The blended learning research: What we now know about high quality faculty development and course design.
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The blended learning research: What we now know about high quality faculty development and course design.






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    The blended learning research: What we now know about high quality faculty development and course design. The blended learning research: What we now know about high quality faculty development and course design. Presentation Transcript

    • Veronica Diaz, PhD
      Associate Director
      EDUCAUSE Learning Initiative, EDUCAUSE
      League for Innovation
      Innovations Conference, San Diego, CA
      The blended learning research: What we now know about high quality faculty development and course design.
    • Download Me
    • Research and Best Practice
      Faculty development
      Course design
      Faculty development and course design: 30,000 foot view
    • A few questions…
      I teach in the blended mode
      I have designed a blended course
      I manage or lead blended course initiatives
      I have developed a blended faculty development program
      I am involved in blended course peer review
      I oversee the design or redesign of blended courses
      I conduct research on blended courses
    • Supporting the Faculty in the blended mode
      Faculty Development
    • New Skills and Course Design
      Facilitating online discussions and small group activities
      Developing new forms of student assessment
      Scheduling and communication challenges as courses meet online and face-to-face
      Work overload for faculty and students
      New technologies
      Students need to understand their active role in the learning environment
      PI: Lawrence C. Ragan
      Co-PIs: Paula Bigatel, Janet May, Shannon Kennan
      Statistics Consultant: Brian Redmond
      Penn State University
    • Goal: Support the Development of Blended Instructors
      What are the skills and competencies necessary for blended teaching success?
      At what point in the instructor's career should these competencies be developed?
    • Phase I Process and Results
      Used survey to rate skills as “Not Very Important” to “Very Important”
      200+ individuals completed survey
      Half had “5+ years of online teaching experience”
      Interesting note: No significant difference between respondents according to years of teaching experience
      2:1 Females: male
      Cross discipline domains represented
    • Competency
      Multimedia Technology
      Active Learning
      Classroom Decorum
      Policy Enforcement
      Technological Competence
    • How would you rank these?
      Multimedia Technology
      Active Learning
      Classroom Decorum
      Policy Enforcement
      Technological Competence
    • Competencies by Mean
      Active Learning
      Multimedia Technology
      Classroom Decorum
      Technological Competence
      Policy Enforcement
    • Competency 1: Active Learning
      The instructor encourages students to interact with each other by assigning team tasks and projects, where appropriate.
      The instructor includes group/team assignments where appropriate.
      The instructor encourages students to share their knowledge and expertise with the learning community.
      The instructor encourages students to participate in discussion forums, where appropriate.
      The instructor provides opportunities for hands-on practice so that students can apply learned knowledge to the real-world.
      The instructor provides additional resources that encourage students to go deeper into the content of the course.
      The instructor encourages student-generated content as appropriate.
      The instructor facilitates learning activities that help students construct explanations/solutions.
      The instructor uses peer assessment in his/her assessment of student work, where appropriate.
      The instructor shows respect to students in his/her communications with them.
    • Competency 2: Administration/Leadership
      The instructor makes grading visible for student tracking purposes.
      The instructor clearly communicates expected student behaviors.
      The instructor is proficient in the chosen course management system (CMS).
      The instructor adheres to the university's policies regarding the Federal Educational Rights & Privacy Act (FERPA).
      The instructor integrates the use of technology that is meaningful and relevant to students.
    • Competency 3: Active Teaching
      The instructor provides prompt, helpful feedback on assignments and exams that enhances learning.
      The instructor provides clear, detailed feedback on assignments and exams that enhances the learning experience.
      The instructor shows caring and concern that students are learning the course content.
      The instructor helps keep the course participants on task.
      The instructor uses appropriate strategies to manage the online workload.
    • Competency 4: Multimedia Technology
      The instructor uses a variety of multimedia technologies to achieve course objectives.
      The instructor uses multimedia technologies that are appropriate for the learning activities.
    • Competency 5: Classroom Decorum
      The instructor helps students resolve conflicts that arise in collaborative teamwork.
      The instructor resolves conflicts when they arise in teamwork/group assignments.
      The instructor can effectively manage the course communications by providing a good model of expected behavior for all course communication.  
      The instructor identifies areas of potential conflict within the course.
    • Competency 6: Technological Competence
      The instructor is proficient with the technologies used in the online classroom.
      The instructor is confident with the technology used in the course.
    • Competency 7: Policy Enforcement
      The instructor monitors students' adherence to policies on plagiarism.
      The instructor monitors students' adherence to Academic Integrity policies and procedures.
    • Task Importance Rankings: Top 10
      The instructor shows respect to students in his/her communications with them.
      The instructor provides students with clear grading criteria.
      The instructor clearly communicates course goals.
      The instructor clearly communicates course content.
      The instructor shows enthusiasm when interacting with students.
      The instructor provides clear, detailed feedback on assignments and exams that enhances the learning experience.
    • Task Importance Rankings: Top 10
      The instructor communicates with students about course changes, reminders of due assignments, relevant additional resources through announcements/emails.
      The instructor can effectively manage the course communications by providing a good model of expected behavior for all course communication.
      The instructor provides prompt, helpful feedback on assignments and exams that enhances learning.
      The instructor clearly communicates expected student behaviors.
    • UWM: Course Redesign Program
      Alan Aycock, Ph.D.
      Learning Technology Center
      University of Wisconsin – Milwaukee (blended learning site) (blended learning presentations )
    • Faculty Development Model
      Best way to learn how to teach a blended course is to take one
      UW-Milwaukee’s faculty development program
      2 f2f half-day sessions, 2 weeks apart
      During the interval, complete online assignments and participant interaction
      Goal: to acquire new teaching skills; get questions answered; produce actual course materials
    • Topics and Issues Covered
      Course Redesign
      Course Content
      • Ten questions
      • Online vs. F2F - Integration
      • Designing learning modules
      • Decision rubric for content choices
      • Learning objects
      Course Evaluation
      Online Learning Community
      • Progressive/summative
      • Before, during, and after
      • Self evaluation
      • Peer evaluation
      • Student evaluation
      Transitioning to Blended Teaching
      • Synchronous/asynchronous
      • Establishing voice
      • Discussion forums
      • Small groups
      Course Management
      Assessment Plan
      Helping Your Students
      • Staying organized
      • Managing workload
      • Avoiding course and a half
      • Rubrics
      • CATs
      • Templates
      • Traditional formats
      • Managing expectations
      • Time management
      • Technology support
    • Online Assignments Between Face-to-face Sessions
      Assignments build on Day One F2F
      In each case, samples and detailed instructions available online
      Participants post to discussion forum, respond to at least one other participant
      Assignments of progressive difficulty – learning module, assessment plan, draft syllabus
      Close the loop by bringing hardcopy syllabus to Day Two F2F for peer review breakout
    • Blended LearningFaculty Development
      Maricopa Community Colleges
    • About the Program
      2 formats: 12 hours total
      4 hours, one day a week for 3 weeks
      Weekend, two 6-hour days
      Partially redesigned course
      Faculty Professional Growth
      Cross disciplinary
      Lab setting
      Short presentations
      Hands-on learning technology activities
      Readings and research assignments
      Small group discussions with participants in sessions
      Out-of-class application assignments
      Assessment at end
    • UMBC: Faculty Supporting Faculty
      “10 minutes of fame”
      1 minute posing pedagogical problem
      1 minute showing how deliverable solved problem
      1 minute discussing student/peer feedback
      2 minutes describing next steps
      5 minutes for Q & A
      Presentations are open to entire campus; encourage administrators, alumni to attend
    • Guiding Principles For Faculty Development
      Provide the “student experience”
      Provide “safe” environment
      Address “potential failure” of system
      Set realistic expectations
      Survive before thrive
      Create a learning community
      Model best behaviors
      Connect F2F
    • Table Talk: Your Top 5 in 5
      What were they?
      How do they address your blended teaching and learning challenges and/or help promote success?
    • Supporting the Faculty in blended course design
      Course Design
    • Redesign Work
      Defining the blend (as an institution and as an instructor)
      Rethinking how to use class time
      Rethinking how to facilitate online interaction and engagement
      Learning more about technology
      Budgeting time and starting redesign
      Create, practice, experiment, refine
    • Blended Learning: 2 Keys to Success
      . . . organicintegration of thoughtfully selected and complementary face-to-face and online approaches and technologies.
      . . . an opportunity to fundamentally redesign how we approach teaching and learning in ways that higher education institutions may benefit from increased effectiveness, convenience and efficiency.
      Garrison & Vaughan, 2008
    • Community of Inquiry Framework
      Cognitive Presence
      The extent to which
      learners are able to
      construct and confirm
      meaning through
      sustained reflection
      and discourse in a
      critical community
      of inquiry.
      Social Presence
      The ability of participants
      to identify with the
      community (e.g., course
      of study), communicate
      purposefully in a trusting
      environment, and
      develop inter-personal
      relationships by way of
      projecting their
      individual personalities.
      Teaching Presence
      The design, facilitation and direction of cognitive and social processes for the purpose of realizing personally meaningful and educationally worthwhile learning outcomes.
    • 7 Principles of Successful Blended Learning
      Design for open communication & trust
      Design for critical reflection & discourse
      Create and sustain sense of community
      Support purposeful inquiry
      Ensure that inquiry moves to resolution
      Ensure students sustain collaboration
      Ensure assessment is congruent with intended learning outcomes
    • Course Design – Social Presence
      Principle: Plan to establish a climate that will encourage open communication and trust.
      Supports purposeful collaboration and a questioning predisposition.
      use small groups
      to discuss and negotiate expectations
    • Facilitation – Cognitive Presence
      Principle: Encourage and support the progression of inquiry.
      Essential to keep discourse on track and ensure that inquiry evolves.
      focus discussion; model discourse; facilitate critical discourse; move to resolution
      use group projects
    • Blended LearningCourse Design
      Maricopa Community Colleges
    • Redesign Process Overview
      New course or existing course (online or face-to-face)
      Break the course down into discrete, specific learning objectives
      Ask: which objectives are best met online?
      Ask: which objectives are best met face-to-face?
      Strategies: how will you integrate the online portion with the face-to-face portion?
      Strategies: what is the relationship between the face-to-face and the online component (reinforce, new, application)?
      Strategies: how will you make students accountable for the online portion?
    • Redesign Tools
      Mapping the course
      Organizing the course
      Use as many samples of blended courses as possible (syllabi, course sites)
    • Modules (example)
    • The HyFlex Course Model
      Brian Beatty, San Francisco State University
      HyFlex Blog:
      HyFlex Papers and Presentations:
    • Hybrid + Flexible = HyFlex
      Instructional Tech graduate program
      Established, face to face history
      130 students, 3 FT faculty, 5-10 PT faculty
      Regional campus (workers and commuters—2+ hours)
      Seminar courses
      Instructional Technology topics (learning, design, integration, media, etc.)
      Technology users
    • HyFlex Course Principles/Values
      Learner Choice: Provide meaningful alternative participation modes and enable students to choose between participation modes weekly (or topically).
      Equivalency: Provide equivalent learning activities in all participation modes.
      Reusability: Utilize artifacts from learning activities in each participation mode as “learning objects’ for all students.
      Accessibility: Equip students with technology skills and access to all participation modes.
    • Two Course Types
      Type A: Small to moderate interactive classes
      Content presentation and class discussion
      Ex: Graduate seminars
      Type B: Large lecture classes
      Minimal in-class interaction among students and faculty
      Ex: Undergraduate required courses
    • Type A: Student Experience
      Attend Class in person?
      Class Topic, Goals, Other Factors
      Online Agenda
      In-class Agenda
      Shared Resources
      Online Activity (discussion)
      In-class Activity (discussion)
      Independent Activity (information)
      Demonstrate Class Outcomes
    • Weekly Topic Area For Content
    • Discussions
      Onground Participants
      Online Participants
      Weekly Reflection
      Live In-class
      Interactive Discussion
      Topical Discussion
    • Type B: Lecture Capture
      Lecture capture technology is capable of packaging and distributing lectures in different formats (Rich media echo, Podcast (MP3), Enhanced Podcast, Video).
    • Results (brief)
      80% say they learned as much as expected or more
      80% prefer blended classes; 60% prefer to choose their own blend (HyFlex)
      Some like working online, most like in-class; (almost) all like flexibility
    • HyFlex Fit
      What value would it add? (student-control, increased online offerings, resolve scheduling conflicts, increased course enrollment)
      What support/cost would it require? (training, staff, technology, admin structure, faculty/student acceptance)
    • How To Get Started
      Choose one course to start your re-design (or start from scratch):
      Can the content be taught in both modes?
      Can students learn in both modes?
      Can the faculty teach in both modes?
      Do administrative structures support both?
    • Table Talk: Your Top 5 in 5
      What were they?
      How do they address your blended teaching and learning challenges and/or help promote success?
    • Faculty Development and Course Design
      30,000 foot view
    • Success is highly correlated with
      Institution’s ability to support the blended instructional model and
      A high quality, well-implemented (and supported) faculty development program
    • Quality Assurance and Course Peer Review
    • Quality Assurance & Alignment
      5 of the 8 general standards must align:
      Course Overview and Introduction
      Learning Objectives
      Assessment and Measurement
      Resources and Materials
      Learner Interaction
      Course Technology
      Learner Support
      ADA Compliance
      Alignment of Key Components
    • Essential Standards that Relate to Alignment
      Activities/resources correspond to objectives
      Learning activities foster interaction:
      student-student (if appropriate)
      Clear standards are set for instructor response and availability
      Measurement against objectives
    • Other Essential Standards
      Assessment strategies should provide feedback to the student
      Grading policy should be transparent and easy for the student to understand
      Implemented tools & media should support learning objectives and integrate with texts and lesson assignments
      The course acknowledges the importance of ADA compliance
    • Quality Assurance Uses
      Internal review processes
      Guidelines for online course development
      Checklist for improvement of existing online courses
      Faculty development/training programs
      Local effectiveness research
      An element in professional and other accreditation processes
    • Quality assurance resources
      CSU Chico, Rubric for Online Instruction:
      Illinois Online Network
      University of Southern Mississippi Learning Enhancement Center
      Houston Community College
      Craven Community College
      Note: May need to cut and paste some links into browser.
    • Institutional Readiness and Blended Learning
    • Institutionalizing Faculty Development: Significant Benefits
      Creates experiential learning for faculty participants
      Enables cross-discipline sharing of teaching techniques and learning communities among faculty
      Creates lifelong learners among the faculty
      Creates scholarship around teaching and learning
      Allows peer evaluation of successes and failures
      Source: UCF's Support for Teaching and Learning Online
    • Program Options
      Mandatory vs. required
      Application to teach blended courses
      Release time
      Reassigned time
      Faculty mentors
      Course development model
      One at a time
      Best of breed
      Central training
      Departmental training
      2-step process (design and teach)
      Tiered approach over a few years
      Summer institute
    • Possible Program Components
      What is blended learning
      Faculty readiness
      Learning objectives
      Module development
      Course redesign strategies
      Assessment techniques
      Learning technologies
      Student readiness
      Student success
      Student crisis points
      Student teams and other collaborations
      Academic integrity online
      Copyright issues
      Building community
      Online discussions
    • Institutional Readiness for Blended Delivery
      Good fit with the character and mission of the institution
      Good fit with learner characteristics of the institution
      Good fit with support services available
      Demonstrated level of faculty interest
      Robust campus infrastructure
      Ubiquitous, universal access to computing
      Redundant, reliable network services
      Well-equipped campus labs or students equipped with technology
      Coordinated technical support
      Source: UCF's Support for Teaching and Learning Online
    • Institutional Readiness for Blended Delivery
      Distance or distributed learning leadership
      Reconciling/understanding faculty and institutional motivation for blended programming
      Articulated vision and shared vision from top administration
      Campus-wide coordination
      Planned growth (high demand areas)
      Commitment to faculty support
      Incentives and rewards
      Systematic faculty development
      Research design and analysis support
      Tenure and promotion reconsideration
    • Institutional Perspective: Evaluation
      Student Access – Enrollment Growth, Attrition, Graduation Rates
      Learning Effectiveness - Student Outcomes (however defined)
      Faculty Satisfaction – Perception of their Teaching
      Student Satisfaction – Perceptions of their Learning
    • Institutional Readiness for Blended Delivery
      Commitment to course and program support
      Design for scale
      Quality standards development
      Multimedia production support
      Research and development
      Copyright support
      Commitment to assessment
      Ensuring quality of programs
      Commitment to learner support
      7 x 24 help desk support
      Communication and marketing
      Flexible tutoring and advising
      Adequate software
      Web-based campus services
    • Research Take-Aways
      Technology ownership
      Motivation for enrolling
      Success indicators/predictors
      Robust student support
      Sound information internally and externally
      Faculty workload and satisfaction issues
      Explore secondary teaching and learning benefits
      Peer mentoring of faculty members
      Sources: and
      ECAR 2010 Student Study
    • Resources
      Sloan online and blended learning survey reports:
      Campus Computing Project:
      ELI Blended Learning Workshop Guide:
      ELI Blended Learning Focus Session Resource List:
      ELI Blended Learning Focus Session Recordings:
      Maricopa Blended Learning Site:
      UCF Research:
    • Online Spring Focus Session
      April 13–14, 2011
      Read about the initiative:
      Seek Evidence of Impact
      Take the SEI Survey:
    • Contact Information
      Veronica M. Diaz, PhD
      Associate Director
      EDUCAUSE Learning Initiative
      Copyright Veronica Diaz, 2011. This work is the intellectual property of the author. Permission is granted for this material to be shared for non-commercial, educational purposes, provided that this copyright statement appears on the reproduced materials and notice is given that the copying is by permission of the author. To disseminate otherwise or to republish requires written permission from the author.