Loading…

Flash Player 9 (or above) is needed to view presentations.
We have detected that you do not have it on your computer. To install it, go here.

Like this presentation? Why not share!

Like this? Share it with your network

Share

Yalof co13 marshaling resources articulate separate animations

  • 220 views
Uploaded on

 

  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
    Be the first to like this
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
220
On Slideshare
220
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0

Actions

Shares
Downloads
1
Comments
0
Likes
0

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide
  • Good afternoon. I am happy to be here to share with you my research and the theory that emerged about online learners.I will discuss what I found is going on right now in online colleges in the US. The theory has relevance to students outside the US, as I see many of you from around the globe are here.
  • There have been many studies about retention, but they look at the problem through a hypothesis that is already known, or variables that are to be tested. Because Online learning is a relatively new field it should be open to new variables . Grounded theory methodology allows for conceptuaization into variables heretofore not used in the field.Eighteen Learners from 14 online programs spoke candidly. Marshaling resources was the core variable that evolved from the data that described what students do as they encounter problems. The theory illuminates the intertwined role of students and institutions in preventing dropout.
  • A Little bit of background: Did you know that only 16 percent of students in higher education today in the US are campus-residing full time students ages 18-22 ?Government agencies are now putting intense pressure on colleges to maintain enrollment and prevent dropout. Potential students can go online and read about schools – and students are rather blunt in their assessments. Unhappy students are very poor publicity for colleges in these days of powerful social media. But online education helps those who could not otherwise pursue an education
  • College are successful in actively soliciting non-traditional enrollment by advertising that they havepolicy friendly to working adults. Policy should reflect the needs of these non-traditional students; they make up the bulk of enrollment. Therefore it s important to find out what those needs are, and what students struggle with. Are college policies actually student-friendly, as advertised?
  • A majority of traditional colleges are investing money and manpower into increasing their online offerings. Of particular concern are for-profit online programs.
  •   Forty percent of adult learners attend colleges where learning takes place only online. Attrition this high is an unacceptable loss to society.
  • Here is a side by side comparison of growth rates- between online and traditional campuses-click 
  • Look at this illustration. Wow.Did you know that as of 2011 online courses make up32% of total college enrollment (Allen & Seaman, 2013)
  • However, Actual graduation rates of online students are approximately 15% lower than for students who study on campus.
  • One important obstacle to the continued growth of online learning is the impact of the loss of over 50 % of the student body. If you read my study in entirety you will see that programs exist that are successful in maintaining enrollment. What are they doing right?
  • slide
  • slide
  • slide
  • slide
  • *What is it that makes for successful completion of educational goals versus another dropout statistic?
  • How can we avoid this?
  • slide
  • I looked for insights into the motivations and drivers of these 18 participants. What is going on for these people?Information in the interviews began repeating over and over. This is info that becomes the data and is continually compared and contrasted to evolve variables that apply to most of the participants.
  • I.  
  • Two areas emerged; How can colleges and universities best support student success?What student behaviors lead to successful completion of studies?? Once we see what barriers students face while learning online, we can begin to look carefully at what successful students do to push through to success. In this study I heard from students who were not successful learners, and what they encountered, and I examine the differences.  
  • Theoretical sampling allows the researcher to use judgment informed by the emergent theory to decide where to locate the next data source.
  • START: Aliterature review is conducted after the emergence of a core category, rather than prior to the gathering and coding of data (Glaser, 2004). The literature becomes supportive of the emergent theory rather than a basis from which to begin questioning. After reading these I was still left to ponder just HOW these contribute to success or failure.
  • A little explanation of classic grounded theory. Glaser and Strauss developed the initial methodologyThen the two men split and I followed Barney Glaser as he further developed the elements and procedures of classic grounded theory. The study starts with no hypothesis to test and an open mind to what might be discovered.
  • Conceptualizes, does not DESCRIBE data
  • Slide
  • My goal was to figure out what the problems were and how they were resolved.
  • A grand tour question was used to initiate the process of interviewing, coding, and comparing data. The grand tour question was open-ended and devised to allow the participant to express private concerns without fear of judgment (Simmons, 2011). Subsequent questions were non-leading questions that encouraged more detail if necessary. Silence was one technique used that effectively drew out more personal information from participants.
  • *An intense systematic examination of the data eventually revealed marshaling resources to “fit” to describe how online learners resolve issues related to feeling overwhelmed and under-supported.
  • These are variable that kept showing up over and over in interviews. Many of the thoughts were unanimous
  • A deceptively simple graphic follows that shows a parallel hypothetical probability statement that describes classroom experiences.
  • That is: As teacher presence online decreases, student struggle increases. In the absence of a strong teacher presence, issues arose concerning the quality of communication provided on the course website, as well as between students. In the online classroom, stronger students often volunteered to take on more of a teaching role as many students floundered. When teacher presence is lacking, peers do step in and serve as instructors. This can be utilized as a teaching technique effectively with a caveat that instructors stay apprised and alert to these transactions. In other words, this should be a supervised occurrence, not something that happens as students feel desperate for help.
  • Data also revealed a more comprehensive hypothetical probability statement:The more online support perceived by students, the fewer resources both personal and psychological are required to sustain the effort (persistence) towards program completion. There in lies the difference … students do not require the same amount of support and do not perceive lack of support if they do not need it. Marshaling resources describes what happens when students perceive the need for support
  • slide
  • Where there is a need that is not answered, students start to search for help. Differential responses from students in similar circumstances shows us that perceptions of how much support is offered differ greatly between students.Perceptions do predict satisfaction and persistence. The interest of one person can change a perception of an entire program.
  • Student satisfaction correlates to persistence. No matter how carefully one a course is structured and assessed, without the teacher to guide and as a presence, learning is not a given. Instructors have to be adept at figuring out what each person’s needs are.
  • slide
  • slide
  • In a recent document published in the Jan 13 Chronicle of Education (I’ve given you the link in the references page) a “Bill of Rights and Principles for Learning in the Digital Age” makes clear the importance of formative assessments that provide opportunity to revise and relearn until students achieve a level of mastery they desire in a skill or a subject. Students want instructors to provide ample opportunity to practice skills prior to being tested and a chance to learn from mistakes.
  • I found three places that online students recruited support; One: These might be called Personal Learning Networks, Communities of Practice, or Communities of Inquiry…Students were keenly aware and appreciative of any instructor who reached out to help them.
  • *WITHOUT these virtual Personal Learning Networks, many say they might have dropped out of their studies. These networks functioned as a teacher does for these students and allowed them to have conversations about the learning that increased their competency and confidence.
  • My preliminary investigation of dissertations showed that many researchers credited a strong belief in God with the achievement of their goals. In fact, people believe they could not have done it without God’s help. Or even that God made it happen, not they themselves.
  • All of the participants in my study needed moral or educational support in addition to that provided by the colleges. Successful students found that out that they needed to cultivate, or marshal, these important resources.
  • START HERE: Marshaling resources emerged as the core variable around which the theory revolves. I will explain how it describesthe efforts of online students who encounter barriers to program completion.
  • START HERE: Marshaling involves assessing one’s current needs and ability to cope in relation to both the resources provided by the learning institution and one’s own intrinsic or extrinsic resources. Depending upon the severity of difficulty encountered, learners make a concerted effort to discover resources that were not required prior to this difficult period in time.
  • Until problems were encountered, as they were by all of the participants to some degree, most were not conscious of the need to marshal resources. They thought they could do this on their own.When difficulties increased and could no longer be easily managed, students needed tomarshal resources. Thus, the need to integrate resources exists in latency until activated bya specific need, problem or restraint.The earlier they begin to find resources the better, and many realized they had to scramble to figure out who could help.
  • The tipping point represents a critical juncture in the journey of the online students, which occurs when unmet needs weighted against resources cause strain, which potentially necessitates change. Unmet student needs from the data were: need to be visible and feel that they matter, need for more institutional support and policies that do not change midstream, and the need for peer interaction.
  • Supports students need were found to be: Opportunity to learn or interact with peers, thoughtful answers to emails in a timely manner, confidence in teacher’s ability to provide structure and remedial guidance without judgment, and the need for the college to be flexible on their behalf. The graphic illustrates how accumulation of unmet student needs, along with insufficient supports provided by the educational institution, can cause a tipping point or critical juncture.
  • The theory itself contains many variables that were conceptualized from the data. I will cover some of these and explain them. Teaching ambiance: Setting the tone. The course instructor, though not visible in a corporal sense, sets the mood for the class. Participants described the course rooms as an entirely different way of learning, with the instructor the most important aspect of the course.
  • Virtually invisible- Invisibility is disempowering, and these words were related by a participant in the course of describing a personal experience. In order to authenticate the experience of being a student, people seek a social outlet to share their experiences. Many of the respondents reported that although their initial contacts were purely social in order to feel connected, they did eventually seek out other people for educational purposes when they felt more challenged. This is a good argument to have activities that are more social in nature to introduce students to their community. Where teaching presence is lacking, people feel virtually ignored as well as invisible. Studying without strong teacherpresence involves marshaling resources in order to succeed.
  • Holding up my end. This relates to collaborative activities. Institutions vary greatly in quantity and quality of collaborative activities they require. Without adequate teacher presence, collaborative activities are often difficult and relations with fellow students, and subsequently, learning, suffer. Once again, the instructor held the key to success in collaboration. Lists of rules were not enough.
  • Expecting service. Online education is a for-profit business, and students want to be treated as important customers. Participants believed they had the right to expect good service from staff and instructors who should be competent and prompt. For the online student, time spent waiting is money wasted.
  • Maintaining relevance. Dry theoretical material should be interspersed with opportunity for practical applications such as projects used to apply theory. Course activities that are not relevant to what interests the student demand more from the student in terms of motivation. Avoid busywork by allowing students to make assignments relevant to professional growth by practicing mastery.
  • Tipping point-at this point the pent up emotion can cause students to tip either towards leaving or towards pulling in and engaging resources with the goal of persisting.
  • Mattering. Mattering is feeling that other people are interested in what we are doing and are “concerned with our fate”. This contrasts with the experience of not feeling accepted that can be devastating. Mattering affects two different domains (a) personal, and (b) work concerns. Mattering in the personal realm relates to the value a person believes he or she holds for others. When you feel that people care about you, you care about them.It is a very powerful predictor of academic stress levels. Mattering for work matters relates to the relevance of what the student is doing in the online class.
  • Building community. Why is it important?
  • Breaking off. At some point for over one half of online students depleted reserves of energy or resources renders it impossible to continue to achieve an educational goal. Breaking off sometimes occurs when people perceive a lack of responsiveness on the part of the institution to their repeated attempts to remediate a situation. Data showed that none of the five participants who withdrew did so for health reasons; all lost their momentum and hope at a crucial educational turning point.
  • Reinvigorating. This is a pivotal concept to the theory. Connections made during the process of marshaling resources serve to reinvigorate those who have previously struggled. Students who successfully marshal find strength and nourishment to continue.To caringpeers in the Personal learning network,forged alliances sustained members during difficult times. It was reenergizing for participants to know that they were not alone and isolated despite lack of physical proximity. As one participant put it, the PLN was “The only reason I am still here today.” Feeling supported contributes to a feeling of mattering. Personalized feedback or contact from a representative of the institution staff or instructors infused an enormous amount of energy to the struggling or disenfranchised student. There was a feeling like “I can’t let them down” and it motivated people.
  • Recommendations for practice:Do not advertise policies favorable for non-traditional students and then change them once the student is enrolled.
  • Please read the following recommendations for practice.
  • Please read the following recommendations for practice.
  • Because CGT theories are abstracted from time, place, and from specific groups of people (Glaser, 2001), the theory should have fit and grab (relevance) to other substantive areas. This presentation is limited to discussion of online learning, but the dissertation itself includes references to how the theory applies to other substantive areas. Just a few are: the newly divorced or widowed, those moving to a new town, job seekers, and on campus college students. Importantly, skills relating to marshaling resources are ingrained in the above teachable areas. Grit is a “soft skill” as is emotional intelligence and motivation.
  • All of these areas affected retention.
  • . Importantly, skills relating to marshaling resources are ingrained in the above teachable areas. Students who are prepared ahead for tough times do better and have supports in place so they do not seriously need to consider dropping out as the only option available.
  • THE LINK at the bottom of this page leads to “A Bill of Rights and Principles for Learning in the Digital Age” . The document, drafted by a dozen educators brought together by the MOOC pioneer SebastianThrun, proposes a set of “inalienable rights” that the authors say students and their advocates should demand from institutions and companies that offer online courses and technology tools.

Transcript

  • 1. Marshaling Resources: Of Barbara Yalof, Ed.D.
  • 2. Marshaling Resources: Of Barbara Yalof, Ed.D.
  • 3. 84 % of students in Higher Education today are NON- TRADITIONAL students WHO STUDIES ONLINE ?Stokes, 2008
  • 4. WHO STUDIES ONLINE ? 84 % of today’s students work and havefamilies to support Stokes, 2008
  • 5. Traditionalcollegesareincorporatingmore onlineeducationHOWEVERAllen & Seaman, 2013; NCES, 2009
  • 6. Traditionalcollegesare attrition remainsincorporating 10-20% higher ONLINEmore online than in a traditional oneducation campus venueHOWEVER…Allen & Seaman, 2010, NCES, 2009
  • 7. ENROLLMENT GROWTH RATE ONLINE ON CAMPUS 1%Allen & Seaman, 2011
  • 8. ENROLLMENT GROWTH RATE ONLINE ON CAMPUS 1%Allen & Seaman, 2011
  • 9. ACTUAL GRADUATION RATES OVER 6 YEARS AVERAGE55-65%on- 50% or lesscampus OnlineAllen & Seaman, 2010; NCES, 2011
  • 10. ACTUAL GRADUATION RATES OVER 6 YEARS AVERAGE55-65%on- 50% or lesscampus OnlineAllen & Seaman, 2010; NCES, 2011
  • 11. WE NEED MORE INFORMATION ABOUT…What will prevent ONLINE LEARNERS from…
  • 12. What will prevent ONLINE LEARNERS from… Withdrawing?
  • 13. THE PURPOSEof this study was to investigate how online students RESOLVE PROBLEMS
  • 14. THE PURPOSE of this study was to investigate how online students RESOLVE PROBLEMSthat prevent them from achieving their goals
  • 15. To learn what makes the difference
  • 16. This study provides a way to understand online students What happens when struggles occur?
  • 17. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY What is behind a decision to leave a program in which they haveinvested financially, academically, and emotionally?
  • 18. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDYThis CGT study contributes a unique theory that explains and predicts how student needs, and their perception of the support provided by the institution, are interconnected.
  • 19. TWO MAJOR AREAS OF INQUIRY EMERGED: Support for student success Student behaviors leading to success
  • 20. PARTICIPANTS AND MATERIALS Total of 18 participants interviewed 7 are online instructors as well as students Total of 14 online colleges incorporated into data
  • 21. LITERATURE REVIEWOnline learning outcomes are the same as traditional coursesUnder prepared students need support to be successfulInstitutional factors contribute to attritionStudent characteristics contribute to attritionTeaching presence most important attribute for success
  • 22. CLASSIC GROUNDED THEORY An alternative to studies that test existing theory Conceptualizes data on an abstract level Learns from the participants themselves the main concerns with which they grapple And how they resolve these concernsGlaser & Strauss, 1967
  • 23. CLASSIC GROUNDED THEORY An alternative to studies that test existing theory Conceptualizes data on an abstract level Learns from the participants themselves the main concerns with which they grapple And how they resolve these concernsGlaser & Strauss, 1967
  • 24. CLASSIC GROUNDED THEORY An alternative to studies that test existing theory Conceptualizes data on an abstract level Learns from the participants themselves the main concerns with which they grapple And how they resolve these concernsGlaser & Strauss, 1967
  • 25. CLASSIC GROUNDED THEORY An alternative to studies that test existing theory Conceptualizes data on an abstract level Learns from the participants themselves the main concerns with which they grapple And how they resolve these concernsGlaser & Strauss, 1967
  • 26. How do classic grounded theory researchers evolve a new theory?They start with a Grand Tour Question: “Please talk about your experience as an online learner.” The question is formulated to be both abstract and personal in nature Glaser, 1978, 1998; Simmons, 2011
  • 27. How did “marshaling resources” emerge from the data? Codes from interviews and memos were transformed into concepts A constant comparative analysis of concepts was conducted until variables were saturated Core variable marshaling resources emerged to explain the patterns of behavior of participants as they resolved problems related to online learningGlaser, 1978, 1998
  • 28. MARSHALING RESOURCES- The theory marshaling resources included 11 major concepts or variablesAnalyzing and comparing these concepts showed the following hypothetical probability statements :
  • 29. MARSHALING RESOURCES-THE THEORY A HYPOTHETICAL PROBABILITY STATEMENT OF STUDENT STRUGGLE related to presence of the instructor in the online classroomPERCEIVED
  • 30. MARSHALING RESOURCES-THE THEORY A HYPOTHETICAL PROBABILITY STATEMENT OF STUDENT STRUGGLE related to presence of the instructor in the online classroomPERCEIVED
  • 31. A HYPOTHETICAL PROBABILITY OF STUDENT STRUGGLErelated to perceived support provided by the institution
  • 32. WHAT THE STUDY FOUNDA STUDENT’S PERCEPTION OF HOW THEIR NEEDS ARE MET BY THEIR COLLEGE
  • 33. WHAT THE STUDY FOUNDA STUDENT’S PERCEPTION OF HOW THEIR NEEDS ARE MET BY THEIR COLLEGE PREDICTS SATISFACTION AND ABILITY TO ACHIEVE GOALS
  • 34. WHAT THE STUDY FOUNDTHE INSTRUCTOR IS THE MOST IMPORTANT INGREDIENT OF THE ONLINE CLASSROOM
  • 35. WHAT THE STUDY FOUND THE INSTRUCTOR IS THE MOST IMPORTANT INGREDIENT OF THE ONLINE CLASSROOMAnd affects every aspect of student satisfaction
  • 36. WHAT THE STUDY FOUNDTHE student’s relationship with the INSTRUCTOR Includes feedback
  • 37. Online students want feedback that is timely, personalized, and contributes to…
  • 38. Online students want feedback that is timely,personalized, and contributes tolearning through one’s mistakes RATHER THAN BEING GRADED FOR FIRST ATTEMPTS ONLY.
  • 39. WHERE DID STRUGGLING ONLINE STUDENTS FIND SUPPORT?1 From other people: Other students and unusually helpful instructors or staff
  • 40. WHERE DID STRUGGLING ONLINE STUDENTS FIND SUPPORT?1 From other people: ONLINE LEARNING COMMUNITIES (VIRTUAL PERSONAL LEARNING NETWORKS) SOME STUDENTS HELD THESE PERSONAL LEARNING NETWORKS RESPONSIBLE FOR THEIR SUCCESS
  • 41. 2 Others held their belief in a HIGHER POWER responsible for their success
  • 42. Family members and colleagues: For emotional and3 educational support
  • 43. MARSHALING RESOURCES- The theory How do online students persist and resolve problems? They assess needs against resources. They need extra help when difficulties arise Marshaling resources kicks in at the tipping point
  • 44. MARSHALING RESOURCES- The theory How do online students persist and resolve problems? They assess needs against resources. They need extra help when difficulties arise Marshaling resources kicks in at the tipping point
  • 45. MARSHALING RESOURCES- The theory How do online students persist and resolve problems? They assess needs against resources. They need extra help when difficulties arise Marshaling resources kicks in at the tipping point
  • 46. MARSHALING RESOURCES- The theory How do online students persist and resolve problems? They assess needs against resources. They need extra help when difficulties arise At this point students marshal resources
  • 47. THE TIPPING POINTUnmet needs weighed against supports students need
  • 48. THE TIPPING POINTUnmet needs weighed against supports students need
  • 49. MARSHALING RESOURCES- The theory SELECT CONCEPTS or variables Teaching ambiance Instructor sets the mood & remains available Student struggle and increased frustration occur when the instructor is absent Instructor sets model for collaboration and interaction Course objectives focus of activities
  • 50. MARSHALING RESOURCES- The theory SELECT CONCEPTS or variables Virtually Invisible Seek connections to become visible to others If instructor responses are inadequate, students turn to peers Social connections evolve into learning support
  • 51. MARSHALING RESOURCES- The theory SELECT CONCEPTS or variables- concerning collaboration Holding up my end Energy and guidance from instructor necessary from the beginning Instructor presence is vital to successful collaborative activities Assure students the assessment is fair
  • 52. MARSHALING RESOURCES- The theory SELECT CONCEPTS or variables Expecting service Maintaining relevanceStudents are customers Coursework pertains to work worldStaff should be competent,prompt and respectful Assignments should practice towards masteryStudents want to feel importantto the school Less relevant work requires more motivationInstructors must be approachable
  • 53. MARSHALING RESOURCES- The theory SELECT CONCEPTS or variables Expecting service Maintaining relevance Coursework pertains to workStudents are customers worldStaff should be competent, Utilize student expertiseprompt and respectful Assignments should practiceStudents should feel important to towards masterythe school Less relevant work requires moreInstructors must be approachable motivation
  • 54. MARSHALING RESOURCES- The theory SELECT CONCEPTS or variables Tipping point MatteringPent up emotion without Feeling that people caresupport can cause impulsivedropout Cycles into caring about others’ successMarshaling resources is a skillthat enables continuance Also important is feeling that yourtowards educational goals. own learning matters to you. It is a predictor of academic stress levels
  • 55. MARSHALING RESOURCES- The theory SELECT CONCEPTS or variables Tipping point Mattering Feeling that people carePent up emotion without Cycles into caring about others’support can cause impulsive successdropout Also important is feeling that yourMarshaling resources is a skill own learning matters to you.that enables continuance towardseducational goals. Is a predictor of academic stress levels
  • 56. Building Breaking off communityLosing momentum Supportive peers make theand hope at a crucial differenceturning point. Learning communitiesCan be due to facilitated achievementperceived non- when TEACHER PRESENCEresponsiveness of the WAS LOWinstitution and theirinability to be flexible Diversity of ideas exchanged grows knowledge
  • 57. Building Breaking off communityLosing momentum and Supportive peershope at a crucial turning make the differencepoint. The ability toCan be due to perceived become part of anon-responsiveness of the virtual communityinstitution and their of learners wasinability to be flexible essential when TEACHER PRESENCE WAS LOW
  • 58. Replenishing Reinvigorating Resources Students who successfully marshal resources find strength Receive nourishment that replenishes resources Build connections to reinvigorate when struggling Psychological closeness scaffolds psyches for success. Can’t let folks down
  • 59. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR PRACTICE Enforce consistent policies that are flexible in emergencies Train and have high expectations for school personnel Allow students to build bonds with instructors & staff Open up channels for student-to-student communication Respond quickly and thoughtfully to student communication Encourage relationship building Provide remedial rather than punitive feedback TO PREVENT ATTRITIONMarshaling resources is a teachable skill for both students and institutions
  • 60. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR PRACTICE Enforce consistent policies that are flexible in emergencies Train and have high expectations for school personnel Allow students to build bonds with instructors & staff Open up channels for student-to-student communication Respond quickly and thoughtfully to student communication Encourage relationship building Provide remedial rather than punitive feedback TO PREVENT ATTRITIONMarshaling resources is a teachable skill for both students and institutions
  • 61. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR PRACTICE Enforce consistent policies that are flexible in emergencies Train and have high expectations for school personnel Allow students to build bonds with instructors & staff Open up channels for student-to-student communication Respond quickly and thoughtfully to student communication Encourage relationship building Provide remedial rather than punitive feedbackMarshaling resources is a teachable skill for both students and institutions
  • 62. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR PRACTICE Enforce consistent policies that are flexible in emergencies Train and have high expectations for school personnel Allow students to build bonds with instructors & staff Open up channels for student-to-student communication Respond quickly and thoughtfully to student communication Encourage relationship building Provide remedial rather than punitive feedback TO PREVENT ATTRITIONMarshaling resources is a teachable skill for both students and institutions
  • 63. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR PRACTICE Enforce consistent policies that are flexible in emergencies Train and have high expectations for school personnel Allow students to build bonds with instructors & staff Open up channels for student-to-student communication Respond quickly and thoughtfully to student communication Encourage relationship building Provide remedial rather than punitive feedback TO PREVENT ATTRITIONMarshaling resources is a teachable skill for both students and institutions
  • 64. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR PRACTICE Enforce consistent policies that are flexible in emergencies Train and have high expectations for school personnel Allow students to build bonds with instructors & staff Open up channels for student-to-student communication Respond quickly and thoughtfully to student communication Encourage relationship building during active learning tasks Provide remedial rather than punitive feedback TO PREVENT ATTRITIONMarshaling resources is a teachable skill for both students and institutions
  • 65. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR PRACTICE Enforce consistent policies that are flexible in emergencies Train and have high expectations for school personnel Allow students to build bonds with instructors & staff Open up channels for student-to-student communication Respond quickly and thoughtfully to student communication Encourage relationship building during active learning tasks Provide remedial rather than punitive feedback-allow revising TO PREVENT ATTRITIONMarshaling resources is a teachable skill for both students and institutions
  • 66. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH Investigate the role or value of these concepts T O R The role of grit E (Duckworth & T Quinn, 2009) E N T I O N
  • 67. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH Investigate the role or value of these concepts T O The role of grit (Duckworth & Quinn, R 2009) E T E Effective feedback for N online learning T I O N
  • 68. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH Investigate the role or value of these concepts T O The role of grit (Duckworth & Quinn, 2009) R E T E N Effective feedback for T online learning I The value of O personal learning N networks
  • 69. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH Investigate the role or value of these concepts T The role of grit O (Duckworth & Quinn, 2009) R E The role of T Effective feedback emotional E for online intelligence (Goleman, N learning 1997) T I The value of O personal learning N networks
  • 70. Marshal resources towards online successPlease send any comments to barbarayalof@verizon.net
  • 71. Selected ReferencesAllen, E., & Seaman, J. (2010). Class differences: Online education in the United States. Needham, MA: The Sloan Consortium. Retrieved fromhttp://www. sloan-c.org/publications/survey/pdf/online_nation.pdfAllen, E., & Seaman, J. (2011). Going the distance: Online education in the United States, 2011. Retrieved fromhttp://sloanconsortium.org/publications /survey/going_distance_2011Allen, E., & Seaman, J. (2013). Changing Course: Ten Years of Tracking Online Education in the United States. Retrieved fromhttp://sloanconsortium.org/publications /survey/changing course _2013Duckworth, A. L., & Quinn, P. D. (2009). Development and validation of the short grit scale (grit-s). Journal of Personality Assessment, 91(2), 166-174.Glaser, B. G. (1978). Theoretical sensitivity: Advances in the methodology of grounded theory. Mill Valley, CA: Sociology Press.Glaser, B. G. (1998). Doing grounded theory: Issues and discussions. Mill Valley, CA: Sociology Press.Glaser, B. G., & Strauss, A. L. (1967). The discovery of grounded theory: Strategies for qualitative research. Chicago, IL: Aldine PublishingCompany.Goleman, D. (1997). Emotional intelligence: Why it can matter more than IQ. New York, NY: Bantam.National Center for Education Statistics (2011). Learning at a distance: Undergraduate enrollment in distance education courses and degreeprograms. NCES2012154. October. Washington, DC.Simmons, O. (2011). Why classic grounded theory? In V. Martin & A. Gynnild (Eds.), Grounded theory: The philosophy, method, and work ofBarney Glaser (pp. 15-30). Boca Raton, FLA: Brown Walker Press.Stokes, P. J. (2008). Hidden in plain sight: Adult learners forge a new tradition in higher education. A national dialogue: The Secretary ofEducation’s commission on the future of higher education. Retrieved from http://ed.gov/about/bdscomm/ list/hiedfuture/reports/stokes.pdfFYI: SEE ALSO: http://chronicle.com/article/The-Document-A-Bill-of/136781/?cid=wc&utm_source=wc&utm_medium=en