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The blended learning research: What we now know about high quality faculty development and course design.


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  • 1. Veronica Diaz, PhD
    Associate Director
    EDUCAUSE Learning Initiative, EDUCAUSE
    League for Innovation
    Innovations Conference, San Diego, CA
    The blended learning research: What we now know about high quality faculty development and course design.
  • 2. Download Me
  • 3.
  • 4. Research and Best Practice
    Faculty development
    Course design
    Faculty development and course design: 30,000 foot view
  • 5. A few questions…
    I teach in the blended mode
    I have designed a blended course
    I manage or lead blended course initiatives
    I have developed a blended faculty development program
    I am involved in blended course peer review
    I oversee the design or redesign of blended courses
    I conduct research on blended courses
  • 6. Supporting the Faculty in the blended mode
    Faculty Development
  • 7. New Skills and Course Design
    Facilitating online discussions and small group activities
    Developing new forms of student assessment
    Scheduling and communication challenges as courses meet online and face-to-face
    Work overload for faculty and students
    New technologies
    Students need to understand their active role in the learning environment
    PI: Lawrence C. Ragan
    Co-PIs: Paula Bigatel, Janet May, Shannon Kennan
    Statistics Consultant: Brian Redmond
    Penn State University
  • 9. Goal: Support the Development of Blended Instructors
    What are the skills and competencies necessary for blended teaching success?
    At what point in the instructor's career should these competencies be developed?
  • 10. Phase I Process and Results
    Used survey to rate skills as “Not Very Important” to “Very Important”
    200+ individuals completed survey
    Half had “5+ years of online teaching experience”
    Interesting note: No significant difference between respondents according to years of teaching experience
    2:1 Females: male
    Cross discipline domains represented
  • 11. Competency
    Multimedia Technology
    Active Learning
    Classroom Decorum
    Policy Enforcement
    Technological Competence
  • 12. How would you rank these?
    Multimedia Technology
    Active Learning
    Classroom Decorum
    Policy Enforcement
    Technological Competence
  • 13. Competencies by Mean
    Active Learning
    Multimedia Technology
    Classroom Decorum
    Technological Competence
    Policy Enforcement
  • 14. Competency 1: Active Learning
    The instructor encourages students to interact with each other by assigning team tasks and projects, where appropriate.
    The instructor includes group/team assignments where appropriate.
    The instructor encourages students to share their knowledge and expertise with the learning community.
    The instructor encourages students to participate in discussion forums, where appropriate.
    The instructor provides opportunities for hands-on practice so that students can apply learned knowledge to the real-world.
    The instructor provides additional resources that encourage students to go deeper into the content of the course.
    The instructor encourages student-generated content as appropriate.
    The instructor facilitates learning activities that help students construct explanations/solutions.
    The instructor uses peer assessment in his/her assessment of student work, where appropriate.
    The instructor shows respect to students in his/her communications with them.
  • 15. Competency 2: Administration/Leadership
    The instructor makes grading visible for student tracking purposes.
    The instructor clearly communicates expected student behaviors.
    The instructor is proficient in the chosen course management system (CMS).
    The instructor adheres to the university's policies regarding the Federal Educational Rights & Privacy Act (FERPA).
    The instructor integrates the use of technology that is meaningful and relevant to students.
  • 16. Competency 3: Active Teaching
    The instructor provides prompt, helpful feedback on assignments and exams that enhances learning.
    The instructor provides clear, detailed feedback on assignments and exams that enhances the learning experience.
    The instructor shows caring and concern that students are learning the course content.
    The instructor helps keep the course participants on task.
    The instructor uses appropriate strategies to manage the online workload.
  • 17. Competency 4: Multimedia Technology
    The instructor uses a variety of multimedia technologies to achieve course objectives.
    The instructor uses multimedia technologies that are appropriate for the learning activities.
  • 18. Competency 5: Classroom Decorum
    The instructor helps students resolve conflicts that arise in collaborative teamwork.
    The instructor resolves conflicts when they arise in teamwork/group assignments.
    The instructor can effectively manage the course communications by providing a good model of expected behavior for all course communication.  
    The instructor identifies areas of potential conflict within the course.
  • 19. Competency 6: Technological Competence
    The instructor is proficient with the technologies used in the online classroom.
    The instructor is confident with the technology used in the course.
  • 20. Competency 7: Policy Enforcement
    The instructor monitors students' adherence to policies on plagiarism.
    The instructor monitors students' adherence to Academic Integrity policies and procedures.
  • 21. Task Importance Rankings: Top 10
    The instructor shows respect to students in his/her communications with them.
    The instructor provides students with clear grading criteria.
    The instructor clearly communicates course goals.
    The instructor clearly communicates course content.
    The instructor shows enthusiasm when interacting with students.
    The instructor provides clear, detailed feedback on assignments and exams that enhances the learning experience.
  • 22. Task Importance Rankings: Top 10
    The instructor communicates with students about course changes, reminders of due assignments, relevant additional resources through announcements/emails.
    The instructor can effectively manage the course communications by providing a good model of expected behavior for all course communication.
    The instructor provides prompt, helpful feedback on assignments and exams that enhances learning.
    The instructor clearly communicates expected student behaviors.
  • 23. UWM: Course Redesign Program
    Alan Aycock, Ph.D.
    Learning Technology Center
    University of Wisconsin – Milwaukee (blended learning site) (blended learning presentations )
  • 24. Faculty Development Model
    Best way to learn how to teach a blended course is to take one
    UW-Milwaukee’s faculty development program
    2 f2f half-day sessions, 2 weeks apart
    During the interval, complete online assignments and participant interaction
    Goal: to acquire new teaching skills; get questions answered; produce actual course materials
  • 25. Topics and Issues Covered
    Course Redesign
    Course Content
    • Ten questions
    • 26. Online vs. F2F - Integration
    • 27. Designing learning modules
    • 28. Decision rubric for content choices
    • 29. Learning objects
    Course Evaluation
    Online Learning Community
    • Progressive/summative
    • 30. Before, during, and after
    • 31. Self evaluation
    • 32. Peer evaluation
    • 33. Student evaluation
    Transitioning to Blended Teaching
    • Synchronous/asynchronous
    • 34. Establishing voice
    • 35. Discussion forums
    • 36. Small groups
    Course Management
    Assessment Plan
    Helping Your Students
  • 46. Online Assignments Between Face-to-face Sessions
    Assignments build on Day One F2F
    In each case, samples and detailed instructions available online
    Participants post to discussion forum, respond to at least one other participant
    Assignments of progressive difficulty – learning module, assessment plan, draft syllabus
    Close the loop by bringing hardcopy syllabus to Day Two F2F for peer review breakout
  • 47.
  • 48. Blended LearningFaculty Development
    Maricopa Community Colleges
  • 49. About the Program
    2 formats: 12 hours total
    4 hours, one day a week for 3 weeks
    Weekend, two 6-hour days
    Partially redesigned course
    Faculty Professional Growth
    Cross disciplinary
    Lab setting
    Short presentations
    Hands-on learning technology activities
    Readings and research assignments
    Small group discussions with participants in sessions
    Out-of-class application assignments
    Assessment at end
  • 50.
  • 51.
  • 52.
  • 53. UMBC: Faculty Supporting Faculty
    “10 minutes of fame”
    1 minute posing pedagogical problem
    1 minute showing how deliverable solved problem
    1 minute discussing student/peer feedback
    2 minutes describing next steps
    5 minutes for Q & A
    Presentations are open to entire campus; encourage administrators, alumni to attend
  • 54. Guiding Principles For Faculty Development
    Provide the “student experience”
    Provide “safe” environment
    Address “potential failure” of system
    Set realistic expectations
    Survive before thrive
    Create a learning community
    Model best behaviors
    Connect F2F
  • 55. Table Talk: Your Top 5 in 5
    What were they?
    How do they address your blended teaching and learning challenges and/or help promote success?
  • 56. Supporting the Faculty in blended course design
    Course Design
  • 57. Redesign Work
    Defining the blend (as an institution and as an instructor)
    Rethinking how to use class time
    Rethinking how to facilitate online interaction and engagement
    Learning more about technology
    Budgeting time and starting redesign
    Create, practice, experiment, refine
  • 58. Blended Learning: 2 Keys to Success
    . . . organicintegration of thoughtfully selected and complementary face-to-face and online approaches and technologies.
    . . . an opportunity to fundamentally redesign how we approach teaching and learning in ways that higher education institutions may benefit from increased effectiveness, convenience and efficiency.
    Garrison & Vaughan, 2008
  • 59. Community of Inquiry Framework
    Cognitive Presence
    The extent to which
    learners are able to
    construct and confirm
    meaning through
    sustained reflection
    and discourse in a
    critical community
    of inquiry.
    Social Presence
    The ability of participants
    to identify with the
    community (e.g., course
    of study), communicate
    purposefully in a trusting
    environment, and
    develop inter-personal
    relationships by way of
    projecting their
    individual personalities.
    Teaching Presence
    The design, facilitation and direction of cognitive and social processes for the purpose of realizing personally meaningful and educationally worthwhile learning outcomes.
  • 60. 7 Principles of Successful Blended Learning
    Design for open communication & trust
    Design for critical reflection & discourse
    Create and sustain sense of community
    Support purposeful inquiry
    Ensure that inquiry moves to resolution
    Ensure students sustain collaboration
    Ensure assessment is congruent with intended learning outcomes
  • 61. Course Design – Social Presence
    Principle: Plan to establish a climate that will encourage open communication and trust.
    Supports purposeful collaboration and a questioning predisposition.
    use small groups
    to discuss and negotiate expectations
  • 62. Facilitation – Cognitive Presence
    Principle: Encourage and support the progression of inquiry.
    Essential to keep discourse on track and ensure that inquiry evolves.
    focus discussion; model discourse; facilitate critical discourse; move to resolution
    use group projects
  • 63. Blended LearningCourse Design
    Maricopa Community Colleges
  • 64. Redesign Process Overview
    New course or existing course (online or face-to-face)
    Break the course down into discrete, specific learning objectives
    Ask: which objectives are best met online?
    Ask: which objectives are best met face-to-face?
    Strategies: how will you integrate the online portion with the face-to-face portion?
    Strategies: what is the relationship between the face-to-face and the online component (reinforce, new, application)?
    Strategies: how will you make students accountable for the online portion?
  • 65. Redesign Tools
    Mapping the course
    Organizing the course
    Use as many samples of blended courses as possible (syllabi, course sites)
  • 66. Modules (example)
  • 67.
  • 68.
  • 69.
  • 70.
  • 71.
  • 72. The HyFlex Course Model
    Brian Beatty, San Francisco State University
    HyFlex Blog:
    HyFlex Papers and Presentations:
  • 73. Hybrid + Flexible = HyFlex
    Instructional Tech graduate program
    Established, face to face history
    130 students, 3 FT faculty, 5-10 PT faculty
    Regional campus (workers and commuters—2+ hours)
    Seminar courses
    Instructional Technology topics (learning, design, integration, media, etc.)
    Technology users
  • 75. HyFlex Course Principles/Values
    Learner Choice: Provide meaningful alternative participation modes and enable students to choose between participation modes weekly (or topically).
    Equivalency: Provide equivalent learning activities in all participation modes.
    Reusability: Utilize artifacts from learning activities in each participation mode as “learning objects’ for all students.
    Accessibility: Equip students with technology skills and access to all participation modes.
  • 76. Two Course Types
    Type A: Small to moderate interactive classes
    Content presentation and class discussion
    Ex: Graduate seminars
    Type B: Large lecture classes
    Minimal in-class interaction among students and faculty
    Ex: Undergraduate required courses
  • 77. Type A: Student Experience
    Attend Class in person?
    Class Topic, Goals, Other Factors
    Online Agenda
    In-class Agenda
    Shared Resources
    Online Activity (discussion)
    In-class Activity (discussion)
    Independent Activity (information)
    Demonstrate Class Outcomes
  • 78. Weekly Topic Area For Content
  • 79. Discussions
    Onground Participants
    Online Participants
    Weekly Reflection
    Live In-class
    Interactive Discussion
    Topical Discussion
  • 80. Type B: Lecture Capture
    Lecture capture technology is capable of packaging and distributing lectures in different formats (Rich media echo, Podcast (MP3), Enhanced Podcast, Video).
  • 81. Results (brief)
    80% say they learned as much as expected or more
    80% prefer blended classes; 60% prefer to choose their own blend (HyFlex)
    Some like working online, most like in-class; (almost) all like flexibility
  • 82. HyFlex Fit
    What value would it add? (student-control, increased online offerings, resolve scheduling conflicts, increased course enrollment)
    What support/cost would it require? (training, staff, technology, admin structure, faculty/student acceptance)
  • 83. How To Get Started
    Choose one course to start your re-design (or start from scratch):
    Can the content be taught in both modes?
    Can students learn in both modes?
    Can the faculty teach in both modes?
    Do administrative structures support both?
  • 84. Table Talk: Your Top 5 in 5
    What were they?
    How do they address your blended teaching and learning challenges and/or help promote success?
  • 85. Faculty Development and Course Design
    30,000 foot view
  • 86. Success is highly correlated with
    Institution’s ability to support the blended instructional model and
    A high quality, well-implemented (and supported) faculty development program
  • 87. Quality Assurance and Course Peer Review
  • 88. Quality Assurance & Alignment
    5 of the 8 general standards must align:
    Course Overview and Introduction
    Learning Objectives
    Assessment and Measurement
    Resources and Materials
    Learner Interaction
    Course Technology
    Learner Support
    ADA Compliance
    Alignment of Key Components
  • 89. Essential Standards that Relate to Alignment
    Activities/resources correspond to objectives
    Learning activities foster interaction:
    student-student (if appropriate)
    Clear standards are set for instructor response and availability
    Measurement against objectives
  • 90. Other Essential Standards
    Assessment strategies should provide feedback to the student
    Grading policy should be transparent and easy for the student to understand
    Implemented tools & media should support learning objectives and integrate with texts and lesson assignments
    The course acknowledges the importance of ADA compliance
  • 91. Quality Assurance Uses
    Internal review processes
    Guidelines for online course development
    Checklist for improvement of existing online courses
    Faculty development/training programs
    Local effectiveness research
    An element in professional and other accreditation processes
  • 92. Quality assurance resources
    CSU Chico, Rubric for Online Instruction:
    Illinois Online Network
    University of Southern Mississippi Learning Enhancement Center
    Houston Community College
    Craven Community College
    Note: May need to cut and paste some links into browser.
  • 93. Institutional Readiness and Blended Learning
  • 94. Institutionalizing Faculty Development: Significant Benefits
    Creates experiential learning for faculty participants
    Enables cross-discipline sharing of teaching techniques and learning communities among faculty
    Creates lifelong learners among the faculty
    Creates scholarship around teaching and learning
    Allows peer evaluation of successes and failures
    Source: UCF's Support for Teaching and Learning Online
  • 95. Program Options
    Mandatory vs. required
    Application to teach blended courses
    Release time
    Reassigned time
    Faculty mentors
    Course development model
    One at a time
    Best of breed
    Central training
    Departmental training
    2-step process (design and teach)
    Tiered approach over a few years
    Summer institute
  • 96. Possible Program Components
    What is blended learning
    Faculty readiness
    Learning objectives
    Module development
    Course redesign strategies
    Assessment techniques
    Learning technologies
    Student readiness
    Student success
    Student crisis points
    Student teams and other collaborations
    Academic integrity online
    Copyright issues
    Building community
    Online discussions
  • 97. Institutional Readiness for Blended Delivery
    Good fit with the character and mission of the institution
    Good fit with learner characteristics of the institution
    Good fit with support services available
    Demonstrated level of faculty interest
    Robust campus infrastructure
    Ubiquitous, universal access to computing
    Redundant, reliable network services
    Well-equipped campus labs or students equipped with technology
    Coordinated technical support
    Source: UCF's Support for Teaching and Learning Online
  • 98. Institutional Readiness for Blended Delivery
    Distance or distributed learning leadership
    Reconciling/understanding faculty and institutional motivation for blended programming
    Articulated vision and shared vision from top administration
    Campus-wide coordination
    Planned growth (high demand areas)
    Commitment to faculty support
    Incentives and rewards
    Systematic faculty development
    Research design and analysis support
    Tenure and promotion reconsideration
  • 99. Institutional Perspective: Evaluation
    Student Access – Enrollment Growth, Attrition, Graduation Rates
    Learning Effectiveness - Student Outcomes (however defined)
    Faculty Satisfaction – Perception of their Teaching
    Student Satisfaction – Perceptions of their Learning
  • 100. Institutional Readiness for Blended Delivery
    Commitment to course and program support
    Design for scale
    Quality standards development
    Multimedia production support
    Research and development
    Copyright support
    Commitment to assessment
    Ensuring quality of programs
    Commitment to learner support
    7 x 24 help desk support
    Communication and marketing
    Flexible tutoring and advising
    Adequate software
    Web-based campus services
  • 101. Research Take-Aways
    Technology ownership
    Motivation for enrolling
    Success indicators/predictors
    Robust student support
    Sound information internally and externally
    Faculty workload and satisfaction issues
    Explore secondary teaching and learning benefits
    Peer mentoring of faculty members
    Sources: and
    ECAR 2010 Student Study
  • 102. Resources
    Sloan online and blended learning survey reports:
    Campus Computing Project:
    ELI Blended Learning Workshop Guide:
    ELI Blended Learning Focus Session Resource List:
    ELI Blended Learning Focus Session Recordings:
    Maricopa Blended Learning Site:
    UCF Research:
  • 103. Online Spring Focus Session
    April 13–14, 2011
    Read about the initiative:
    Seek Evidence of Impact
    Take the SEI Survey:
  • 104. Contact Information
    Veronica M. Diaz, PhD
    Associate Director
    EDUCAUSE Learning Initiative
    Copyright Veronica Diaz, 2011. This work is the intellectual property of the author. Permission is granted for this material to be shared for non-commercial, educational purposes, provided that this copyright statement appears on the reproduced materials and notice is given that the copying is by permission of the author. To disseminate otherwise or to republish requires written permission from the author.