed earthenware). Animal Bone The animal bone assemblage from this site was examined by Margaret McCarthy (Appendix 5). 901 bones were recovered and these derived mostly from pits. The faunal assemblage is typical of medieval urban samples the surface condition of the bone indicating that the bone was discarded into the pits shortly after use. The proportion of fragments showing evidence of butchery was high. Cattle and sheep dominated the samples with pigs being present in lower frequencies. As is the case with most urban settlements of the period, horses are poorly represented and there was no evidence to suggest that these animals were eaten. The range of animal types found is quite narrow for an urban site but it is noteworthy that domestic fowl dominate the post-medieval samples. The one feature that stands out is the absence of other potential food animals such as wild game and fowl, food resources that would have been plentiful in the local environment. Plant Remains The plant remains assemblage from this site was examined by Penny Johnston (Appendix 6). A plant remains assemblage from medieval and post-medieval deposits produced large quan- tities of wheat and oat grains. Only small amounts of barley and rye were found. Of note in the samples was the presence of several legumes. Although preservation was poor several peas were identified. These probably only became an important cultivar in Ireland after the Anglo- Norman invasion. The widespread retrieval of legumes may be indicative of intensive arablehttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/06e0230-11-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 12
  18. 18. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 11 Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 06E0230 management. The low density of the plant remains in all samples, except pit C.40, suggests that these are carbonised plant remains included in discarded waste scattered across the site. The rich sample from pit C.40 may have been taken from close to a source of burnt grains such as a hearth or kiln. The proportions of cereal grains retrieved, while markedly differ- ent from those found at the adjacent site of 12 Patrick St. (Stratham’s Garage site), had good parallels in some other plant remains assemblages from medieval and post-medieval deposits from Kilkenny city. 10 Discussion The area of Patrick Street, Kilkenny, was originally occupied in the late 12th century by the Anglo-Normans. The archaeological evidence from this excavation and from the adjoining site to the south (12 Patrick St., Stratham’s Garage site 99E0757) supports this as no earlier material was recorded during the course of the excavation. The majority of the cut features at the site were pits, 26 in total. The function of the pits seems to be domestic. None of the pit fills were burnt in situ or contained a large amount of charcoal. A total of 21 of the pits were dated to the medieval period on the basis of the arte- factual evidence. The inclusion of pottery sherds and animal bone in the pits would indicate that the final use of most of the pits at the site was as a refuse dump. Four separate medieval burgage plots were identified at the adjoining site to the south (figure 10). The plots were identified on the basis of combining the spatial pattern of the medieval archaeology with existing boundaries. Over 80 pits were recorded with inclusions of pottery and animal bone. This suggests that the final use of most of the pits was as a refuse dump. Almost 90% of the pottery was medieval wares with types dating from the late twelfth to the fourteenth centuries. Cattle and sheep bone dominated the animal bone as- semblage. A relatively large sample of butchered horse bones was recovered from some of the medieval pits. Fowl included domestic fowl, goose and duck. Marine species included cod, haddock and ling. Plot No. Medieval pits Post-medieval Ditches and Pits of unknown pits linear features date 1 3 2 2 2 14 9 3 6 3 23 20 3 18 4 9 Table 1: Distribution of features at 12 Patrick Street (Strathams’s Garage Site 99E0757) Plot No. Medieval pits Post-medieval pits Ditches and linear Pits of unknown features date 1 21 5 Table 2: Distribution of features at 11 Patrick Streethttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/06e0230-11-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 13
  19. 19. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 11 Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 06E0230 A group of 11 pits dating to the medieval period were excavated at 26 Patrick St (Kiely 2000). Medieval pottery and animal bone was recovered from the pits. All the plant remains were preserved by charring and included cereals, cereal weeds, peas and beans. The plant remains at 11 Patrick St. were predominantly cereals with wheat and oat as the most common types found. Wheat was the most common type, at 50% of the entire identifiable cereal assemblage, while oats were present in almost the same proportion (47%). Barley was found only in very small amounts (only 3% of the entire cereal assemblage) and only one grain of rye was retrieved from the site. These proportions differ from those retrieved from similar feature types in the adjoining properties (12 Patrick St. (Stratham’s Garage site), where 39% of the entire identifiable cereal assemblage was made up of wheat, 32% of oat, 24% of barley and 5% of rye (Dillon 2006). Most notably they differ in the proportions of barley and rye that were present. However, the general trend from both sites indicates that wheat and oat were the most common cereal types. Site Wheat Barley Oat Rye Legumes 11 Patrick St 50% 3% 47% Present 12 Patrick St 39% 24% 32% 5% Present 26 Patrick St 77% 11% 8% 4% Present Table 3: Percentage composition of identifiable cereal assemblage from three sites on Patrick St. Kilkenny The quantity of re-deposited subsoil on site suggests that the pits were excavated and the excavated soil placed along side. The subsoil masks some of the earlier pits e.g. layer C.88 masked the fills of pits C.66, C.84 and C.79. Some of the pits, e.g. C.79 and C.40 included a lens of re-deposited subsoil near the base of the pit. This suggests that a small layer of subsoil was placed over the initial contents of the pit, maybe to seal it. The contents of the pit may have been noxious or may have been sealed to prevent it being blown out of the pit. There is very little space between many of the pits at the eastern end of the site. It is not likely that many of the pits were open at the same time as access between them would have been difficult. The function of the very large pit, C.98, at the eastern end of site, is uncertain. It is likely that this very large pit represents a number of intercut pits with very similar fills. The well at the western end of the site was similar to a well excavated at the rear of 4, Rose Inn Street, Kilkenny (licence 01E0466), c. 200 m to the north of the site. It is difficult to date stone-lined wells. The well was back-filled with 19th and 20th pottery, brick and glass. The cut of the well aperture disturbed medieval and post-medieval layers and pits. One stone-lined cess pit was recorded at the western end of the site. Stone-lined pits are commonly used as cess pits (Hurley 1997, 22; Hurley & Scully 1997, 245; Cleary & Hurley 2003, 89). In the case of stone-lined pits excavated in Waterford, 37 pits were excavated and ‘the presence of cess in most pits is noted’ (Hurley & Scully ibid.). As the layer C.19 contain-http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/06e0230-11-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 14
  20. 20. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 11 Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 06E0230 ing evidence of seeds was immediately above the basal fill of the pit, it is possible that it had been partially cleaned out after use as a cess pit. It subsequently backfilled with mortar and building rubble and was sealed by a layer of cobbles, C.5, near the top. 11 Conclusion The majority of the cut features at the site were pits, 26 of these were excavated. The arte- factual and/or stratigraphic evidence suggests that they dated to the medieval and/or the post-medieval periods and that they were used as refuse and cess pits. The medieval pits were primarily either rounded or sub-rectangular, with steep sides and flat base. All of the pits con- tained similar fills and inclusions. This could indicate that they originally fulfilled different functions but finally were infilled with the same (refuse) material. The evidence from the excavation at 11, Patrick Street Kilkenny suggests that the area originally formed part of an Anglo-Norman burgage plot, which was intensively utilised. The burgage plot is the fourth to be excavated on the eastern side of Patrick Street. No evidence of a medieval structure was recorded on site. Any medieval house site may have been de- stroyed during the construction of the buildings that fronted onto Patrick Street or they may have been located further west, under the footpath and/or road surface. The archaeological material recorded at Patrick Street is comparable to that of earlier excavations in this part of Kilkenny city and in particular to the other sites on Patrick Street.http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/06e0230-11-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 15
  21. 21. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 11 Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 06E0230 12 References Abbreviations NIAH National Inventory of Architectural Heritage OSNB Ordnance Survey Name Books RMP Record of Monuments and Places Birthistle, D. 1966. ‘Gateways of the walls of Kilkenny’. Old Kilkenny review, 18, 5-9. Bradley, J. 1985. ‘Planned Anglo-Norman towns in Ireland’. In. H.B. Clarke and A. Simms, eds. History of Urban origins in Non-Roman Europe: Ireland, Wales, Denmark, Germany, Poland and Russia from the ninth to the thirteenth century. Part ii. BAR international series 255 (ii). Bradley, J. 1990. ‘The early development of the medieval town of Kilkenny’. In. W. Nolan and K. Whelan, eds. Kilkenny. History and society. Geography publications Bradley, J. 1995. ‘Kilkenny – The Faire City’. In. C. Howard, ed. In Irish Cities. Dublin: Mercier Press, 150-163. Bradley, J. 2000. ‘Kilkenny’. In. A. Simms, H.B Clarke and R. Gillespie, eds. Irish Historic Towns Atlas, Royal Irish Academy. Byrne, J. 2004 Byrne’s dictionary of Irish Local History. Cork: Mercier Press. Cleary, R. & Hurley, M. 2003. Excavations in Cork City 1984-2000. Cork City Council. Department of the Environment, Heritage and Local Government. 2004 Architectural Heritage Protection: Guidelines for Planning Authorities. Dublin: Stationery Office. Department of Arts, Heritage, Gaeltacht and the Islands. 1999a Framework and Principles for the Protection of the Archaeological Heritage. Dublin: Government Publications Office. Elder, S. D & Richardson, A. 2001. Final Report on Excavations to the rear of No. 33 Patrick Street, Kilkenny, including Area six of the Patrick St./Pudding Lane/Pennyfeather Lane Development block. Eachtra Archaeological Projects unpublished report submitted to the DoEHLG. Farrelly, J, Loughran, A, and O’Reilly, B. 1993. Urban archaeological survey: County Kilkenny. Dublin: Office of public works.http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/06e0230-11-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 16
  22. 22. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 11 Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 06E0230 Hurley, M. 1997. Excavations at the North Gate, Cork, 1994. Cork Corporation. Hurley, M. & Scully, O. 1997. Late Viking Age & Medieval Waterford excavations 1986-1992. Waterford. Kenealy, C.J. 1948. ‘The Walls of Kilkenny’. Old Kilkenny Review, 11, 32-38. Kiely, J. 2000. Archaeological assessment report, former Stratham’s garage, Patrick St, Kilkenny. Eachtra Archaeological Projects unpublished report submitted to the DoEHLG. Kiely, J. 2000. ‘Archaeological excavation at No. 26, Patrick Street, Kilkenny’. In Old Kilkenny review, 52, 116-122. Kilkenny County Council 2002 County Development Plan 2002. Kilkenny County Council. Lanigan, K.M. and Tyler, G. (ed) 1987. Kilkenny: Its Architecture and History. Belfast. Noonan , D and Ryan, M. 2002. Archaeological assessment at 101 Patrick St, Kilkenny. Eachtra Archaeological Projects unpublished report submitted to the DoEHLG. O’ Donoghue, J. and McQueen, A. 2006. Archaeological Assessment & Test Excavation Report, 11, Patrick Street, Kilkenny. Unpublished Eachtra Archaeological Projects report submitted to the DoEHLG. Prim, J.G.A. 1849-51. ‘The builder of the walls of Kilkenny’. In Royal society of antiquities in Ireland, 1, 34-37. Smithwick, P. 1988. ‘St Francis Abbey’. In Old Kilkenny review, 5, 521-525. Sutton, B. & Johnston, P. 2007. Archaeological Excavation Report, Stratham’s Garage Site, Patrick Street, Kilkenny. Unpublished Eachtra Archaeological Projects Report submitted to the DoEHLG. Thomas, A. 1998. The Walled Towns of Ireland. Irish Academic Press. Cartographic Sources Byron, S. c. 1780 A plan of the city of Kilkenny. Dublin. Dalton & O’Donnell. 2005 Proposed site ground plans.http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/06e0230-11-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 17
  23. 23. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 11 Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 06E0230 Down’s Survey map c. 1655 Dúchas – the Heritage Service. 1997 Record of Monuments and Places Map of County Kilkenny (Reduced OS six-inch 2nd edition). Dublin. Ordnance Survey. 1841 First edition six-inch map. Dublin. Ordnance Survey. 1872 Five-foot plan of Kilkenny. Dublin. Ordnance Survey. 1983 Urban Place map of Kilkenny. Dublin. (Urban Archaeological Survey map). Ordnance Survey. 1995 Discovery series first edition 1:50,000. Ordnance Survey. 2005 Urban Place map of Kilkenny. Dublin. (Urban Archaeological Survey map). Online sources DoEH&LG (2002) Excavations.ie – database of Irish excavation reports. Wordwell. www. excavations.ie Accessed 28/02/06. Kilkenny Borough Council. 2005 Kilkenny City Centre Local Area Plan. Kilkenny www.kilkennycoco.ie Accessed 07/04/06. NIAH (2005) National Inventory of Architectural Heritage of County Kilkenny. www. builldingsofireland.ie Accessed 07/04/06.http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/06e0230-11-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 18
  24. 24. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 11 Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 06E0230 13 Figures Figure 1: Extract from OS Discovery Series map 67 showing site location.http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/06e0230-11-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 19
  25. 25. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 11 Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 06E0230 Figure 2: Record of Monuments and Places map sheet 19 for County Kilkenny.http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/06e0230-11-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 20
  26. 26. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 11 Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 06E0230 Figure 3: Urban Archaeological Survey map 4d of Kilkenny showing site location.http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/06e0230-11-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 21
  27. 27. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 11 Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 06E0230 Figure 4: Urban Place Map showing site location.http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/06e0230-11-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 22
  28. 28. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 11 Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 06E0230 Figure 5: Rocque’s Survey of the city of Kilkenny 1758 showing site location.http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/06e0230-11-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 23
  29. 29. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 11 Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 06E0230 Figure 6: Ordnance Survey five-foot plan of Kilkenny 1872 showing site location.http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/06e0230-11-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 24
  30. 30. N Plinth Limits of excavation S Q M 5N 5N 5N 5N C.53 5E 15E N 0E C.43 10E ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 V O U X C.68 C.85 C.4 7N, Cess Pit C.30 0E C.77 C.66 C.33 C.72 C.76 C.98 C.92 G C.27 C.32 C.96 L I C.99 C.92 C.65 C.30 C.40 C.83 C.56 C.10 C.81 5N, C.92 0E Test Trench 3 C.92 C.84 C.82 C.75 C.25 Fhttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/06e0230-11-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ Limits of excavation C.80 C.22 P C.74 C.79 C.100 T N SONDAGE 2 K SONDAGE 4 SONDAGE 3 J 0N 0N 0N R H 5E 10E 15E D 0N SONDAGE 1 B 0E C.16 C.37 C.38 C.91 C.24 C.41 Limits of excavation Well C C.16 A Baulk E 0N, 0W 0m 4m 11 Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny Figure 7: 11 Patrick Street showing the area of the excavation. 06E023025
  31. 31. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 11 Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 06E0230 N C.4 7N, Cess Pit C.30 0E C.33 C.92 C.27 C.32 C.96 C.92 C.30 C.10 5N, C.92 0E Test Trench 3 C.92 C.25 F Limits of excavation C.22 D B C.16 C.37 C.38 C.24 Well C C.16 A Baulk E 0N, 0m 2m 0W Figure 8: Post-excavation plan of the west end of the site.http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/06e0230-11-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 26

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