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The literature on attrition suggests that learners who underestimate their ability to succeed in college-level courses become easily disillusioned once failure occurs. The key to avoiding this example of cognitive dissonance (Miller & Tanner, 2011) is to anchor achievement strategies to realistic goal-setting. The literature suggests that students who experience cognitive dissonance are more likely to dropout (Miller & Tanner, 2011). Furthermore, the unpleasurable experience of dropping out of school is manifested emotionally. However, studies show that students who are successful in managing their emotions and relationships and impulse control are more likely to persist to graduation (Allen & Lester, 2012).
So, how do you measure achievement?