OT Session #2 Pentatuch


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Exodus, Leviticus & Deuteronomy slides for Foundations Bible School (copyright Don Palmer).

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OT Session #2 Pentatuch

  1. 1. Session #2. Encountering The Law(Exodus – Deuteronomy)
  2. 2. Sacred places – Tabernacle & LandSacred times – Sabbath (weekly) Passover &…Festivals (annually) Sabbath year (7th year) Year of Jubilee (50th year)Sacred actions – Circumcision (set apart/ holy) Observing the Law (lifestyle & obedience) Sacrifice/ offerings (worship & forgiveness)
  3. 3. OUTLINE: shemot (Heb) = names exodus (Gk) = departure1. Preparation of the deliverer (Moses)2. Ten plagues of Egypt (God vs. the gods of Egypt)3. Establishment of the Passover4. The Exodus (& crossing of the Sea of Reeds Yam Suph)5. Journey to Mount Sinai (& giving of the Law)6. Directions for & Construction of the Tabernacle
  4. 4. I don’t want you to forget, dear brothers and sisters, about our ancestors in the wilderness long ago. All of them were guided by a cloud that moved ahead of them, and all of them walked through the sea on dry ground…all of them were baptized as followers of Moses. All of them ate the same spiritual food and drank the same spiritual water…and that was Christ. Yet God was not pleased with most of them, and their bodies were scattered in the wilderness.These things happened as examples to warn us, so that we would not crave evil things as they did, or worship idols as some of them did. As the Scriptures say, “The people celebrated with feasting and drinking, and they indulged in pagan revelry.” And we must not engage in sexual immorality as some of them did, causing 23,000 of them to die in one day.Nor should we put Christ to the test, as some of them did and then died...And don’t grumble as some of them did, and then were destroyed by the angel of death. These things happened to them as examples for us. They were written down as warnings to us who live at the end of the age. (1 Corinthians 10:1-11)
  5. 5. “The friend of God” (Ex. 33:11; Num. 12:3)40 years in Egypt (as an Egyptian prince)40 years in the desert (as a Nomadic shepherd)40 years leading the people (as a Hebrew deliverer)
  6. 6. Yahweh (LORD) - “I am who I am” (Ex. 3-4) Moses’ 5 excuses: Inadequacy (3:11ff.) “Who am I?” Ignorance (3:13ff.) “Who are you?” Incredibility (4:1ff.) “What if they don’t believe me?” Inarticulate (4:10ff.) “What if I can’t communicate?” Insubordinate (4:13ff.) “Here am I Lord - send Aaron!”
  7. 7. The gods of Egypt (Ex. 12:12):1. Water to blood Hapi September2. Frogs Hek/ Qet Sept/ October3. Gnats Geb/ Seb Oct/ November4. Flies Khephera November5. Livestock diseased Hathor & Apis Nov/ December6. Boils Typhon Dec/ January7. Thunder and Hail Nut & Shu February8. Locusts Serapia Feb/ March9. Darkness Ra/ Re March10. Death of the Firstborn Ptah & Taurt March/ April
  8. 8. A new start (“the first month of the first year”) Centred around the  Judgment on the firstborn Passover lamb (sacrifice) (Is. 53:7; John 1:29; 1 Pet. 1:19; Rev. 5:6)  Consecration of the Application of the blood firstborn (man & animal) (to each household)  Regulations (who can do Eat it (quickly)/ this & how often?) get ready to leave Egypt  Feast of Unleavened Bread
  9. 9. “The Israelites set out from Rameses on the fifteenth day of the first month, the day after the Passover. They marched out boldly in full view of all the Egyptians, who were burying all their firstborn, whom the LORD had struck down among them; for the LORD had brought judgment on their gods.” (Numbers 33:3-4)
  10. 10. Unconstituted group of up to 2 million people * (cf. Numb. 1:46) …who have left their country of birth …who are largely bi-lingual …and are about to enter a new land(populated by various groups of indigenous peoples) * Heb. e le p also means a clan or military unit
  11. 11. 1. Deliverance from captivity in Egypt & crossing of the Sea  The Lord our redeemer of Reeds (Exodus)2. Wilderness journey  The Lord our warrior (& early military victory)3. Provision  The Lord our provider (manna, quail & water)4.TORAH (instructions): Ten Commandments  “I am the truth…” Tabernacle (“tent of meeting”)  “I am the way…” - Priesthood, sacrifice & offerings The Holiness Code  “I am the life…”
  12. 12. “You yourselves have seen what I did to Egypt, and how I carried you on eagles wings and brought you to myself. Now if you obey me fully and keep my covenant, then out of all nations you will be my treasured possession. Although the whole earth is mine, you will be for me a kingdom of priests and a holy nation.”These are the words you are to speak to the Israelites. (Ex. 19:4-6; cf. 1 Peter 2:9)
  13. 13. “The LORD will provide” (Gen. 22:14)1. Salvation–crossing the Sea of Reeds. “The LORD is a warrior”2. Bread, meat & water (Ex. 15-17)3. Rephidim: A taste of victory (Ex. 17)4. Organization, leadership structure & delegation (Ex. 18)5. Covenant (10 commandments) & Law (Ex. 19-24)6. Festivals & the Sabbath (Ex. 23)7. Instructions for the Tabernacle (“Tent of meeting”) Ex.25-31 Golden calf & New tablets of Law (Ex. 32-34) Construction of the Tabernacle (Ex. 35-40)
  14. 14. Key to understanding the OT!
  15. 15. 1. Promised to Abraham (12:2-3)2. Established - or “cut” (15:18)3. Confirmed/ sealed by circumcision (17)4. Re-stated (22:15-18)5. Confirmed to Isaac (26:2-6, 23-25)6. Transmitted to Jacob (27:27-29; 28:1-4)7. Confirmed to Jacob (28:13-15; 35:9-12; 46:3-4) Transmitted to Judah, not Joseph! (49:10) “I am the God of Abraham, Isaac & Jacob”
  16. 16. 1 The LORD had said to Abram, "Leave your country, your people and your fathers household and go to the land I will show you. 2 "I will make you into a great nation and I will bless you; I will make your name great, and you will be a blessing. 3 I will bless those who bless you, and whoever curses you I will curse; and all peoples on earth will be blessed through you."
  17. 17. 1 After this, the word of the LORD came to Abram in a vision: "Do not be afraid, Abram. I am your shield, your very great reward."…5 He took him outside and said, "Look up at the heavens and count the stars—if indeed you can count them." Then he said, "So shall your offspring be."… 7 He also said to him, "I am the LORD, who brought you out of Ur of the Chaldeans to give you this land to take possession of it."
  18. 18. … 13Then the LORD said to him, "Know for certain that your descendants will be strangers in a country not their own, and they will be enslaved and mistreated four hundred years. 14 But I will punish the nation they serve as slaves, and afterward they will come out with great possessions. 15 You, however, will go to your fathers in peace and be buried at a good old age. 16 In the fourth generation your descendants will come back here…”….18 On that day the LORD made (cut) a covenant with Abram and said, "To your descendants I give this land, from the river of Egypt to the great river, the Euphrates – the land of (ten nations)…”
  19. 19. Personal relationship “The faith of Abraham” (blessing) (Rom. 4; Gal. 3)1. A seed/ offspring (son)  “The seed…is Christ… you are Abraham’s seed (Gal. 3:16, 29; 4:28)2. A nation  “The Israel of God” (Gal. 6:16)3. A land  “They will inherit the earth” (Matt. 5:5, Rev. 5:10) All nations  “Make disciples of all nations” (Matt. 28:19; Rev. 15:4)
  20. 20. The covenant ceremony (with the nation) The terms of the covenant Ex. 19-20 The covenant is sealed (by blood) Ex. 24 The covenant is confirmed Ex. 34 (two tablets stored in the Ark of the Covenant)The covenant is renewed Deut. 29-31 Blessing Land Life Curse Captivity Death
  21. 21. “The Mosaic period rests squarely on a covenantal rather than a legal relationship. While law plays an extremely significant role…in this era, covenant always supersedes law.” (O. Palmer Robertson)“God heard their groaning and he remembered his covenant with Abraham, with Isaac and with Jacob.” (Ex. 2:24)“I am the Lord your God who brought you out of the land of slavery - you shall be…” (Ex. 20:2)
  22. 22. SALVATION JUDGEMENT“God is love” “God is holy” In a covenant  Outside the covenant relationship relationship…or broken covenant relationship Security  Insecurity Blessing (giving freely)  Curse (withholding) Life  Death
  23. 23. Relating to God: Relating to others: “our neighbour”1. Only one God 5. Honour your parents2. No idols 6. Do not murder3. Respect God’s name 7. Do not commit adultery4. Keep the Sabbath 8. Do not steal 9. Do not lie 10. Do not covet ** God: “I will…” ** People: “We will..”
  24. 24. Then (God) said to Moses, "Come up to the LORD, you and Aaron, Nadab and Abihu, and seventy of the elders of Israel… When Moses went and told the people all the LORDs words and laws, they responded with one voice, "Everything the LORD has said we will do." Moses then wrote down everything the LORD had said.He got up early the next morning and built an altar at the foot of the mountain and set up twelve stone pillars representing the twelve tribes of Israel. Then he sent young Israelite men, and they offered burnt offerings and sacrificed young bulls as fellowship offerings to the LORD. Moses took half of the blood and put it in bowls, and the other half he sprinkled on the altar. Then he took the Book of the Covenant and read it to the people. They responded, "We will do everything the LORD has said; we will obey."Moses then took the blood, sprinkled it on the people and said, "This is the blood of the covenant that the LORD has made with you in accordance with all these words." (vv. 1-8)
  25. 25.  Circumcision  Sabbath (corporate) (personal) “The Israelites are to“You are to undergo observe the Sabbath, circumcision, and it will celebrating it for the be the sign of the generations to come as covenant between me and a lasting covenant. It you.” (Ex. 17:11) will be a sign between me and the Israelites.” (Ex. 31:16-17)
  26. 26.  The Sanctuary  Three annualTabernacle/ Temple Festivals1. Altar (Burnt offering) 1. Passover (1st month 14th)2. Laver (Ceremonial washing) Unleavened bread (15th)3. Holy Place a. Table of the presence 2. Firstfruits b. Seven branch lampstand Weeks (50 days after Passover) c. Altar of incense4. Most holy place 3. Trumpets (7th month) Mercy seat  Day of Atonement (10th) Ark of the covenant  Tabernacles (15th) a. Tables of the Law b. Aaron’s rod + The weekly Sabbath c. Pot of manna
  27. 27. Book of worship
  28. 28.  The 5 offerings (Lev. 1-7) The (613) laws Practice of worship1. Burnt offering  The Priesthood2. Grain offering  Sacrifice/ offerings3. Peace (fellowship) offering  Festivals (& days)4. Sin offering The Holiness code5. Guilt offering  Lifestyle & health  Ethics & morality  Social justice “Be holy, for I am holy” (11:44-45; 19:2; 20:7, 26)
  29. 29. Confession (our part) Covering (God’s part) agreement atonement1. Burnt offering * (mandatory, complete, continual)2. Peace offering (voluntary, fellowship)3. Sin offering (sins of omission)4. Trespass/ Guilt offering (sins of commission, restitution)5. Grain offering (thanksgiving, no blood sacrifice) * lit. “holocaust”
  30. 30. 1. Individual brings an offering (for himself/ his family)2. Lay hands on substitute & confess sins3. Priest slaughters animal (humanely)4. Blood poured out, collected & scattered on altar5. Sacrifice burnt (partially or wholly)6. Remaining portions eaten (ie… a fellowship meal) “The scapegoat…sent away” (Lev. 16/ Day of Atonement)
  31. 31. Holiness of God & complexity of sin 1. God made us for a relationship 2. We rebel & break the relationship 3. God is holy & can’t overlook sin 4. God has intervened to provide a way back Sin (little word/ big concept)Breaking a law (abar) “transgression”guiltyMissing a target (chattah) “fall short” lost/ waywardBecome twisted (awan) “perversion” taintedMorally confused (rasha) “wicked” unrighteous
  32. 32.  POWER  PRINCIPLE  PENALTY World  Heart  Universal Born in  Born with  Born into a sphere of sin propensity to sin state of sin (transferred down) SIN… spoils spreads enslaves separates
  33. 33. The anointed one (Jesus) will… “finish transgression (abar)” “put an end to sin (chattah)” “atone for wickedness (awan)” “bring in everlasting righteousness (opp. to rasha)” ** see Hebrews 7-10 for more details **"Look, the Lamb of God, who takes away the sin of the world!" (John 1:29)"He is the atoning sacrifice for our sins, and not only for ours but also for the sins of the whole world." (1 John. 2:2)
  34. 34.  At Sinai (1-9) Census - Arrangement of the camp - Passover From Sinai to Kadesh Barnea (10-19) The report of the spies (13) – Turning back (14:25) Heb. 3:12/1 Cor. 10:1-13 From Kadesh to the Plains of Moab/Jordan (20-36) On the move again – Victories - 2nd census
  35. 35.  One year later (after the exodus & giving of the law) Take a census & arrange the tribes (Num. 1-8) Celebrate Passover (Num. 9) Set off (from Sinai) – Num. 10 Exploration (of the land) – Num. 13 The great rebellion (Num. 14/Heb. 3:12/1 Cor. 10) Sentence: 40 years for 40 days of crime! (Numb. 14:34) On the move again (the 40th year) – Num. 20-36 Miriam dies (1st month), Aaron dies (5th month), 40th yr. Journey to Moab (Defeat of Og & Sihon) Encounter with Balaam (& Balak) – Num. 22-24 Second census, restructuring (Joshua to succeed Moses)** A potential 11 day journey, takes 40 years! (cf. Deut. 1:2)
  36. 36. On the twentieth day of the second month of the second year, the cloud lifted from above the tabernacle of the Testimony. Then the Israelites set out from the Desert of Sinai and traveled from place to place until the cloud came to rest in the Desert of Paran. They set out, this first time, at the LORDs command…(vv.11-13)So they set out from the mountain of the LORD & traveled for three days. The ark of the covenant of the LORD went before them during those three days to find them a place to rest. The cloud of the LORD was over them by day when they set out from the camp.Whenever the ark set out, Moses said, "Rise up, O LORD! May your enemies be scattered; may your foes flee before you."Whenever it came to rest, he said, "Return, O LORD, to the countless thousands of Israel.“ (vv. 33-36)
  37. 37. Understandthe lessons of history Deuteronomy (Covenant) Understand the message of the prophets
  38. 38.  Speech #1. Looking backward …to the faithfulness of God Chs. 1-4 Speech #2. Looking upward …to our basic calling to Love God Chs. 5-11 Speech #3. Looking outward …to our mission to be the people of God Chs. 12-26 Speech #4. Looking inward …to a life of obedience or disobedience Chs. 27-30 Speech #5. Looking forward …to a new start Chs. 31-34
  39. 39. “Soon you will cross the River, and if you obey the laws and teachings Im giving you today, you will be strong enough to conquer the land that the LORD promised your ancestors and their descendants. Its rich with milk and honey, and you will live there and enjoy it for a long time.” (Deut.11:8-9 CEV)
  40. 40.  Walk in all the way that the LORD your God has commanded you, so that you may live and prosper and prolong your days in the land that you will possess. (5:33) And now, O Israel, what does the LORD your God ask of you but to fear the LORD your God, to walk in all his ways, to love him, to serve the LORD your God with all your heart and with all your soul…(10:12) Observe the commands of the LORD your God, walking in his ways and revering him. (8:6) For I command you today to love the LORD your God, to walk in his ways, and to keep his commands, decrees and laws; then you will live and increase, and the LORD your God will bless you in the land you are entering to possess. (30:16) You have declared this day that the LORD is your God and that you will walk in his ways, that you will keep his decrees, commands and laws, and that you will obey him. (26:17)
  41. 41. Teach them to your children, talking about them when you sit at home and when you walk along the road, when you lie down and when you get up. (11:19)Impress them on your children. Talk about them when you sit at home and when you walk along the road, when you lie down and when you get up. (6:7)
  42. 42. “Remember the day you stood before the LORD your God at Horeb… You came near and stood at the foot of the mountain while it blazed with fire… Then the LORD spoke to you... He declared to you his covenant, the Ten Commandments, which he commanded you to follow and then wrote them on two stone tablets. And the LORD directed me at that time to teach you the decrees and laws you are to follow in the land that you are crossing the Jordan to possess.” (Deut. 4:10-14; see 5:2-3)
  43. 43. Speech #1 Looking backward…to the faithfulness of God Chapters. 1-4
  44. 44. Remembering the foundation The salvation of God The covenant of God The promise of God
  45. 45. Remembering the leaders (who went before us)Bold leaders (ie. Moses) Numb. 12:3Organized leaders (ie. Jethro) Deut. 1:9-18Faithful leaders (ie Caleb) 1:36Courageous leaders (ie. Joshua) 1:38
  46. 46. Remembering the failures & mistakes (of the past) You were unwilling (to go up) 1:26 You grumbled (in your tents) 1:27 You did not trust 1:32 You sinned (& were disciplined by God) 3:3-4
  47. 47. Remembering the victories Amalekites 1:29-31 Sihon (King of Heshbon) 2:24ff. Og (King of Bashan) 3:1ff. Summary 3:18-20
  48. 48. Speech #2 Looking upward…to our calling (to love God) Chapters. 5-11
  49. 49. Remember the covenantWho their God isWhat he said (to them)Who they are (& how they should live)This is who I am This is who you are& what I’ve done & how you should respond
  50. 50. I am (your husband) We are (your people) “I will…” “We will…” Isaiah 54:5-7 Hosea 2:16-20, 7 Ezekiel 16:32 Jeremiah 3:14 Jeremiah 31:31ff.
  51. 51. Deuteronomy 4:1Hear now, O Israel, the decrees and laws I am about to teach you. Followthem so that you may live and may go in and take possession of the landthat the LORD, the God of your fathers, is giving you.Deuteronomy 5:1Moses summoned all Israel and said: Hear, O Israel, the decrees and lawsI declare in your hearing today. Learn them and be sure to follow them.Deuteronomy 6:3Hear, O Israel, and be careful to obey so that it may go well with you andthat you may increase greatly in a land flowing with milk and honey, just asthe LORD, the God of your fathers, promised you.Deuteronomy 9:1Hear, O Israel. You are now about to cross the Jordan to go in anddispossess nations greater and stronger than you, with large cities that havewalls up to the sky.Deuteronomy 20:3He shall say: "Hear, O Israel, today you are going into battle against yourenemies. Do not be fainthearted or afraid; do not be terrified or give way topanic before them.”
  52. 52. “Hear, O Israel”: The LORD our God, the LORD is one. Love the LORD your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your strength.
  53. 53. What hinders & prevents us from loving God?Compromise – ch. 7Neglect (Forget) – ch. 8Pride – ch. 9Idolatry – ch. 9Commitment – ch. 10Decision (blessing or curse) – ch. 11
  54. 54. Speech #3 Looking outward …to our mission(to be the people of God) Chapters 12-26
  55. 55. Establishing the Engaging in war worship of the (against the worship one (true) God of false gods)
  56. 56. “the place the LORD your God will choose” (x 21)“to put his name there (for his dwelling)” x3“(a place…) as a dwelling for his name” x6Affirmation of ownership (taking possession)Erection of a victory monument (in charge)Inscribing of foundation stone (who is being worshipped?)(Gordon Wenham)
  57. 57.  You shall not bow down to them or worship them; for I, the LORD your God, am a jealous God, punishing the children for the sin of the fathers to the third and fourth generation of those who hate me. Ex. 20:5/ Deut. 5:9 Do not worship any other god, for the LORD, whose name is Jealous, is a jealous God. Ex. 34:14 For the LORD your God is a consuming fire, a jealous God. Deut. 4:24 For the LORD your God, who is among you, is a jealous God and his anger will burn against you, and he will destroy you from the face of the land. Deut. 6:15 Joshua said to the people, "You are not able to serve the LORD. He is a holy God; he is a jealous God. He will not forgive your rebellion and your sins. Joshua 24:19
  58. 58. Moses replied, “…I will spread out my hands in prayer to the LORD. The thunder will stop and there will be no more hail, so you may know that the earth is the LORDs.” Exodus 9:29The earth is the LORDs, and everything in it, the world, and all who live in it. (Psalm 24:1)
  59. 59. One God (Yahweh – only one name)One way to him (by sacrifice) John 14:6 Acts 4:12 1 Timothy 2:5 Ephesians 1:10 Habakkuk 2:14 (Isaiah 11:9)
  60. 60.  Passover (Unleavened bread) Atonement Firstfruits Resurrection Weeks (Pentecost) Coming of Spirit Trumpets God is coming Tabernacles Life together (now)
  61. 61. Holiness code:Justice & righteousnessLove & mercyGrace & generousityWisdom & godliness
  62. 62.  Do not be afraid! Role of the priest: Get ready for battle (& know when not to) Do not fear (by focusing on yourselves) Trust in the LORD (to fight for you) Select your officers (team) Know your army Make the enemy an offer of peace (If accepted) Enslave (If rejected) Attack Be prepared for exceptional cases Be wise
  63. 63. Speech #4 Looking inward…to a life of obedience or disobedience Chapters. 27-30
  64. 64.  You have declared:  He has declared:To love God & as his That you are his treasured people, you will… possession & holy people observe he will praise you follow he will make you famous walk he will hold you in high keep honour…to obey him …to bless you
  65. 65. Instructions for the (ultimate) visual aid Pick out some large stones Coat them with plaster Write the words of the Law on them Set them upon Mount Ebal Build an altar to God
  66. 66. Curses from Mount Ebal Blessings from Mt. Gerezim Disfavour of God Favour of God Mental/ physically sick Healthy Barren & unfruitful Reproductive Poverty Prosperous Defeat Victorious Oppression Exaltation Failure Humiliation
  67. 67.  You’ve seen!  But do you understand?God’s miraculous This is a binding agreement salvation This is for the sake of future generationsGod’s miraculous There really is no turning provision back now The consequences of dis-God’s miraculous victories obedience will be disastrous
  68. 68. It’s really not that hard!It’s a matter of life & death!It’s all about obedience!Do you want experience blessing?“Now choose life, so that you and your children may live and that you may love the LORD your God, listen to his voice, and hold fast to him. For the LORD is your life, and he will give you many years in the land he swore to give to your fathers.” (19-20)
  69. 69. Speech #5Looking forward …to a new start Chapters. 31-34
  70. 70. Qualities of a good leader:Selection by GodTrust in the promise of GodStrength & courage from GodKnowledge of the word (Torah) of GodFilled with the Spirit of God
  71. 71. So the LORD said to Moses, "Take Joshua son of Nun, a man in whom is the Spirit, and lay your hand on him.” (Numb. 27:18)Now Joshua son of Nun was filled with the Spirit of wisdom because Moses had laid his hands on him. So the Israelites listened to him and did what the LORD had commanded Moses. (Deut. 34:9)
  72. 72. “Be strong and courageous, because you will lead these people to inherit the land I swore to their forefathers to give them. Be strong and very courageous. Be careful to obey all the law my servant Moses gave you; do not turn from it to the right or to the left, that you may be successful wherever you go. Do not let this Book of the Law depart from your mouth; meditate on it day and night, so that you may be careful to do everything written in it. Then you will be prosperous and successful. Have I not commanded you? Be strong and courageous. Do not be terrified; do not be discouraged, for the LORD your God will be with you wherever you go." (Josh. 1:6-9)