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  • 1. Dear dilip raj, 9825463900<br />Mr Raja Pillai,Mr Kartik Mudaliar+(91)-(79)-65451545, 69436975, 64505052+(91)-9879885055, 9879146630, 9825463900Send Enquiry By Email403, Ganesh Plaza, Nr Navrangpura Post Office, C G Road, Navrangpura, Ahmedabad - 380009<br />We are looking for some Computer Operators whose typing speed is good. Details given below.If Intrested, you can meet us at our office along with the resume at below given address. Salary : Rs.5000 - 6000/-PM. Timing : 10.00am - 6.00 pm Experiance : 0-3 years in Computers (Freshers can also apply) Gender : Male / Female Education : Graduates No. of vacancy : 25 Posting : At Income Tax Office , Baroda / Nadiad / Anand If intrested come & give us your resume urgently at below given address : Fasttrack Management Consultant 403 , Saumya Complex , Kalpana Society-5 , Nr. Ganesh Plaza, Nr.Choice Resturant Lane, Navrangpura , Ahmedabad Contact Person : MR. Vishal Tekwani Regards, Vishal Tekwani Fasttrack Management Consultant Ahmedabad<br />MA 151 -- Calculus I<br />Review of Functions a) Definition and notation; Domain and range b) Linear functions, Graphing <br />Limits and Continuity a) Limits: intuitive, analytical and graphical approach b) Limits at Infinity c) Definition of continuity, Intermediate Value Theorem d) Limits and continuity of the trigonometric functions<br />Differentiation a) Tangent line to a curve, instantaneous rate of change b) Limit definition of the derivative c) Techniques of differentiation d) Derivatives of the trigonometric functions e) Chain rule; Implicit differentiation f ) Differentials and the Tangent Line approximation<br />Application of the Derivative a) Related rates b) Relative extrema c) Applications of the derivative to curve sketching d) Applications of maxima and minima e) Rolle's Theorem and the Mean Value Theorem f)  Rectilinear motion; velocity and acceleration g) Newton's Method (optional)<br />Logarithmic and Exponential Functions a) Integration and differentiation involving logarithmic and exponential functions <br />Integration a) Antiderivatives and the indefinite integral b) Area and the definite integral c) The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus d) Change of variables and the Substitution Method e) The Mean Value Theorem for Integrals<br />WHAT IS MATTER<br />(And why does it matter?)<br />ameS.P. COMPLEX Address2ND FLOOR BESIDE C.K.HALL CityANAND Pin388001 STD-Code02692 Phone02672-243217  (PBX)<br />Contact DetailsRoomOfficePhoneExtn.  DY/ASST CIT ANAND RANGE ANAND 02692-266161    ITO WARD 1 ANAND 02692-240699    ITO(CIB), ANAND 266297    ADDL/JOINT CIT ANAND RANGE 02692-266159    ITO WARD 3 ANAND     ITO WARD 2 ANAND     ITO WARD 4 ANAND 243669 <br />Throughout mankind, we have tried to explain the things we see around us. This is probably what sets us apart from the apes more than anything else. While other animals are simply content with the fact that a rock is a rock and a tree is a tree, we as humans must investigate and find out WHY a tree grows, and HOW was this rock formed? At first, man broke things down into various groups.Along the way someone found they could be broken down into 3 groups: Animal, Vegetable, and Mineral. This worked fine for monkeys, which were animal, and trees which were vegetable. Rocks of course must be mineral. But what is coal? It used to be a vegetable until it was compressed over time. Now it is a mineral? Another way of classifying things was found: Solids, Liquids and Gases. This was clearly easy to define. All substances could be simply looked at, and determined whether it was a solid or not. Ice is a solid. Water is a liquid. Steam would be considered a gas. So what then is sunlight? What is magnetism? What is electricity? left0Benjamin Franklin concluded from his many experiments, that electricity had certain properties, such as pressure, current. He further concluded that it’s movement was predictable, like the pouring of water from one glass to another. From his conclusions, it was conventionally assumed that while we might not be able to SEE electricity at work, we could see it’s effects. And electricity, like unto water, acted like a fluid in every sense of the word. So again we pose the question, " What is MATTER?" And we answer the question as follows: Matter is the stuff around us. Scientifically we define matter as all the " material" things about us. Matter includes all natural and man-made structures, liquids, metals, gases, etc.; in other words, everything that has weight and occupies space. All matter then takes up space. And anything that takes up space can be broken down into smaller pieces. A solid block of wood may be cut into smaller pieces until it is toothpicks, splinters, even sawdust. A gallon of water can be broken down into quarts, cups, even drops. But there comes a point where it can be broken down no longer and still retain it’s basic properties. In other words, there is a point where water can get no smaller, and still be water. That point is called theMOLECULE. <br />Atoms and the Definition of Electricity<br />We know that molecules exist, as some can be seen through an electron microscope. They look like clusters of yet smaller particles.But if the molecule is the smallest point that we can break our (example) water down to, and it still retain it’s basic properties (remain water), how can it have smaller particles? If we take water, and break it down through electrolysis, we find that water is made up of 2 chemicals or ELEMENTS : hydrogen and oxygen. right0Elements are arranged by their basic properties, as being metals, etc. on a chart known as the periodic table of the elements. When I went to school, all matter, regardless of size or state, could be broken down into approximately 105 different elements. Since then, more elements have been discovered, and will continue to be discovered. Some of the more common elements are carbon, copper, oxygen and aluminum. Elements may exist alone, or they may exist in clusters, or molecules, along with other elements. For example, a piece of copper wire is solely made up of the element copper. By comparison, water is a combination of two different elements: oxygen and hydrogen. An element can be broken down into even smaller particles, called atoms. An atom is the smallest unit into which an element can be broken down and still retain its original characteristics. An atom resembles a little solar system. The center of this solar system, called the NUCLEUS , is made up of parts known as PROTONS and NEUTRONS . Around the NUCLEUS, tiny little particles are constantly rotating in an orbit. We call these particles ELECTRONS left0Fig. 1-1 illustrates and atom of helium. Note that it contains 2 electrons, 2 protons and 2 neutrons. The atom is far too small to be seen, even with the aid of the most powerful microscope. However, we do have a vast amount of knowledge about the atom and its inner parts. The proton differs both electrically and physically. Electrically, the proton is POSITIVELY CHARGED , and is about 1850 times heavier than the electron. The orbiting electron, on the other hand, is much lighter, and is said to be NEGATIVELY CHARGED . The neutron can effectively be thought of as consisting of both a proton and an electron. It has the same approximate weight as the proton, however, it is neutral in charge. This is because the positive charge of the proton cancels out the negative charge of the electron. Now atoms are not always so simple as the Helium atom discussed above. They always have the same parts, but not always in the same amounts or configurations. Atoms with more protons and electrons, of course, must be larger and heavier. Under normal circumstances, Atoms seek to be neutral in charge, and so will have an equal amount of electrons and protons. So if an atom like copper, has 29 protons in its center, it will also have 29 electrons. Because these electrons are rotating in an orbit, having too many electrons in a given orbit could cause them to crash into each other. So mother nature placed them in different orbits on different levels. We call them layers or rings. Depending on which ring we are discussing, each ring has a maximum amount of electrons which it can hold, without having to form another ring. For instance, the first ring can only hold 2 electrons. So if we have an atom with 3 protons, (As in the case of Lithium) it must also have 3 electrons. Since it can only hold 2 electrons in the number 1 ring, it is forced to create a second ring, with only 1 electron in it. In the case of Lithium, this 1 electron is said to exist in the outer ring, or the VALENCE RING In Electronics, we are mainly concerned with this VALENCE RING, because it is here that the magic of Electronics takes place. If a given ring is shy of being full, it wants to “borrow” an electron from somewhere else. If an atom has one too many electrons, it pushes the “extra” electron way out on a ring of it’s own, and tries to “loan” it to another atom. Electronics, in its purest form, is the study of the movement of electrons from one atom to another. Usually, this takes place by borrowing and loaning (temporarily) of electrons. While we can not actually see this going on, we can monitor it’s effects, which can be amazing! <br />The Law of Electromagnetic charges:<br />Most objects, such as a piece of cork normally have a neutral or zero charge; that is, they contain as many electrons as they do protons. If a piece of cork could be made to have an excess of electrons, it would become negatively charged. On the other hand, if the cork were to be made to have a deficiency of electrons, then we would have an excess of protons, and it would then be positively charged. If we take any positively charged body, and bring it near a negatively charged body, the two bodies will be drawn together. If on the other hand, the two objects have like charges, then they will repel each other. These two reactions form the basis of the first law of electricity, known as The Law of Electromagnetic Charges. <br />Electronics Glossary<br />A   B   C   D   E   F   G   H   I   J   K   L   M   N   O   P   Q   R   S   T   U   V   W   X   Y   Z<br />AAMPLITUDE:The magnitude of change in a varying quantity from it's zero value. Usually measured in Voltage, or deciBels, can denote volume.ATOM:right0The smallest particle of an element that shares the properties of that element. They consist ofELECTRONS, PROTONS, and NEUTRONS. Protons and Neutrons are grouped together in the center and constitute the Nucleus. The electrons orbit around the Nucleus. BCCONDUCTANCE:The ability of a substance to allow a liquid like movement of free electrons. CONDUCTOR:(1)A body of material so constructed that it will carry an electric current. (2)A Wire. CURRENT:The liquid like movement of free electrons within a conductor. See Also FLOWCYCLE:right0One complete revolution of a generator, from 0o to 360o. One cycle is said to be oneWAVELENGTH long, and takes one PERIOD in time to produce. All cycles can be measured in FREQUENCY, and AMPLITUDE. DEELECTRON:A negatively charged particle which orbits the nucleus of an ATOM. Also called a netatron. Positive electrons, or Positrons also exist. ELEMENT:A known chemical substance that cannot be divided into simpler substances by chemical means, and all atoms within it share the same atomic number. FFLOW:The liquid like movement of free electrons within a conductor. Same as CURRENT.FREE ELECTRON:Electrons which are not bound to an atom, but may move or be shared with other atoms within a substance.FREQUENCY:The number of complete sine wave cycles generated in one second. Frequency is measured in CYCLES PER SECOND (cps),HYPERLINK "" l " PPS" PERIODS PER SECOND (pps) or more often HERTZ (Hz).GGAS:A physical state of matter in which molecules have free movement among themselves, diffuse readily, and expand in all directions indefinately. The vaporous state of a solid or gas. Gasses take the shape of their container, and flow smoothly. HHERTZ:The unit of measurement for FREQUENCY. Synonymous with Cycles Per Second.IINDUCTANCE:The property of a circuit which opposes any change in the existing current, usually produced by a coil of wire, otherwise known as anINDUCTOR.INDUCE: To produce by the influence of a magnetic or electric field. To convert electric energy magnetic energy, or magnetic energy into electric energy by proximity.INDUCTION:The creation of an electric current in a conductor by the proximity of a magnetic field to the conductor. The creation of a magnetic field by the flow of electric current in a conductor.INDUCTOR:A conductor, usually wound in a spiral or coil, which introduces (induces) a magnetic field into the surrounding atmosphere.INSULATOR:A substance not easily given to CONDUCTING electric current. Insulators have very few FREE ELECTRONS.JKLLIQUID:A physical state of matter in which molecules have free movement among themselves, but do not seperate as in gasses. The melted state of a solid. Liquids take the shape of their container, and flow smoothly. MMATTER:everything that has weight and occupies space. MOLECULE:The smallest partical in any substance that still retains the physical and chemical properties of that substance. NNEUTRON:A particle found within the nucleus of an ATOM, which carries neither a positive nor a negative charge. NUCLEUS:The center of an ATOM, made up of protons and neutrons. OOHM:The constant unit of measurement for RESISTANCE. Symbolized by the Greek letter omega (), it is the value of resistance through which a potential difference of one VOLT will maintain one AMPERE. Specifically defined as the resistance of a uniform column of mercury that is 106.3 cm long, with a weight of 14.4521 grams at a temperature of 0o C. PPERIOD:right0The TIME (in seconds) which it takes to complete one CYCLE of an alternating wave.POSITRON:A highly unstable positively charged particle with the same weight and mass as an electron. Their existance was predicted years before it could be proven. PROTON:A positively charged particle found within the nucleus of an ATOM. QRRESISTANCE:The opposition to the liquid like movement of free electrons within a conductor. Electrical friction. Reciprocal of CONDUCTANCESSOLID:A physical state of matter in which the motion of molecules is restricted. A solid has a definite shape and volume. TUVVALENCE RING:The outermost orbital ring of ELECTRONS in an ATOM. VOLTAGE:A difference in electric potential existing between two charged bodies. Electrical equivilant of pressure. Also known as ELECTROMOTIVE FORCE or EMF, and IR DROP. WWAVELENGTH:The DISTANCE between points of corresponding phase between two consecutive cycles of a wave. NOTE* It is a distance or length, as opposed to PERIOD, which is a time, and CYCLE, which is a 360o phase change of an alternating signal. XYZ<br />(On The Following Indicator... SKY BLUE will indicate your current location)123456789101112131415161718192021222324<br />Top of Form<br /> <br />Bottom of Form<br />[COURSE INDEX]<br />[ELECTRONICS GLOSSARY]<br />[HOME]<br />left0<br /> This Course was written by Ray Dall © All Rights Reserved. This page and all it's content Copyright, Trademarks, Intellectual Properties and other legal issues 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006 Ray Dall. All Rights Reserved. And for what it's worth... this page was last updated HexDate 01-11--7D1<br />VISITORS: <br />Conductors, Insulators, and Resistors.<br />Conductors and Insulators<br />Because of the distribution of electrons in the VALENCE RING of a natom, some elements will allow electrical current to flow easier than others. Materials which easily allow the flow of electric current are called CONDUCTORS . CONDUCTORS do not hold tightly to the electrons in their VALENCE RING, and are said to have a large number of FREE ELECTRONS . Some examples of good conductors are Gold, Silver, Copper, Aluminum, Zinc, and Carbon. Other elements do not allow electrical current to flow easily, and these are called INSULATORS . INSULATORS tend to hold tightly to the electrons in their VALENCE RING, and do not want to share with other atoms. Some examples of good insulators are Quartz, Mica,Teflon, Polystyrene, and Water. (Yes, water is an insulator.... not a conductor. This will be explained later in more detail).<br />Resistors and Resistance:<br />right0If water is moving through a hose, we say that it has FLOW . If we restrict the flow, by pinching the hose, we are causing friction at the point of restriction. This friction can be said, is resistance to the flow of the water. Electricity, according to Benjamin Franklin, acts like a fluid. It flows and has a measurable CURRENT . We can restrict its flow by adding electrical friction. We say that the restriction of electrical flow is called RESISTANCE and that a device which causes such RESISTANCE is called a RESISTOR . All materials, even the very best CONDUCTORS demonstrate a certain amount of RESISTANCE to electron flow. In order to compare the resistance of various materials, we need to have some standard unit of measurement. The unit of measurement for resistance is called the Ohm , and is indicated by the Greek letter Omega ( Ω ). One Ω is defined as the amount of resistance that a 1000 foot piece of #10 copper wire has. A 3000 foot piece of #10 copper wire would have 3 Ohms of resistance. A 500 foot piece of #10 copper wire would exhibit 1/2 an Ohm, etc. Although Ohm is the basic unit, KiloOhm and MegOhm are frequently used. 1 KiloOhm (K Ω) is equal to 1 thousand Ω. 1 MegOhm (M Ω) is equal to 1 million Ω. There are 4 factors that determine the resistance of a material:<br />(1) Type of Material<br />The resistance of various types of materials are different. For instance, gold is a better conductor of electricity than copper, and therefore has less resistance.<br />(2) Length<br />The resistance of a material is directly proportional to it's length. The longer the material is, the more resistance it has. This is because the electrons must flow through more material, and therefore meets more friction over the entire distance.<br />(3) Cross Sectional Area<br />The resistance of a material is inversely proportional to the cross sectional area of the material. This means that the thicker the substance is across, the lower the resistance. This is because the larger the cross sectional area is, the less friction there is over a given length. (Picture in your mind, if you will, that a fire hose will pass more water than a garden hose, because the wider the pipe, the less resistance it has).<br />(4) Temperature<br />In various types of materials, resistance can vary inversely or directly with the temperature. This is because of the chemical properties of the material. In Carbon, for instance, the resistance decreases as the temperature rises. So we say it varies inversely. In copper, however, the opposite is true, with the rise in temperature, we have a rise in the resistance.<br />Resistance then, is basically a form of friction which restricts the flow of an electrical current. In basic science class, you learned that by putting your hands together, and rubbing them quickly, your hands get warm. This is because friction generates heat. Electrical friction - RESISTANCE - also generates heat. So not only can resistance change with heat, but causes heat as well. An important point to remember when working with resistors, especially in high power circuits.<br />Voltage and Current<br />Already we have touched on the two terms VOLTAGE and CURRENT . Now it is time to discuss them further. VOLTAGE is the term used to describe the electrical " pressure" or difference of potential that we spoke of earlier. Just as water pressure is the force in physics that pushes water through a pipe, VOLTAGE is the physical force which pushes electrons through a wire. left0Examine illustration 4.1. You see a large tank with a hose attached to the bottom of the tank. When the tank is full of water, gravity causes that water to exert pressure, which pushes down toward the bottom of the tank. With the hose at the bottom, it allows a place for the water to escape. Water Pressure, therefore causes water current to flow through the hose. In the same sense, electrical pressure - just as water pressure pushes water through a pipe. Voltage , causes CURRENT to flow through a wire. VOLTAGE has several other names. It is sometimes called ELECTROMOTIVE FORCE (E.M.F. for short), IR DROP (this will be explained a little later), and POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE . The unit of measurement for VOLTAGE is the VOLT , and it is measured by a VOLTMETER . You may run into KiloVolt s (Thousand Volts), MilliVolt s (1 Thousandth of a Volt), or even MicroVolt s (1 Millionth of a Volt). The problem with discussing VOLTAGE is that it is difficult to talk about it, without discussingCURRENT and RESISTANCE in the same breath. The three are almost inseparable, as you will soon come to see. CURRENT is the term used to describe the FLOW or movement of electrons. The principle shouldn't be foreign to you by now. Water has current. Electricity has current. Water has current only when the river flows. If it is standing water, such as in a pond, it does not flow, and therefore has no current. Electricity only has current when it is on the move. Current is measured in AMPERE s, using an AMMETER , typically discussed as MilliAmpere ( 1 thousandth of an Ampere ) s or MicroAmpere ( 1 millionth of an Ampere ) s. Quite often, for the sake of quick speach and quicker typing, it is shortened to just 'Amps or MilliAmps.<br />