Marshaling Resources:
Of
Barbara Yalof, Ed.D.
Marshaling Resources:
Of
Barbara Yalof, Ed.D.
84 % of
students in
Higher
Education
today are
NON-
TRADITIONAL
students
Stokes, 2008
WHO STUDIES ONLINE ?
84 % of
today’s
students
Stokes, 2008
work and have
families to support
WHO STUDIES ONLINE ?
HOWEVER
Allen & Seaman, 2013; NCES, 2009
Traditional
colleges
are
incorporating
more online
education
attrition remains
10-20% higher ONLINE
than in a traditional on
campus venue
HOWEVER…
Allen & Seaman, 2010, NCES, 2009
Tra...
ENROLLMENT GROWTH RATE
ON
CAMPUS
ONLINE
1 %
Allen & Seaman, 2011
ENROLLMENT GROWTH RATE
ON
CAMPUS
ONLINE
1 %
Allen & Seaman, 2011
55-65%
on-
campus
50%
or less
Online
ACTUAL GRADUATION RATES OVER 6
YEARS
AVERAGE
Allen & Seaman, 2010; NCES, 2011
55-65%
on-
campus
50%
or less
Online
ACTUAL GRADUATION RATES OVER 6
YEARS
AVERAGE
Allen & Seaman, 2010; NCES, 2011
What will prevent ONLINE LEARNERS
from…
WE NEED MORE INFORMATION ABOUT…
What will prevent ONLINE LEARNERS
from…
Withdrawing?
of this study was to investigate how
online students
RESOLVE PROBLEMS
THE PURPOSE
of this study was to investigate how
online students
RESOLVE PROBLEMS
THE PURPOSE
that prevent them from achieving their g...
To learn what makes the difference
This study provides a way to understand online students
What happens when struggles occur?
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
What is behind a
decision to leave a program in which they have
invested financially, academical...
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This CGT study contributes a unique theory that explains
and predicts how student needs, and the...
Support for student success
TWO MAJOR AREAS OF INQUIRY EMERGED:
Student behaviors leading to success
PARTICIPANTS AND MATERIALS
Total of 18 participants
interviewed
7 are online instructors as well
as students
Total of 14 o...
LITERATURE REVIEW
Online learning outcomes are the same as traditional courses
Under prepared students need support to be ...
CLASSIC GROUNDED THEORY
An alternative to studies that test existing theory
Conceptualizes data on an abstract level
Learn...
CLASSIC GROUNDED THEORY
An alternative to studies that test existing theory
Conceptualizes data on an abstract level
Learn...
CLASSIC GROUNDED THEORY
An alternative to studies that test existing theory
Conceptualizes data on an abstract level
Learn...
CLASSIC GROUNDED THEORY
An alternative to studies that test existing theory
Conceptualizes data on an abstract level
Learn...
“Please talk about your experience
as an online learner.”
How do classic grounded theory researchers evolve a new theory?
...
How did “marshaling resources” emerge from the data?
Codes from interviews and memos were
transformed into concepts
A cons...
marshaling resources included 11 major concepts or variables
Analyzing and comparing these concepts showed the following h...
MARSHALING RESOURCES-THE THEORY
A HYPOTHETICAL PROBABILITY STATEMENT OF STUDENT STRUGGLE
related to presence of the instru...
MARSHALING RESOURCES-THE THEORY
A HYPOTHETICAL PROBABILITY STATEMENT OF STUDENT STRUGGLE
related to presence of the instru...
A HYPOTHETICAL PROBABILITY OF STUDENT STRUGGLE
related to perceived support provided by the institution
A STUDENT’S PERCEPTION OF HOW THEIR
NEEDS ARE MET BY THEIR COLLEGE
WHAT THE STUDY FOUND
A STUDENT’S PERCEPTION OF HOW THEIR
NEEDS ARE MET BY THEIR COLLEGE
PREDICTS SATISFACTION AND
ABILITY TO ACHIEVE GOALS
WHAT...
THE INSTRUCTOR IS THE MOST IMPORTANT
INGREDIENT OF THE ONLINE
CLASSROOM
WHAT THE STUDY FOUND
THE INSTRUCTOR IS THE MOST IMPORTANT
INGREDIENT OF THE ONLINE
CLASSROOM
WHAT THE STUDY FOUND
And affects every aspect of s...
THE student’s relationship with the
INSTRUCTOR
Includes feedback
WHAT THE STUDY FOUND
Online students want feedback that is
timely,
personalized,
and contributes to…
Online students want feedback that is timely,
personalized, and contributes to
learning through one’s mistakes RATHER
THAN...
Other students and unusually
helpful instructors or staff
WHERE DID STRUGGLING ONLINE STUDENTS FIND SUPPORT?
1 From other ...
ONLINE LEARNING
COMMUNITIES
(VIRTUAL PERSONAL LEARNING NETWORKS)
SOME STUDENTS HELD THESE PERSONAL LEARNING
NETWORKS RESPO...
Others
held their belief in a HIGHER
POWER responsible for their
success
2
3
Family members
and colleagues:
For emotional and
educational
support
MARSHALING RESOURCES- The theory
How do online students persist and
resolve problems?
They assess needs against
resources....
MARSHALING RESOURCES- The theory
How do online students persist and
resolve problems?
They assess needs against
resources....
MARSHALING RESOURCES- The theory
How do online students persist and
resolve problems?
They assess needs against
resources....
MARSHALING RESOURCES- The theory
How do online students persist and
resolve problems?
They assess needs against
resources....
THE TIPPING POINT
Unmet needs weighed against supports students need
THE TIPPING POINT
Unmet needs weighed against supports students need
MARSHALING RESOURCES- The theory
Teaching ambiance
SELECT CONCEPTS or variables
Instructor sets the mood & remains availab...
MARSHALING RESOURCES- The theory
SELECT CONCEPTS or variables
Seek connections to become visible to others
If instructor r...
MARSHALING RESOURCES- The theory
Holding up my end
SELECT CONCEPTS or variables- concerning collaboration
Energy and guida...
MARSHALING RESOURCES- The theory
SELECT CONCEPTS or variables
Expecting service Maintaining relevance
Students are custome...
MARSHALING RESOURCES- The theory
SELECT CONCEPTS or variables
Expecting service Maintaining relevance
Students are custome...
MARSHALING RESOURCES- The theory
Tipping point
Mattering
SELECT CONCEPTS or variables
Pent up emotion without
support can ...
MARSHALING RESOURCES- The theory
Tipping point Mattering
SELECT CONCEPTS or variables
Pent up emotion without
support can ...
Breaking off
Building
community
Losing momentum
and hope at a crucial
turning point.
Can be due to
perceived non-
responsi...
Breaking off
Building
community
Losing momentum and
hope at a crucial turning
point.
Can be due to perceived
non-responsiv...
Reinvigorating
Students who successfully
marshal resources find strength
Receive nourishment that
replenishes resources
Bu...
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR PRACTICE
Enforce consistent policies that are flexible in emergencies
Train and have high expectations...
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR PRACTICE
Enforce consistent policies that are flexible in emergencies
Train and have high expectations...
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR PRACTICE
Enforce consistent policies that are flexible in emergencies
Train and have high expectations...
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR PRACTICE
Enforce consistent policies that are flexible in emergencies
Train and have high expectations...
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR PRACTICE
Enforce consistent policies that are flexible in emergencies
Train and have high expectations...
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR PRACTICE
Enforce consistent policies that are flexible in emergencies
Train and have high expectations...
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR PRACTICE
Enforce consistent policies that are flexible in emergencies
Train and have high expectations...
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH
The role of grit
(Duckworth & Quinn,
2009)
T
O
R
E
T
E
N
T
I
O
N
Investigate the role ...
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH
The role of grit
(Duckworth & Quinn,
2009)
Effective feedback for
online learning
T
O
...
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH
The role of grit
(Duckworth & Quinn,
2009)
The value of
personal learning
networks
Eff...
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH
The role of grit
(Duckworth & Quinn,
2009)
The role of
emotional
intelligence
(Goleman...
Marshal resources towards online success
Please send any comments to barbarayalof@verizon.net
Allen, E., & Seaman, J. (2010). Class differences: Online education in the United States. Needham, MA: The Sloan Consortiu...
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  • Good afternoon.

    I am happy to be here to share with you my research and the theory that emerged about online learners.
    I will discuss what I found is going on right now in online colleges in the US. The theory has relevance to students outside the US, as I see many of you from around the globe are here.
  • There have been many studies about retention, but they look at the problem through a hypothesis that is already known, or variables that are to be tested.
    Because Online learning is a relatively new field it should be open to new variables .
    Grounded theory methodology allows for conceptuaization into variables heretofore not used in the field.
    Eighteen Learners from 14 online programs spoke candidly.
    Marshaling resources was the core variable that evolved from the data that described what students do as they encounter problems.
    The theory illuminates the intertwined role of students and institutions in preventing dropout.
  • A Little bit of background: Did you know that only 16 percent of students in higher education today in the US are campus-residing full time students ages 18-22 ?

    Government agencies are now putting intense pressure on colleges to maintain enrollment and prevent dropout.

    Potential students can go online and read about schools – and students are rather blunt in their assessments.

    Unhappy students are very poor publicity for colleges in these days of powerful social media.

    But online education helps those who could not otherwise pursue an education
  • College are successful in actively soliciting non-traditional enrollment by advertising that they have policy friendly to working adults.
    Policy should reflect the needs of these non-traditional students; they make up the bulk of enrollment.
    Therefore it s important to find out what those needs are, and what students struggle with.
    Are college policies actually student-friendly, as advertised?
  • A majority of traditional colleges are investing money and manpower into increasing their online offerings.

    Of particular concern are for-profit online programs.

  •  
     Forty percent of adult learners attend colleges where learning takes place only online. Attrition this high is an unacceptable loss to society.
  • Here is a side by side comparison of growth rates- between online and traditional campuses-click 
  • Look at this illustration. Wow.

    Did you know that as of 2011 online courses make up 32% of total college enrollment (Allen & Seaman, 2013)
  • However, Actual graduation rates of online students are approximately 15% lower than for students who study on campus.
  • One important obstacle to the continued growth of online learning is the impact of the loss of over 50 % of the student body.
    If you read my study in entirety you will see that programs exist that are successful in maintaining enrollment.
    What are they doing right?

  • slide
  • slide
  • slide
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  • *What is it that makes for successful completion of educational goals versus another dropout statistic?
  • How can we avoid this?
  • slide
  • I looked for insights into the motivations and drivers of these 18 participants.
    What is going on for these people?
    Information in the interviews began repeating over and over.
    This is info that becomes the data and is continually compared and contrasted to evolve variables that apply to most of the participants.
  • I.
     
  • Two areas emerged;
    How can colleges and universities best support student success?
    What student behaviors lead to successful completion of studies??
     
    Once we see what barriers students face while learning online, we can begin to look carefully at what successful students do to push through to success.
     
    In this study I heard from students who were not successful learners, and what they encountered, and I examine the differences.
     
     
  • Theoretical sampling allows the researcher to use judgment informed by the emergent theory to decide where to locate the next data source.
  • START: A literature review is conducted after the emergence of a core category, rather than prior to the gathering and coding of data (Glaser, 2004). The literature becomes supportive of the emergent theory rather than a basis from which to begin questioning.
    After reading these I was still left to ponder just HOW these contribute to success or failure.
  • A little explanation of classic grounded theory.
    Glaser and Strauss developed the initial methodology
    Then the two men split and I followed Barney Glaser as he further developed the elements and procedures of classic grounded theory.
    The study starts with no hypothesis to test and an open mind to what might be discovered.
  • Conceptualizes, does not DESCRIBE data
  • Slide
  • My goal was to figure out what the problems were and how they were resolved.
  • A grand tour question was used to initiate the process of interviewing, coding, and comparing data. The grand tour question was open-ended and devised to allow the participant to express private concerns without fear of judgment (Simmons, 2011).

    Subsequent questions were non-leading questions that encouraged more detail if necessary.
    Silence was one technique used that effectively drew out more personal information from participants.

  • *An intense systematic examination of the data eventually revealed marshaling resources to “fit” to describe how online learners resolve issues related to feeling overwhelmed and under-supported.
  • These are variable that kept showing up over and over in interviews. Many of the thoughts were unanimous
  • A deceptively simple graphic follows that shows a parallel hypothetical probability statement that describes classroom experiences.
  • That is: As teacher presence online decreases, student struggle increases. In the absence of a strong teacher presence, issues arose concerning the quality of communication provided on the course website, as well as between students.

    In the online classroom, stronger students often volunteered to take on more of a teaching role as many students floundered.

    When teacher presence is lacking, peers do step in and serve as instructors.

    This can be utilized as a teaching technique effectively with a caveat that instructors stay apprised and alert to these transactions. In other words, this should be a supervised occurrence, not something that happens as students feel desperate for help.
  • Data also revealed a more comprehensive hypothetical probability statement:

    The more online support perceived by students, the fewer resources both personal and psychological are required to sustain the effort (persistence) towards program completion.

    There in lies the difference … students do not require the same amount of support and do not perceive lack of support if they do not need it. Marshaling resources describes what happens when students perceive the need for support
  • slide

  • Where there is a need that is not answered, students start to search for help. Differential responses from students in similar circumstances shows us that perceptions of how much support is offered differ greatly between students.


    Perceptions do predict satisfaction and persistence. The interest of one person can change a perception of an entire program.
  • Student satisfaction correlates to persistence.

    No matter how carefully one a course is structured and assessed, without the teacher to guide and as a presence, learning is not a given.
    Instructors have to be adept at figuring out what each person’s needs are.
  • slide
  • slide
  • In a recent document published in the Jan 13 Chronicle of Education (I’ve given you the link in the references page) a “Bill of Rights and Principles for Learning in the Digital Age” makes clear the importance of formative assessments that provide opportunity to revise and relearn until students achieve a level of mastery they desire in a skill or a subject. Students want instructors to provide ample opportunity to practice skills prior to being tested
    and a chance to learn from mistakes.
  • I found three places that online students recruited support;
    One: These might be called Personal Learning Networks, Communities of Practice, or Communities of Inquiry…
    Students were keenly aware and appreciative of any instructor who reached out to help them.
  • *WITHOUT these virtual Personal Learning Networks, many say they might have dropped out of their studies. These networks functioned as a teacher does for these students and allowed them to have conversations about the learning that increased their competency and confidence.
  • My preliminary investigation of dissertations showed that many researchers credited a strong belief in God with the achievement of their goals.
    In fact, people believe they could not have done it without God’s help. Or even that God made it happen, not they themselves.
  • All of the participants in my study needed moral or educational support in addition to that provided by the colleges.
    Successful students found that out that they needed to cultivate, or marshal, these important resources.
  • START HERE: Marshaling resources emerged as the core variable around which the theory revolves. I will explain how it describes the efforts of online students who encounter barriers to program completion.
  • START HERE: Marshaling involves assessing one’s current needs and ability to cope in relation to both the resources provided by the learning institution and one’s own intrinsic or extrinsic resources.
    Depending upon the severity of difficulty encountered, learners make a concerted effort to discover resources that were not required prior to this difficult period in time.

  • Until problems were encountered, as they were by all of the participants to some degree, most were not conscious of the need to marshal resources. They thought they could do this on their own.

    When difficulties increased and could no longer be easily managed, students needed to marshal resources.
    Thus, the need to integrate resources exists in latency until activated by a specific need, problem or restraint.
    The earlier they begin to find resources the better, and many realized they had to scramble to figure out who could help.

  • The tipping point represents a critical juncture in the journey of the online students, which occurs when unmet needs weighted against resources cause strain, which potentially necessitates change.

    Unmet student needs from the data were: need to be visible and feel that they matter, need for more institutional support and policies that do not change midstream, and the need for peer interaction.

  • Supports students need were found to be: Opportunity to learn or interact with peers, thoughtful answers to emails in a timely manner, confidence in teacher’s ability to provide structure and remedial guidance without judgment, and the need for the college to be flexible on their behalf.

    The graphic illustrates how accumulation of unmet student needs, along with insufficient supports provided by the educational institution, can cause a tipping point or critical juncture.
  • The theory itself contains many variables that were conceptualized from the data. I will cover some of these and explain them.
    Teaching ambiance: Setting the tone. The course instructor, though not visible in a corporal sense, sets the mood for the class. Participants described the course rooms as an entirely different way of learning, with the instructor the most important aspect of the course.
  • Virtually invisible- Invisibility is disempowering, and these words were related by a participant in the course of describing a personal experience.
    In order to authenticate the experience of being a student, people seek a social outlet to share their experiences.
    Many of the respondents reported that although their initial contacts were purely social in order to feel connected, they did eventually seek out other people for educational purposes when they felt more challenged.
    This is a good argument to have activities that are more social in nature to introduce students to their community.

    Where teaching presence is lacking, people feel virtually ignored as well as invisible.
    Studying without strong teacher presence involves marshaling resources in order to succeed.



  • Holding up my end. This relates to collaborative activities. Institutions vary greatly in quantity and quality of collaborative activities they require.
    Without adequate teacher presence, collaborative activities are often difficult and relations with fellow students, and subsequently, learning, suffer.
    Once again, the instructor held the key to success in collaboration. Lists of rules were not enough.
  • Expecting service. Online education is a for-profit business, and students want to be treated as important customers. Participants believed they had the right to expect good service from staff and instructors who should be competent and prompt. For the online student, time spent waiting is money wasted.
  • Maintaining relevance. Dry theoretical material should be interspersed with opportunity for practical applications such as projects used to apply theory.

    Course activities that are not relevant to what interests the student demand more from the student in terms of motivation. Avoid busywork by allowing students to make assignments relevant to professional growth by practicing mastery.
  • Tipping point-at this point the pent up emotion can cause students to tip either towards leaving or towards pulling in and engaging resources with the goal of persisting.
  • Mattering. Mattering is feeling that other people are interested in what we are doing and are “concerned with our fate”. This contrasts with the experience of not feeling accepted that can be devastating.

    Mattering affects two different domains (a) personal, and (b) work concerns. Mattering in the personal realm relates to the value a person believes he or she holds for others. When you feel that people care about you, you care about them. It is a very powerful predictor of academic stress levels.

    Mattering for work matters relates to the relevance of what the student is doing in the online class.
  • Building community. Why is it important?
  • Breaking off. At some point for over one half of online students depleted reserves of energy or resources renders it impossible to continue to achieve an educational goal.
    Breaking off sometimes occurs when people perceive a lack of responsiveness on the part of the institution to their repeated attempts to remediate a situation.
    Data showed that none of the five participants who withdrew did so for health reasons; all lost their momentum and hope at a crucial educational turning point.
  • Reinvigorating. This is a pivotal concept to the theory. Connections made during the process of marshaling resources serve to reinvigorate those who have previously struggled. Students who successfully marshal find strength and nourishment to continue.

    To caring peers in the Personal learning network, forged alliances sustained members during difficult times. It was reenergizing for participants to know that they were not alone and isolated despite lack of physical proximity.
    As one participant put it, the PLN was “The only reason I am still here today.” Feeling supported contributes to a feeling of mattering. Personalized feedback or contact from a representative of the institution staff or instructors infused an enormous amount of energy to the struggling or disenfranchised student. There was a feeling like “I can’t let them down” and it motivated people.
  • Recommendations for practice:
    Do not advertise policies favorable for non-traditional students and then change them once the student is enrolled.
  • Please read the following recommendations for practice.

  • Please read the following recommendations for practice.

  • Because CGT theories are abstracted from time, place, and from specific groups of people (Glaser, 2001), the theory should have fit and grab (relevance) to other substantive areas. This presentation is limited to discussion of online learning, but the dissertation itself includes references to how the theory applies to other substantive areas. Just a few are: the newly divorced or widowed, those moving to a new town, job seekers, and on campus college students.
    Importantly, skills relating to marshaling resources are ingrained in the above teachable areas.
    Grit is a “soft skill” as is emotional intelligence and motivation.
  • All of these areas affected retention.
  • .
    Importantly, skills relating to marshaling resources are ingrained in the above teachable areas. Students who are prepared ahead for tough times do better and have supports in place so they do not seriously need to consider dropping out as the only option available.
  • THE LINK at the bottom of this page leads to “A Bill of Rights and Principles for Learning in the Digital Age” . The document, drafted by a dozen educators brought together by the MOOC pioneer Sebastian Thrun, proposes a set of “inalienable rights” that the authors say students and their advocates should demand from institutions and companies that offer online courses and technology tools.
  • Yalof co13 marshaling resources articulate separate animations

    1. 1. Marshaling Resources: Of Barbara Yalof, Ed.D.
    2. 2. Marshaling Resources: Of Barbara Yalof, Ed.D.
    3. 3. 84 % of students in Higher Education today are NON- TRADITIONAL students Stokes, 2008 WHO STUDIES ONLINE ?
    4. 4. 84 % of today’s students Stokes, 2008 work and have families to support WHO STUDIES ONLINE ?
    5. 5. HOWEVER Allen & Seaman, 2013; NCES, 2009 Traditional colleges are incorporating more online education
    6. 6. attrition remains 10-20% higher ONLINE than in a traditional on campus venue HOWEVER… Allen & Seaman, 2010, NCES, 2009 Traditional colleges are incorporating more online education
    7. 7. ENROLLMENT GROWTH RATE ON CAMPUS ONLINE 1 % Allen & Seaman, 2011
    8. 8. ENROLLMENT GROWTH RATE ON CAMPUS ONLINE 1 % Allen & Seaman, 2011
    9. 9. 55-65% on- campus 50% or less Online ACTUAL GRADUATION RATES OVER 6 YEARS AVERAGE Allen & Seaman, 2010; NCES, 2011
    10. 10. 55-65% on- campus 50% or less Online ACTUAL GRADUATION RATES OVER 6 YEARS AVERAGE Allen & Seaman, 2010; NCES, 2011
    11. 11. What will prevent ONLINE LEARNERS from… WE NEED MORE INFORMATION ABOUT…
    12. 12. What will prevent ONLINE LEARNERS from… Withdrawing?
    13. 13. of this study was to investigate how online students RESOLVE PROBLEMS THE PURPOSE
    14. 14. of this study was to investigate how online students RESOLVE PROBLEMS THE PURPOSE that prevent them from achieving their goals
    15. 15. To learn what makes the difference
    16. 16. This study provides a way to understand online students What happens when struggles occur?
    17. 17. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY What is behind a decision to leave a program in which they have invested financially, academically, and emotionally?
    18. 18. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY This CGT study contributes a unique theory that explains and predicts how student needs, and their perception of the support provided by the institution, are interconnected.
    19. 19. Support for student success TWO MAJOR AREAS OF INQUIRY EMERGED: Student behaviors leading to success
    20. 20. PARTICIPANTS AND MATERIALS Total of 18 participants interviewed 7 are online instructors as well as students Total of 14 online colleges incorporated into data
    21. 21. LITERATURE REVIEW Online learning outcomes are the same as traditional courses Under prepared students need support to be successful Institutional factors contribute to attrition Student characteristics contribute to attrition Teaching presence most important attribute for success
    22. 22. CLASSIC GROUNDED THEORY An alternative to studies that test existing theory Conceptualizes data on an abstract level Learns from the participants themselves the main concerns with which they grapple And how they resolve these concerns Glaser & Strauss, 1967
    23. 23. CLASSIC GROUNDED THEORY An alternative to studies that test existing theory Conceptualizes data on an abstract level Learns from the participants themselves the main concerns with which they grapple And how they resolve these concerns Glaser & Strauss, 1967
    24. 24. CLASSIC GROUNDED THEORY An alternative to studies that test existing theory Conceptualizes data on an abstract level Learns from the participants themselves the main concerns with which they grapple And how they resolve these concerns Glaser & Strauss, 1967
    25. 25. CLASSIC GROUNDED THEORY An alternative to studies that test existing theory Conceptualizes data on an abstract level Learns from the participants themselves the main concerns with which they grapple And how they resolve these concerns Glaser & Strauss, 1967
    26. 26. “Please talk about your experience as an online learner.” How do classic grounded theory researchers evolve a new theory? They start with a Grand Tour Question: Glaser, 1978, 1998; Simmons, 2011 The question is formulated to be both abstract and personal in nature
    27. 27. How did “marshaling resources” emerge from the data? Codes from interviews and memos were transformed into concepts A constant comparative analysis of concepts was conducted until variables were saturated Core variable marshaling resources emerged to explain the patterns of behavior of participants as they resolved problems related to online learning Glaser, 1978, 1998
    28. 28. marshaling resources included 11 major concepts or variables Analyzing and comparing these concepts showed the following hypothetical probability statements : MARSHALING RESOURCES- The theory
    29. 29. MARSHALING RESOURCES-THE THEORY A HYPOTHETICAL PROBABILITY STATEMENT OF STUDENT STRUGGLE related to presence of the instructor in the online classroom PERCEIVED
    30. 30. MARSHALING RESOURCES-THE THEORY A HYPOTHETICAL PROBABILITY STATEMENT OF STUDENT STRUGGLE related to presence of the instructor in the online classroom PERCEIVED
    31. 31. A HYPOTHETICAL PROBABILITY OF STUDENT STRUGGLE related to perceived support provided by the institution
    32. 32. A STUDENT’S PERCEPTION OF HOW THEIR NEEDS ARE MET BY THEIR COLLEGE WHAT THE STUDY FOUND
    33. 33. A STUDENT’S PERCEPTION OF HOW THEIR NEEDS ARE MET BY THEIR COLLEGE PREDICTS SATISFACTION AND ABILITY TO ACHIEVE GOALS WHAT THE STUDY FOUND
    34. 34. THE INSTRUCTOR IS THE MOST IMPORTANT INGREDIENT OF THE ONLINE CLASSROOM WHAT THE STUDY FOUND
    35. 35. THE INSTRUCTOR IS THE MOST IMPORTANT INGREDIENT OF THE ONLINE CLASSROOM WHAT THE STUDY FOUND And affects every aspect of student satisfaction
    36. 36. THE student’s relationship with the INSTRUCTOR Includes feedback WHAT THE STUDY FOUND
    37. 37. Online students want feedback that is timely, personalized, and contributes to…
    38. 38. Online students want feedback that is timely, personalized, and contributes to learning through one’s mistakes RATHER THAN BEING GRADED FOR FIRST ATTEMPTS ONLY.
    39. 39. Other students and unusually helpful instructors or staff WHERE DID STRUGGLING ONLINE STUDENTS FIND SUPPORT? 1 From other people:
    40. 40. ONLINE LEARNING COMMUNITIES (VIRTUAL PERSONAL LEARNING NETWORKS) SOME STUDENTS HELD THESE PERSONAL LEARNING NETWORKS RESPONSIBLE FOR THEIR SUCCESS WHERE DID STRUGGLING ONLINE STUDENTS FIND SUPPORT? 1 From other people:
    41. 41. Others held their belief in a HIGHER POWER responsible for their success 2
    42. 42. 3 Family members and colleagues: For emotional and educational support
    43. 43. MARSHALING RESOURCES- The theory How do online students persist and resolve problems? They assess needs against resources. They need extra help when difficulties arise Marshaling resources kicks in at the tipping point
    44. 44. MARSHALING RESOURCES- The theory How do online students persist and resolve problems? They assess needs against resources. They need extra help when difficulties arise Marshaling resources kicks in at the tipping point
    45. 45. MARSHALING RESOURCES- The theory How do online students persist and resolve problems? They assess needs against resources. They need extra help when difficulties arise Marshaling resources kicks in at the tipping point
    46. 46. MARSHALING RESOURCES- The theory How do online students persist and resolve problems? They assess needs against resources. They need extra help when difficulties arise At this point students marshal resources
    47. 47. THE TIPPING POINT Unmet needs weighed against supports students need
    48. 48. THE TIPPING POINT Unmet needs weighed against supports students need
    49. 49. MARSHALING RESOURCES- The theory Teaching ambiance SELECT CONCEPTS or variables Instructor sets the mood & remains available Student struggle and increased frustration occur when the instructor is absent Instructor sets model for collaboration and interaction Course objectives focus of activities
    50. 50. MARSHALING RESOURCES- The theory SELECT CONCEPTS or variables Seek connections to become visible to others If instructor responses are inadequate, students turn to peers Social connections evolve into learning support Virtually Invisible
    51. 51. MARSHALING RESOURCES- The theory Holding up my end SELECT CONCEPTS or variables- concerning collaboration Energy and guidance from instructor necessary from the beginning Instructor presence is vital to successful collaborative activities Assure students the assessment is fair
    52. 52. MARSHALING RESOURCES- The theory SELECT CONCEPTS or variables Expecting service Maintaining relevance Students are customers Staff should be competent, prompt and respectful Students want to feel important to the school Instructors must be approachable Coursework pertains to work world Assignments should practice towards mastery Less relevant work requires more motivation
    53. 53. MARSHALING RESOURCES- The theory SELECT CONCEPTS or variables Expecting service Maintaining relevance Students are customers Staff should be competent, prompt and respectful Students should feel important to the school Instructors must be approachable Coursework pertains to work world Utilize student expertise Assignments should practice towards mastery Less relevant work requires more motivation
    54. 54. MARSHALING RESOURCES- The theory Tipping point Mattering SELECT CONCEPTS or variables Pent up emotion without support can cause impulsive dropout Marshaling resources is a skill that enables continuance towards educational goals. Feeling that people care Cycles into caring about others’ success Also important is feeling that your own learning matters to you. It is a predictor of academic stress levels
    55. 55. MARSHALING RESOURCES- The theory Tipping point Mattering SELECT CONCEPTS or variables Pent up emotion without support can cause impulsive dropout Marshaling resources is a skill that enables continuance towards educational goals. Feeling that people care Cycles into caring about others’ success Also important is feeling that your own learning matters to you. Is a predictor of academic stress levels
    56. 56. Breaking off Building community Losing momentum and hope at a crucial turning point. Can be due to perceived non- responsiveness of the institution and their inability to be flexible Supportive peers make the difference Learning communities facilitated achievement when TEACHER PRESENCE WAS LOW Diversity of ideas exchanged grows knowledge
    57. 57. Breaking off Building community Losing momentum and hope at a crucial turning point. Can be due to perceived non-responsiveness of the institution and their inability to be flexible Supportive peers make the difference The ability to become part of a virtual community of learners was essential when TEACHER PRESENCE WAS LOW
    58. 58. Reinvigorating Students who successfully marshal resources find strength Receive nourishment that replenishes resources Build connections to reinvigorate when struggling Psychological closeness scaffolds psyches for success. Can’t let folks down Replenishing Resources
    59. 59. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR PRACTICE Enforce consistent policies that are flexible in emergencies Train and have high expectations for school personnel Allow students to build bonds with instructors & staff Open up channels for student-to-student communication Respond quickly and thoughtfully to student communication Encourage relationship building Provide remedial rather than punitive feedback TO PREVENT ATTRITION Marshaling resources is a teachable skill for both students and institutions
    60. 60. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR PRACTICE Enforce consistent policies that are flexible in emergencies Train and have high expectations for school personnel Allow students to build bonds with instructors & staff Open up channels for student-to-student communication Respond quickly and thoughtfully to student communication Encourage relationship building Provide remedial rather than punitive feedback TO PREVENT ATTRITION Marshaling resources is a teachable skill for both students and institutions
    61. 61. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR PRACTICE Enforce consistent policies that are flexible in emergencies Train and have high expectations for school personnel Allow students to build bonds with instructors & staff Open up channels for student-to-student communication Respond quickly and thoughtfully to student communication Encourage relationship building Provide remedial rather than punitive feedback Marshaling resources is a teachable skill for both students and institutions
    62. 62. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR PRACTICE Enforce consistent policies that are flexible in emergencies Train and have high expectations for school personnel Allow students to build bonds with instructors & staff Open up channels for student-to-student communication Respond quickly and thoughtfully to student communication Encourage relationship building Provide remedial rather than punitive feedback TO PREVENT ATTRITION Marshaling resources is a teachable skill for both students and institutions
    63. 63. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR PRACTICE Enforce consistent policies that are flexible in emergencies Train and have high expectations for school personnel Allow students to build bonds with instructors & staff Open up channels for student-to-student communication Respond quickly and thoughtfully to student communication Encourage relationship building Provide remedial rather than punitive feedback TO PREVENT ATTRITION Marshaling resources is a teachable skill for both students and institutions
    64. 64. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR PRACTICE Enforce consistent policies that are flexible in emergencies Train and have high expectations for school personnel Allow students to build bonds with instructors & staff Open up channels for student-to-student communication Respond quickly and thoughtfully to student communication Encourage relationship building during active learning tasks Provide remedial rather than punitive feedback TO PREVENT ATTRITION Marshaling resources is a teachable skill for both students and institutions
    65. 65. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR PRACTICE Enforce consistent policies that are flexible in emergencies Train and have high expectations for school personnel Allow students to build bonds with instructors & staff Open up channels for student-to-student communication Respond quickly and thoughtfully to student communication Encourage relationship building during active learning tasks Provide remedial rather than punitive feedback-allow revising TO PREVENT ATTRITION Marshaling resources is a teachable skill for both students and institutions
    66. 66. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH The role of grit (Duckworth & Quinn, 2009) T O R E T E N T I O N Investigate the role or value of these concepts
    67. 67. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH The role of grit (Duckworth & Quinn, 2009) Effective feedback for online learning T O R E T E N T I O N Investigate the role or value of these concepts
    68. 68. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH The role of grit (Duckworth & Quinn, 2009) The value of personal learning networks Effective feedback for online learning T O R E T E N T I O N Investigate the role or value of these concepts
    69. 69. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH The role of grit (Duckworth & Quinn, 2009) The role of emotional intelligence (Goleman, 1997) The value of personal learning networks Effective feedback for online learning T O R E T E N T I O N Investigate the role or value of these concepts
    70. 70. Marshal resources towards online success Please send any comments to barbarayalof@verizon.net
    71. 71. Allen, E., & Seaman, J. (2010). Class differences: Online education in the United States. Needham, MA: The Sloan Consortium. Retrieved from http://www. sloan-c.org/publications/survey/pdf/online_nation.pdf Allen, E., & Seaman, J. (2011). Going the distance: Online education in the United States, 2011. Retrieved from http://sloanconsortium.org/publications /survey/going_distance_2011 Allen, E., & Seaman, J. (2013). Changing Course: Ten Years of Tracking Online Education in the United States. Retrieved from http://sloanconsortium.org/publications /survey/changing course _2013 Duckworth, A. L., & Quinn, P. D. (2009). Development and validation of the short grit scale (grit-s). Journal of Personality Assessment, 91(2), 166- 174. Glaser, B. G. (1978). Theoretical sensitivity: Advances in the methodology of grounded theory. Mill Valley, CA: Sociology Press. Glaser, B. G. (1998). Doing grounded theory: Issues and discussions. Mill Valley, CA: Sociology Press. Glaser, B. G., & Strauss, A. L. (1967). The discovery of grounded theory: Strategies for qualitative research. Chicago, IL: Aldine Publishing Company. Goleman, D. (1997). Emotional intelligence: Why it can matter more than IQ. New York, NY: Bantam. National Center for Education Statistics (2011). Learning at a distance: Undergraduate enrollment in distance education courses and degree programs. NCES2012154. October. Washington, DC. Simmons, O. (2011). Why classic grounded theory? In V. Martin & A. Gynnild (Eds.), Grounded theory: The philosophy, method, and work of Barney Glaser (pp. 15-30). Boca Raton, FLA: Brown Walker Press. Stokes, P. J. (2008). Hidden in plain sight: Adult learners forge a new tradition in higher education. A national dialogue: The Secretary of Education’s commission on the future of higher education. Retrieved from http://ed.gov/about/bdscomm/ list/hiedfuture/reports/stokes.pdf FYI: SEE ALSO: http://chronicle.com/article/The-Document-A-Bill-of/136781/?cid=wc&utm_source=wc&utm_medium=en Selected References
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