Chapter 4 Foundations Counting the Pieces.
Counting the Pieces <ul><li>Atomic number  = number of protons </li></ul><ul><li># Of protons determines kind of atom </li...
Isotopes <ul><li>Dalton was wrong. </li></ul><ul><li>Atoms of the same element can have different numbers of neutrons. </l...
Symbols <ul><li>Contain the symbol of the element, the mass number and the atomic number </li></ul>
Symbols <ul><li>Contain the symbol of the element, the mass number and the atomic number </li></ul>X Mass number Atomic nu...
Symbols <ul><li>Find the  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Number of protons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Number of neutrons </li></ul>...
Symbols <ul><li>Find the  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>number of protons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>number of neutrons </li></ul>...
Symbols <ul><li>if an element has  an atomic number of  34 and a mass number of 78 what is the  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>numb...
Symbols <ul><li>if an element has  91 protons and 140 neutrons what is the  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Atomic number </li></ul>...
Symbols <ul><li>if an element has  78 electrons and 117 neutrons what is the  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Atomic number </li></u...
Naming Isotopes <ul><li>Put the mass number after the name of the element </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon- 12 </li></ul><ul><li>C...
Atomic Mass <ul><li>How heavy is an atom of oxygen? </li></ul><ul><li>There are different kinds of oxygen atoms. </li></ul...
Measuring Atomic Mass <ul><li>Unit is the  atomic mass unit  (amu). </li></ul><ul><li>One twelfth the mass of a carbon-12 ...
Calculating Averages <ul><li>You have five rocks, four with a mass of 50 g, and one with a mass of 60 g. What is the avera...
Calculating Averages <ul><li>Average mass = 4 x 50 + 1 x 60 = 260 g   5  5   5 </li></ul><ul><li>Average mass = .8 x 50 + ...
Atomic Mass <ul><li>Calculate the atomic mass of copper if copper has two isotopes. 69.1% has a mass of 62.93 amu and the ...
Atomic Mass <ul><li>Magnesium has three isotopes. 78.99% magnesium 24 with a mass of 23.9850 amu, 10.00% magnesium 25 with...
Atomic Mass <ul><li>Is not a whole number because it is an average.  </li></ul><ul><li>Are the decimal numbers on the peri...
Atoms and ions <ul><li>Atoms are electrically neutral </li></ul><ul><li>Same number of protons and electrons </li></ul><ul...
Anion <ul><li>A negative ion </li></ul><ul><li>Has gained electrons </li></ul><ul><li>Non metals can gain electrons </li><...
Cations <ul><li>Positive ions </li></ul><ul><li>Formed by  losing  electrons </li></ul><ul><li>more protons than electrons...
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Counting pieces

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Counting pieces

  1. 1. Chapter 4 Foundations Counting the Pieces.
  2. 2. Counting the Pieces <ul><li>Atomic number = number of protons </li></ul><ul><li># Of protons determines kind of atom </li></ul><ul><li>The same as the number of electrons in the neutral atom </li></ul><ul><li>Mass number = the number of protons + neutrons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sum of all the things with mass </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Isotopes <ul><li>Dalton was wrong. </li></ul><ul><li>Atoms of the same element can have different numbers of neutrons. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Since neutrons are heavy the two atoms have different mass numbers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Called isotopes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two isotopes of sodium. Notice different # of N 0. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Symbols <ul><li>Contain the symbol of the element, the mass number and the atomic number </li></ul>
  5. 5. Symbols <ul><li>Contain the symbol of the element, the mass number and the atomic number </li></ul>X Mass number Atomic number
  6. 6. Symbols <ul><li>Find the </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Number of protons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Number of neutrons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Number of electrons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Atomic number </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mass number </li></ul></ul>F 19 9
  7. 7. Symbols <ul><li>Find the </li></ul><ul><ul><li>number of protons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>number of neutrons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>number of electrons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Atomic number </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mass Number </li></ul></ul>Br 80 35
  8. 8. Symbols <ul><li>if an element has an atomic number of 34 and a mass number of 78 what is the </li></ul><ul><ul><li>number of protons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>number of neutrons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>number of electrons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complete symbol </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Symbols <ul><li>if an element has 91 protons and 140 neutrons what is the </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Atomic number </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mass number </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>number of electrons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complete symbol </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Symbols <ul><li>if an element has 78 electrons and 117 neutrons what is the </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Atomic number </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mass number </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>number of protons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complete symbol </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Naming Isotopes <ul><li>Put the mass number after the name of the element </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon- 12 </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon -14 </li></ul><ul><li>Uranium-235 </li></ul>
  12. 12. Atomic Mass <ul><li>How heavy is an atom of oxygen? </li></ul><ul><li>There are different kinds of oxygen atoms. </li></ul><ul><li>More concerned with average atomic mass. </li></ul><ul><li>Based on abundance of each element in nature. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t use grams because the numbers would be too small. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Measuring Atomic Mass <ul><li>Unit is the atomic mass unit (amu). </li></ul><ul><li>One twelfth the mass of a carbon-12 atom. </li></ul><ul><li>Each isotope has its own atomic mass we need the average from percent abundance. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Calculating Averages <ul><li>You have five rocks, four with a mass of 50 g, and one with a mass of 60 g. What is the average mass of the rocks? </li></ul><ul><li>Total mass = 4 x 50 + 1 x 60 = 260 g </li></ul><ul><li>Average mass = 4 x 50 + 1 x 60 = 260 g 5 5 5 </li></ul><ul><li>Average mass = 4 x 50 + 1 x 60 = 260 g 5 5 5 </li></ul>
  15. 15. Calculating Averages <ul><li>Average mass = 4 x 50 + 1 x 60 = 260 g 5 5 5 </li></ul><ul><li>Average mass = .8 x 50 + .2 x 60 </li></ul><ul><li>80% of the rocks were 50 grams </li></ul><ul><li>20% of the rocks were 60 grams </li></ul><ul><li>Average = % as decimal x mass + % as decimal x mass + % as decimal x mass </li></ul>
  16. 16. Atomic Mass <ul><li>Calculate the atomic mass of copper if copper has two isotopes. 69.1% has a mass of 62.93 amu and the rest have a mass of 64.93 amu. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Atomic Mass <ul><li>Magnesium has three isotopes. 78.99% magnesium 24 with a mass of 23.9850 amu, 10.00% magnesium 25 with a mass of 24.9858 amu, and the rest magnesium 26 with a mass of 25.9826 amu. What is the atomic mass of magnesium? </li></ul><ul><li>If not told otherwise, the mass of the isotope is the mass number in amu </li></ul>
  18. 18. Atomic Mass <ul><li>Is not a whole number because it is an average. </li></ul><ul><li>Are the decimal numbers on the periodic table. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Atoms and ions <ul><li>Atoms are electrically neutral </li></ul><ul><li>Same number of protons and electrons </li></ul><ul><li>Ions are atoms, or groups of atoms, with a charge </li></ul><ul><li>Different numbers of protons and electrons </li></ul><ul><li>Only electrons can move </li></ul><ul><li>Gain or lose electrons </li></ul>
  20. 20. Anion <ul><li>A negative ion </li></ul><ul><li>Has gained electrons </li></ul><ul><li>Non metals can gain electrons </li></ul><ul><li>Charge is written as a super script on the right </li></ul>F -1 Has gained one electron O -2 Has gained two electrons O + 2e -  O 2- F + e -  F -
  21. 21. Cations <ul><li>Positive ions </li></ul><ul><li>Formed by losing electrons </li></ul><ul><li>more protons than electrons </li></ul><ul><li>metals form cations </li></ul>K +1 Has lost one electron Ca +2 Has lost two electrons K  K + +e - Ca  Ca 2+ +2e -

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