Veronica Diaz, PhD Associate Director EDUCAUSE Learning Initiative, EDUCAUSE ::: League for Innovation Innovations Conference, San Diego, CA The blended learning research: What we now know about high quality faculty development and course design.
Research and Best Practice Faculty development Course design Faculty development and course design: 30,000 foot view
A few questions… I teach in the blended mode I have designed a blended course I manage or lead blended course initiatives I have developed a blended faculty development program I am involved in blended course peer review I oversee the design or redesign of blended courses I conduct research on blended courses
Supporting the Faculty in the blended mode Faculty Development
New Skills and Course Design Facilitating online discussions and small group activities Developing new forms of student assessment Scheduling and communication challenges as courses meet online and face-to-face Work overload for faculty and students New technologies Students need to understand their active role in the learning environment
COMPETENCIES AND SKILLS REQUIRED FOR BLENDED TEACHING PI: Lawrence C. Ragan Co-PIs: Paula Bigatel, Janet May, Shannon Kennan Statistics Consultant: Brian Redmond Penn State University
Goal: Support the Development of Blended Instructors What are the skills and competencies necessary for blended teaching success? At what point in the instructor's career should these competencies be developed?
Phase I Process and Results Used survey to rate skills as “Not Very Important” to “Very Important” 200+ individuals completed survey Half had “5+ years of online teaching experience” Interesting note: No significant difference between respondents according to years of teaching experience 2:1 Females: male Cross discipline domains represented
How would you rank these? Multimedia Technology Administration/Leadership Active Learning Classroom Decorum Policy Enforcement Technological Competence Responsiveness
Competencies by Mean Active Learning Administration/Leadership Responsiveness Multimedia Technology Classroom Decorum Technological Competence Policy Enforcement
Competency 1: Active Learning The instructor encourages students to interact with each other by assigning team tasks and projects, where appropriate. The instructor includes group/team assignments where appropriate. The instructor encourages students to share their knowledge and expertise with the learning community. The instructor encourages students to participate in discussion forums, where appropriate. The instructor provides opportunities for hands-on practice so that students can apply learned knowledge to the real-world. The instructor provides additional resources that encourage students to go deeper into the content of the course. The instructor encourages student-generated content as appropriate. The instructor facilitates learning activities that help students construct explanations/solutions. The instructor uses peer assessment in his/her assessment of student work, where appropriate. The instructor shows respect to students in his/her communications with them.
Competency 2: Administration/Leadership The instructor makes grading visible for student tracking purposes. The instructor clearly communicates expected student behaviors. The instructor is proficient in the chosen course management system (CMS). The instructor adheres to the university's policies regarding the Federal Educational Rights & Privacy Act (FERPA). The instructor integrates the use of technology that is meaningful and relevant to students.
Competency 3: Active Teaching The instructor provides prompt, helpful feedback on assignments and exams that enhances learning. The instructor provides clear, detailed feedback on assignments and exams that enhances the learning experience. The instructor shows caring and concern that students are learning the course content. The instructor helps keep the course participants on task. The instructor uses appropriate strategies to manage the online workload.
Competency 4: Multimedia Technology The instructor uses a variety of multimedia technologies to achieve course objectives. The instructor uses multimedia technologies that are appropriate for the learning activities.
Competency 5: Classroom Decorum The instructor helps students resolve conflicts that arise in collaborative teamwork. The instructor resolves conflicts when they arise in teamwork/group assignments. The instructor can effectively manage the course communications by providing a good model of expected behavior for all course communication. The instructor identifies areas of potential conflict within the course.
Competency 6: Technological Competence The instructor is proficient with the technologies used in the online classroom. The instructor is confident with the technology used in the course.
Competency 7: Policy Enforcement The instructor monitors students' adherence to policies on plagiarism. The instructor monitors students' adherence to Academic Integrity policies and procedures.
Task Importance Rankings: Top 10 The instructor shows respect to students in his/her communications with them. The instructor provides students with clear grading criteria. The instructor clearly communicates course goals. The instructor clearly communicates course content. The instructor shows enthusiasm when interacting with students. The instructor provides clear, detailed feedback on assignments and exams that enhances the learning experience.
Task Importance Rankings: Top 10 The instructor communicates with students about course changes, reminders of due assignments, relevant additional resources through announcements/emails. The instructor can effectively manage the course communications by providing a good model of expected behavior for all course communication. The instructor provides prompt, helpful feedback on assignments and exams that enhances learning. The instructor clearly communicates expected student behaviors.
UWM: Course Redesign Program Alan Aycock, Ph.D. Learning Technology Center University of Wisconsin – Milwaukee http://bit.ly/axxAX2 (blended learning site) http://bit.ly/bmLkvr (blended learning presentations )
Faculty Development Model Best way to learn how to teach a blended course is to take one UW-Milwaukee’s faculty development program 2 f2f half-day sessions, 2 weeks apart During the interval, complete online assignments and participant interaction Goal: to acquire new teaching skills; get questions answered; produce actual course materials
Topics and Issues Covered Course Redesign Course Content
Online Assignments Between Face-to-face Sessions Assignments build on Day One F2F In each case, samples and detailed instructions available online Participants post to discussion forum, respond to at least one other participant Assignments of progressive difficulty – learning module, assessment plan, draft syllabus Close the loop by bringing hardcopy syllabus to Day Two F2F for peer review breakout
Blended LearningFaculty Development Maricopa Community Colleges
About the Program About Centrally-offered 2 formats: 12 hours total 4 hours, one day a week for 3 weeks Weekend, two 6-hour days Project Partially redesigned course Faculty Professional Growth Cross disciplinary Lab setting Format Short presentations Hands-on learning technology activities Readings and research assignments Small group discussions with participants in sessions Out-of-class application assignments Assessment at end
UMBC: Faculty Supporting Faculty “10 minutes of fame” 1 minute posing pedagogical problem 1 minute showing how deliverable solved problem 1 minute discussing student/peer feedback 2 minutes describing next steps 5 minutes for Q & A Presentations are open to entire campus; encourage administrators, alumni to attend
Guiding Principles For Faculty Development Provide the “student experience” Provide “safe” environment Address “potential failure” of system Set realistic expectations Survive before thrive Create a learning community Model best behaviors Connect F2F
Table Talk: Your Top 5 in 5 What were they? ….. How do they address your blended teaching and learning challenges and/or help promote success?
Supporting the Faculty in blended course design Course Design
Redesign Work Defining the blend (as an institution and as an instructor) Rethinking how to use class time Rethinking how to facilitate online interaction and engagement Learning more about technology Budgeting time and starting redesign Create, practice, experiment, refine
Blended Learning: 2 Keys to Success . . . organicintegration of thoughtfully selected and complementary face-to-face and online approaches and technologies. . . . an opportunity to fundamentally redesign how we approach teaching and learning in ways that higher education institutions may benefit from increased effectiveness, convenience and efficiency. Garrison & Vaughan, 2008
Community of Inquiry Framework Cognitive Presence The extent to which learners are able to construct and confirm meaning through sustained reflection and discourse in a critical community of inquiry. Social Presence The ability of participants to identify with the community (e.g., course of study), communicate purposefully in a trusting environment, and develop inter-personal relationships by way of projecting their individual personalities. Teaching Presence The design, facilitation and direction of cognitive and social processes for the purpose of realizing personally meaningful and educationally worthwhile learning outcomes.
7 Principles of Successful Blended Learning Design for open communication & trust Design for critical reflection & discourse Create and sustain sense of community Support purposeful inquiry Ensure that inquiry moves to resolution Ensure students sustain collaboration Ensure assessment is congruent with intended learning outcomes http://educause.adobeconnect.com/p56665953/
Course Design – Social Presence Principle: Plan to establish a climate that will encourage open communication and trust. Supports purposeful collaboration and a questioning predisposition. Strategy use small groups Technique to discuss and negotiate expectations
Facilitation – Cognitive Presence Principle: Encourage and support the progression of inquiry. Essential to keep discourse on track and ensure that inquiry evolves. Strategy focus discussion; model discourse; facilitate critical discourse; move to resolution Technique use group projects
Blended LearningCourse Design Maricopa Community Colleges
Redesign Process Overview New course or existing course (online or face-to-face) Break the course down into discrete, specific learning objectives Ask: which objectives are best met online? Ask: which objectives are best met face-to-face? Strategies: how will you integrate the online portion with the face-to-face portion? Strategies: what is the relationship between the face-to-face and the online component (reinforce, new, application)? Strategies: how will you make students accountable for the online portion?
Redesign Tools Mapping the course Organizing the course Objectives Modules Schedule Lessons Readings Topics Use as many samples of blended courses as possible (syllabi, course sites)
STARTING POINT Instructional Tech graduate program Established, face to face history 130 students, 3 FT faculty, 5-10 PT faculty Regional campus (workers and commuters—2+ hours) Seminar courses Instructional Technology topics (learning, design, integration, media, etc.) Technology users
HyFlex Course Principles/Values Learner Choice: Provide meaningful alternative participation modes and enable students to choose between participation modes weekly (or topically). Equivalency: Provide equivalent learning activities in all participation modes. Reusability: Utilize artifacts from learning activities in each participation mode as “learning objects’ for all students. Accessibility: Equip students with technology skills and access to all participation modes.
Two Course Types Type A: Small to moderate interactive classes Content presentation and class discussion Ex: Graduate seminars Type B: Large lecture classes Minimal in-class interaction among students and faculty Ex: Undergraduate required courses
Type A: Student Experience Attend Class in person? Class Topic, Goals, Other Factors LMS Online Agenda In-class Agenda Shared Resources Online Activity (discussion) In-class Activity (discussion) Independent Activity (information) Demonstrate Class Outcomes
Type B: Lecture Capture Lecture capture technology is capable of packaging and distributing lectures in different formats (Rich media echo, Podcast (MP3), Enhanced Podcast, Video).
Results (brief) 80% say they learned as much as expected or more 80% prefer blended classes; 60% prefer to choose their own blend (HyFlex) Some like working online, most like in-class; (almost) all like flexibility
HyFlex Fit What value would it add? (student-control, increased online offerings, resolve scheduling conflicts, increased course enrollment) What support/cost would it require? (training, staff, technology, admin structure, faculty/student acceptance)
How To Get Started Choose one course to start your re-design (or start from scratch): Can the content be taught in both modes? Can students learn in both modes? Can the faculty teach in both modes? Do administrative structures support both?
Table Talk: Your Top 5 in 5 What were they? ….. How do they address your blended teaching and learning challenges and/or help promote success?
Faculty Development and Course Design 30,000 foot view
Success is highly correlated with Institution’s ability to support the blended instructional model and A high quality, well-implemented (and supported) faculty development program
Quality Assurance & Alignment 5 of the 8 general standards must align: Course Overview and Introduction Learning Objectives Assessment and Measurement Resources and Materials Learner Interaction Course Technology Learner Support ADA Compliance http://www.qualitymatters.org Alignment of Key Components
Essential Standards that Relate to Alignment Activities/resources correspond to objectives Learning activities foster interaction: instructor-student content-student student-student (if appropriate) Clear standards are set for instructor response and availability Measurement against objectives
Other Essential Standards Assessment strategies should provide feedback to the student Grading policy should be transparent and easy for the student to understand Implemented tools & media should support learning objectives and integrate with texts and lesson assignments The course acknowledges the importance of ADA compliance
Quality Assurance Uses Internal review processes Guidelines for online course development Checklist for improvement of existing online courses Faculty development/training programs Local effectiveness research An element in professional and other accreditation processes
Quality assurance resources CSU Chico, Rubric for Online Instruction: http://www.csuchico.edu/celt/roi/index.shtml Illinois Online Network http://www.ion.uillinois.edu/initiatives/qoci/rubric.asp University of Southern Mississippi Learning Enhancement Center http://www.usm.edu/lec/docs/LEC_Online_course_rev2.pdf Houston Community College http://online-course-design.pbworks.com/f/Online_Course_Rubric08.pdf Craven Community College http://tinyurl.com/cravencc Note: May need to cut and paste some links into browser.
Institutionalizing Faculty Development: Significant Benefits Creates experiential learning for faculty participants Enables cross-discipline sharing of teaching techniques and learning communities among faculty Creates lifelong learners among the faculty Creates scholarship around teaching and learning Allows peer evaluation of successes and failures Source: UCF's Support for Teaching and Learning Online
Program Options Mandatory vs. required Application to teach blended courses Release time Reassigned time Faculty mentors Course development model One at a time Best of breed Central training Departmental training 2-step process (design and teach) Experiential Tiered approach over a few years Overview Summer institute
Possible Program Components What is blended learning Faculty readiness Learning objectives Module development Course redesign strategies Assessment techniques Rubrics Learning technologies Student readiness Student success Student crisis points Student teams and other collaborations Academic integrity online Copyright issues Building community Online discussions
Institutional Readiness for Blended Delivery Good fit with the character and mission of the institution Good fit with learner characteristics of the institution Good fit with support services available Demonstrated level of faculty interest Robust campus infrastructure Ubiquitous, universal access to computing Redundant, reliable network services Well-equipped campus labs or students equipped with technology Coordinated technical support Source: UCF's Support for Teaching and Learning Online
Institutional Readiness for Blended Delivery Distance or distributed learning leadership Reconciling/understanding faculty and institutional motivation for blended programming Articulated vision and shared vision from top administration Campus-wide coordination Planned growth (high demand areas) Commitment to faculty support Incentives and rewards Systematic faculty development Research design and analysis support Tenure and promotion reconsideration
Institutional Perspective: Evaluation Student Access – Enrollment Growth, Attrition, Graduation Rates Learning Effectiveness - Student Outcomes (however defined) Faculty Satisfaction – Perception of their Teaching Student Satisfaction – Perceptions of their Learning Cost/Benefits
Institutional Readiness for Blended Delivery Commitment to course and program support Design for scale Quality standards development Multimedia production support Research and development Copyright support Commitment to assessment Ensuring quality of programs Commitment to learner support 7 x 24 help desk support Communication and marketing Flexible tutoring and advising Orientation Adequate software Web-based campus services
Research Take-Aways Technology ownership Motivation for enrolling Success indicators/predictors Robust student support Sound information internally and externally Faculty workload and satisfaction issues Explore secondary teaching and learning benefits Peer mentoring of faculty members Sources: http://dl.ucf.edu/research/rite/dl-impact-evaluation/ and ECAR 2010 Student Study http://www.educause.edu/Resources/ECARStudyofUndergraduateStuden/217333
Online Spring Focus Session April 13–14, 2011 http://net.educause.edu/eli113 ………. Read about the initiative: Seek Evidence of Impact ………. Take the SEI Survey: http://www.surveymonkey.com/seisurvey ……….
Contact Information Veronica M. Diaz, PhD Associate Director EDUCAUSE Learning Initiative firstname.lastname@example.org Copyright Veronica Diaz, 2011. This work is the intellectual property of the author. Permission is granted for this material to be shared for non-commercial, educational purposes, provided that this copyright statement appears on the reproduced materials and notice is given that the copying is by permission of the author. To disseminate otherwise or to republish requires written permission from the author.