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Yalof co13 marshaling resources articulate separate animations

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Yalof co13 marshaling resources articulate separate animations

  1. 1. Marshaling Resources: Of Barbara Yalof, Ed.D.
  2. 2. Marshaling Resources: Of Barbara Yalof, Ed.D.
  3. 3. 84 % of students in Higher Education today are NON- TRADITIONAL students Stokes, 2008 WHO STUDIES ONLINE ?
  4. 4. 84 % of today’s students Stokes, 2008 work and have families to support WHO STUDIES ONLINE ?
  5. 5. HOWEVER Allen & Seaman, 2013; NCES, 2009 Traditional colleges are incorporating more online education
  6. 6. attrition remains 10-20% higher ONLINE than in a traditional on campus venue HOWEVER… Allen & Seaman, 2010, NCES, 2009 Traditional colleges are incorporating more online education
  7. 7. ENROLLMENT GROWTH RATE ON CAMPUS ONLINE 1 % Allen & Seaman, 2011
  8. 8. ENROLLMENT GROWTH RATE ON CAMPUS ONLINE 1 % Allen & Seaman, 2011
  9. 9. 55-65% on- campus 50% or less Online ACTUAL GRADUATION RATES OVER 6 YEARS AVERAGE Allen & Seaman, 2010; NCES, 2011
  10. 10. 55-65% on- campus 50% or less Online ACTUAL GRADUATION RATES OVER 6 YEARS AVERAGE Allen & Seaman, 2010; NCES, 2011
  11. 11. What will prevent ONLINE LEARNERS from… WE NEED MORE INFORMATION ABOUT…
  12. 12. What will prevent ONLINE LEARNERS from… Withdrawing?
  13. 13. of this study was to investigate how online students RESOLVE PROBLEMS THE PURPOSE
  14. 14. of this study was to investigate how online students RESOLVE PROBLEMS THE PURPOSE that prevent them from achieving their goals
  15. 15. To learn what makes the difference
  16. 16. This study provides a way to understand online students What happens when struggles occur?
  17. 17. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY What is behind a decision to leave a program in which they have invested financially, academically, and emotionally?
  18. 18. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY This CGT study contributes a unique theory that explains and predicts how student needs, and their perception of the support provided by the institution, are interconnected.
  19. 19. Support for student success TWO MAJOR AREAS OF INQUIRY EMERGED: Student behaviors leading to success
  20. 20. PARTICIPANTS AND MATERIALS Total of 18 participants interviewed 7 are online instructors as well as students Total of 14 online colleges incorporated into data
  21. 21. LITERATURE REVIEW Online learning outcomes are the same as traditional courses Under prepared students need support to be successful Institutional factors contribute to attrition Student characteristics contribute to attrition Teaching presence most important attribute for success
  22. 22. CLASSIC GROUNDED THEORY An alternative to studies that test existing theory Conceptualizes data on an abstract level Learns from the participants themselves the main concerns with which they grapple And how they resolve these concerns Glaser & Strauss, 1967
  23. 23. CLASSIC GROUNDED THEORY An alternative to studies that test existing theory Conceptualizes data on an abstract level Learns from the participants themselves the main concerns with which they grapple And how they resolve these concerns Glaser & Strauss, 1967
  24. 24. CLASSIC GROUNDED THEORY An alternative to studies that test existing theory Conceptualizes data on an abstract level Learns from the participants themselves the main concerns with which they grapple And how they resolve these concerns Glaser & Strauss, 1967
  25. 25. CLASSIC GROUNDED THEORY An alternative to studies that test existing theory Conceptualizes data on an abstract level Learns from the participants themselves the main concerns with which they grapple And how they resolve these concerns Glaser & Strauss, 1967
  26. 26. “Please talk about your experience as an online learner.” How do classic grounded theory researchers evolve a new theory? They start with a Grand Tour Question: Glaser, 1978, 1998; Simmons, 2011 The question is formulated to be both abstract and personal in nature
  27. 27. How did “marshaling resources” emerge from the data? Codes from interviews and memos were transformed into concepts A constant comparative analysis of concepts was conducted until variables were saturated Core variable marshaling resources emerged to explain the patterns of behavior of participants as they resolved problems related to online learning Glaser, 1978, 1998
  28. 28. marshaling resources included 11 major concepts or variables Analyzing and comparing these concepts showed the following hypothetical probability statements : MARSHALING RESOURCES- The theory
  29. 29. MARSHALING RESOURCES-THE THEORY A HYPOTHETICAL PROBABILITY STATEMENT OF STUDENT STRUGGLE related to presence of the instructor in the online classroom PERCEIVED
  30. 30. MARSHALING RESOURCES-THE THEORY A HYPOTHETICAL PROBABILITY STATEMENT OF STUDENT STRUGGLE related to presence of the instructor in the online classroom PERCEIVED
  31. 31. A HYPOTHETICAL PROBABILITY OF STUDENT STRUGGLE related to perceived support provided by the institution
  32. 32. A STUDENT’S PERCEPTION OF HOW THEIR NEEDS ARE MET BY THEIR COLLEGE WHAT THE STUDY FOUND
  33. 33. A STUDENT’S PERCEPTION OF HOW THEIR NEEDS ARE MET BY THEIR COLLEGE PREDICTS SATISFACTION AND ABILITY TO ACHIEVE GOALS WHAT THE STUDY FOUND
  34. 34. THE INSTRUCTOR IS THE MOST IMPORTANT INGREDIENT OF THE ONLINE CLASSROOM WHAT THE STUDY FOUND
  35. 35. THE INSTRUCTOR IS THE MOST IMPORTANT INGREDIENT OF THE ONLINE CLASSROOM WHAT THE STUDY FOUND And affects every aspect of student satisfaction
  36. 36. THE student’s relationship with the INSTRUCTOR Includes feedback WHAT THE STUDY FOUND
  37. 37. Online students want feedback that is timely, personalized, and contributes to…
  38. 38. Online students want feedback that is timely, personalized, and contributes to learning through one’s mistakes RATHER THAN BEING GRADED FOR FIRST ATTEMPTS ONLY.
  39. 39. Other students and unusually helpful instructors or staff WHERE DID STRUGGLING ONLINE STUDENTS FIND SUPPORT? 1 From other people:
  40. 40. ONLINE LEARNING COMMUNITIES (VIRTUAL PERSONAL LEARNING NETWORKS) SOME STUDENTS HELD THESE PERSONAL LEARNING NETWORKS RESPONSIBLE FOR THEIR SUCCESS WHERE DID STRUGGLING ONLINE STUDENTS FIND SUPPORT? 1 From other people:
  41. 41. Others held their belief in a HIGHER POWER responsible for their success 2
  42. 42. 3 Family members and colleagues: For emotional and educational support
  43. 43. MARSHALING RESOURCES- The theory How do online students persist and resolve problems? They assess needs against resources. They need extra help when difficulties arise Marshaling resources kicks in at the tipping point
  44. 44. MARSHALING RESOURCES- The theory How do online students persist and resolve problems? They assess needs against resources. They need extra help when difficulties arise Marshaling resources kicks in at the tipping point
  45. 45. MARSHALING RESOURCES- The theory How do online students persist and resolve problems? They assess needs against resources. They need extra help when difficulties arise Marshaling resources kicks in at the tipping point
  46. 46. MARSHALING RESOURCES- The theory How do online students persist and resolve problems? They assess needs against resources. They need extra help when difficulties arise At this point students marshal resources
  47. 47. THE TIPPING POINT Unmet needs weighed against supports students need
  48. 48. THE TIPPING POINT Unmet needs weighed against supports students need
  49. 49. MARSHALING RESOURCES- The theory Teaching ambiance SELECT CONCEPTS or variables Instructor sets the mood & remains available Student struggle and increased frustration occur when the instructor is absent Instructor sets model for collaboration and interaction Course objectives focus of activities
  50. 50. MARSHALING RESOURCES- The theory SELECT CONCEPTS or variables Seek connections to become visible to others If instructor responses are inadequate, students turn to peers Social connections evolve into learning support Virtually Invisible
  51. 51. MARSHALING RESOURCES- The theory Holding up my end SELECT CONCEPTS or variables- concerning collaboration Energy and guidance from instructor necessary from the beginning Instructor presence is vital to successful collaborative activities Assure students the assessment is fair
  52. 52. MARSHALING RESOURCES- The theory SELECT CONCEPTS or variables Expecting service Maintaining relevance Students are customers Staff should be competent, prompt and respectful Students want to feel important to the school Instructors must be approachable Coursework pertains to work world Assignments should practice towards mastery Less relevant work requires more motivation
  53. 53. MARSHALING RESOURCES- The theory SELECT CONCEPTS or variables Expecting service Maintaining relevance Students are customers Staff should be competent, prompt and respectful Students should feel important to the school Instructors must be approachable Coursework pertains to work world Utilize student expertise Assignments should practice towards mastery Less relevant work requires more motivation
  54. 54. MARSHALING RESOURCES- The theory Tipping point Mattering SELECT CONCEPTS or variables Pent up emotion without support can cause impulsive dropout Marshaling resources is a skill that enables continuance towards educational goals. Feeling that people care Cycles into caring about others’ success Also important is feeling that your own learning matters to you. It is a predictor of academic stress levels
  55. 55. MARSHALING RESOURCES- The theory Tipping point Mattering SELECT CONCEPTS or variables Pent up emotion without support can cause impulsive dropout Marshaling resources is a skill that enables continuance towards educational goals. Feeling that people care Cycles into caring about others’ success Also important is feeling that your own learning matters to you. Is a predictor of academic stress levels
  56. 56. Breaking off Building community Losing momentum and hope at a crucial turning point. Can be due to perceived non- responsiveness of the institution and their inability to be flexible Supportive peers make the difference Learning communities facilitated achievement when TEACHER PRESENCE WAS LOW Diversity of ideas exchanged grows knowledge
  57. 57. Breaking off Building community Losing momentum and hope at a crucial turning point. Can be due to perceived non-responsiveness of the institution and their inability to be flexible Supportive peers make the difference The ability to become part of a virtual community of learners was essential when TEACHER PRESENCE WAS LOW
  58. 58. Reinvigorating Students who successfully marshal resources find strength Receive nourishment that replenishes resources Build connections to reinvigorate when struggling Psychological closeness scaffolds psyches for success. Can’t let folks down Replenishing Resources
  59. 59. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR PRACTICE Enforce consistent policies that are flexible in emergencies Train and have high expectations for school personnel Allow students to build bonds with instructors & staff Open up channels for student-to-student communication Respond quickly and thoughtfully to student communication Encourage relationship building Provide remedial rather than punitive feedback TO PREVENT ATTRITION Marshaling resources is a teachable skill for both students and institutions
  60. 60. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR PRACTICE Enforce consistent policies that are flexible in emergencies Train and have high expectations for school personnel Allow students to build bonds with instructors & staff Open up channels for student-to-student communication Respond quickly and thoughtfully to student communication Encourage relationship building Provide remedial rather than punitive feedback TO PREVENT ATTRITION Marshaling resources is a teachable skill for both students and institutions
  61. 61. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR PRACTICE Enforce consistent policies that are flexible in emergencies Train and have high expectations for school personnel Allow students to build bonds with instructors & staff Open up channels for student-to-student communication Respond quickly and thoughtfully to student communication Encourage relationship building Provide remedial rather than punitive feedback Marshaling resources is a teachable skill for both students and institutions
  62. 62. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR PRACTICE Enforce consistent policies that are flexible in emergencies Train and have high expectations for school personnel Allow students to build bonds with instructors & staff Open up channels for student-to-student communication Respond quickly and thoughtfully to student communication Encourage relationship building Provide remedial rather than punitive feedback TO PREVENT ATTRITION Marshaling resources is a teachable skill for both students and institutions
  63. 63. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR PRACTICE Enforce consistent policies that are flexible in emergencies Train and have high expectations for school personnel Allow students to build bonds with instructors & staff Open up channels for student-to-student communication Respond quickly and thoughtfully to student communication Encourage relationship building Provide remedial rather than punitive feedback TO PREVENT ATTRITION Marshaling resources is a teachable skill for both students and institutions
  64. 64. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR PRACTICE Enforce consistent policies that are flexible in emergencies Train and have high expectations for school personnel Allow students to build bonds with instructors & staff Open up channels for student-to-student communication Respond quickly and thoughtfully to student communication Encourage relationship building during active learning tasks Provide remedial rather than punitive feedback TO PREVENT ATTRITION Marshaling resources is a teachable skill for both students and institutions
  65. 65. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR PRACTICE Enforce consistent policies that are flexible in emergencies Train and have high expectations for school personnel Allow students to build bonds with instructors & staff Open up channels for student-to-student communication Respond quickly and thoughtfully to student communication Encourage relationship building during active learning tasks Provide remedial rather than punitive feedback-allow revising TO PREVENT ATTRITION Marshaling resources is a teachable skill for both students and institutions
  66. 66. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH The role of grit (Duckworth & Quinn, 2009) T O R E T E N T I O N Investigate the role or value of these concepts
  67. 67. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH The role of grit (Duckworth & Quinn, 2009) Effective feedback for online learning T O R E T E N T I O N Investigate the role or value of these concepts
  68. 68. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH The role of grit (Duckworth & Quinn, 2009) The value of personal learning networks Effective feedback for online learning T O R E T E N T I O N Investigate the role or value of these concepts
  69. 69. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH The role of grit (Duckworth & Quinn, 2009) The role of emotional intelligence (Goleman, 1997) The value of personal learning networks Effective feedback for online learning T O R E T E N T I O N Investigate the role or value of these concepts
  70. 70. Marshal resources towards online success Please send any comments to barbarayalof@verizon.net
  71. 71. Allen, E., & Seaman, J. (2010). Class differences: Online education in the United States. Needham, MA: The Sloan Consortium. Retrieved from http://www. sloan-c.org/publications/survey/pdf/online_nation.pdf Allen, E., & Seaman, J. (2011). Going the distance: Online education in the United States, 2011. Retrieved from http://sloanconsortium.org/publications /survey/going_distance_2011 Allen, E., & Seaman, J. (2013). Changing Course: Ten Years of Tracking Online Education in the United States. Retrieved from http://sloanconsortium.org/publications /survey/changing course _2013 Duckworth, A. L., & Quinn, P. D. (2009). Development and validation of the short grit scale (grit-s). Journal of Personality Assessment, 91(2), 166- 174. Glaser, B. G. (1978). Theoretical sensitivity: Advances in the methodology of grounded theory. Mill Valley, CA: Sociology Press. Glaser, B. G. (1998). Doing grounded theory: Issues and discussions. Mill Valley, CA: Sociology Press. Glaser, B. G., & Strauss, A. L. (1967). The discovery of grounded theory: Strategies for qualitative research. Chicago, IL: Aldine Publishing Company. Goleman, D. (1997). Emotional intelligence: Why it can matter more than IQ. New York, NY: Bantam. National Center for Education Statistics (2011). Learning at a distance: Undergraduate enrollment in distance education courses and degree programs. NCES2012154. October. Washington, DC. Simmons, O. (2011). Why classic grounded theory? In V. Martin & A. Gynnild (Eds.), Grounded theory: The philosophy, method, and work of Barney Glaser (pp. 15-30). Boca Raton, FLA: Brown Walker Press. Stokes, P. J. (2008). Hidden in plain sight: Adult learners forge a new tradition in higher education. A national dialogue: The Secretary of Education’s commission on the future of higher education. Retrieved from http://ed.gov/about/bdscomm/ list/hiedfuture/reports/stokes.pdf FYI: SEE ALSO: http://chronicle.com/article/The-Document-A-Bill-of/136781/?cid=wc&utm_source=wc&utm_medium=en Selected References

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