eVoting System & Information Modeling Approach Assoc. Prof. Dr Roumiana Ilieva Technical University of Sofia, Faculty of Management, Department of Economics, Industrial Engineering and Management, 8 Kliment Ohridski Blvd, 1000 Sofia, Bulgaria, [email_address]
The following work presents a proposal for preliminary system analysis for eVoting information modelling. You will find a system analysis of the input and output flows of the procedure, analysis of its steps, of the environment and the behaviour of the processes in the time. This work should be capable to help for the automation of the eVoting procedures.
Electronic voting (eVoting) is almost certain to become common over the next decade, due to market pressures, such as the demand for easier voting (Weldemariam & Villafiorita, 2010) . The objective of the research is to create a concept for development of an internet voting solution which can be integrated in modern eDemocracy, eParticipation and eInclusion context. There are also covered extensive researches on how such solution can affect democracy application and the increase of voting in certain group of citizens such as disabled or young people.
The paper aims at designing an eService which can be used for internet voting i.e. casting electronic votes over the internet. Introducing voting as an electronic service is still not popular enough, because it is considered that unattended voting to be easier to fraud and manipulate the results. However, this paper tries to introduce the methodology and design of a system that is reliable, secure, effective, and flexible and will cover all democratic rights of the voter and the voting process.
Preliminary System Analysis for eVoting Modeling
The eVoting preliminary analysis should include elaborate system analysis of the input and output flows, the procedure steps, the environment and the behaviour of the processes in the time. All these are needed, due to presenting the information flow in a clear and explicit manner, so to be easier for the programmers to automate the process
Preliminary System Analysis for eVoting Modeling
From a systematic point of view, eVoting has defined relationships with the environment, individual functions, features and specific structure. Its exhaustive analysis is not possible without a holistic coverage and refraction through the prism of its relations with the environment, the interactions between its components and behaviour over time. We will deal with static system analysis of eVoting which is conducted in a spatial plan.
The study of the eVoting in space is possible on two levels: macro- and micro-.
Macroanalysis of the external environmental connections
Macroanalysis proposes study of the effects of the external environment. So eVoting is examined only for the input-output, disturbing and reverse impacts. Thus, we are temporarily put aside from the internal processes to accentuate the analysis only on external factors.
Microanalysis of eVoting internal functional structure
Microanalysis proposes disclosure of the internal structure (through decomposition) and functionality of the eVoting service (uncovering the interactions between elements and the direction of information flow) (Fig.1). The functional analysis of the eVoting service examines: competent agent, applicant, normatively established requirements, necessary flows and the inner administrative movement service.
eVoting is conducted as a transaction between voter and the Vote Forwarding Server ( VFS). The VFS performs queries from local databases of voter and candidate lists and finally sends the vote to the Vote Storage Server (VSS) . The flowchart of the process is depicted through a UML diagram in Fig. 2. The voter application functions in the WWW-environment. In addition to HTML pages, a signed ActiveX applet is loaded into voter’s browser that allows encrypting the vote and digitally signing the resulting cryptogram. In addition to this the voter application possesses information about the candidate list and before encrypting the voter’s choice and digital signing asks voter to confirm his/her choice (Alkassar & Volkamer, 2007) .
The VFS is essentially a web server with its application. The VFS is the only component of the Central System that is directly accessible from the Internet – all the other Central System components are behind an inner firewall and access to them is provided only from the VFS. During the eVoting period the voter list database is dynamic. During the eVoting period the voter list maintainer (The Population Register) sends operative updates to the database using a specified protocol, after the eVoting is closed status of e-voters list is finalized. In comparison with the general architecture now we also have a validity confirmation server which is not part of the Central System. A validity confirmation is needed to prove the validity of ID-card certificates without which the digital signature is invalid.
UML Information flow diagram of eVoting process
Accomplishing the above research requires significant investment in both technical and usability research, including large-scale human subject tests. This system is robust, democratic, incoercible and provides the citizen the necessary transparency, accuracy and vote verifiability. It is part of the ever evolving world of ICT world and only walking in this direction will allow democracy not to be just an old-fashioned word that our parents and grandparents use. Everyone is living dynamic enough life that in most cases the current voting process is colliding with all the engagements and tasks we have to perform on daily basis.