CHAPTER 18 DISCUSSION QUESTIONS1) Define "sport sociology."2) How much money was spent on licensed sport merchandise in 2005?3) Explain how sport is a socializing agent.4) Explain how sport is a unifer.5) What year was Title IX passed?6) The year Title IX was passed, what was the average number of sports per schoolavailable for women? What was that number in 2008?7) Since the passage of Title IX, what % of athletic scholarships at the intercollegiate levelhave women received? During that same time, what % of all undergraduates nationwidehave women represented?8) In 2008, what % of all head coaches in womens athletics were female?9) As of 2009, what was the only sport league to have any female head coaches?10) Define: gender roles, role learning, race logic, stacking.11) What does the Rooney Rule mandate?12) How many African American head coaches were there in the NFL in 2008? How manyare there right now (use that Internet thing to figure it out).13) In 2008, what % of Division I athletic directors were African American men?14) Why does sport sociology have significant implications for sport managers?
SPORT SOCIOLOGY“THE STUDY OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SPORTS & SOCIETY.”IT EXAMINES:-HOW CULTURE & VALUESINFLUENCE SPORTS.-HOW SPORTS INFLUENCESCULTURES & VALUES.-THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEENSPORTS & RACE, GENDER, AGE,RELIGION, POLITICS, ETC.-THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEENSPORTS & SOCIAL INEQUALITY &SOCIAL MOBILITY.
1) SOCIALIZING AGENTSOCIALIZATION:-”THE PROCESS BY WHICH PEOPLE LEARN & DEBELOP THROUGHSOCIAL INTERACTIONS & COME TO KNOW THE ENVIRONMENTAROUND THEM.”-SPORT PROVIDES A SOURCE OF BOTH GROUP & PERSONALIDENTITY. IT SATISFIES BASIC NEEDS FOR BELONGING.ROLE LEARNING:-”A SOCIAL PROCESS BY WHICH CHILDREN LEARN VARIOUS ROLES &THE CHARACTERISTICS ASSOCIATED WITH THEM.”
2) UNIFIER-SPORT CAN BRING PEOPLE TOGETHER BY GIVING THEM ASENSE OF PERSONAL IDENTITY, AS WELL AS FEELINGS OFGROUP MEMBERSHIP & SOCIAL IDENTIFICATION.COLLECTIVE RITUAL:-”GROUPS OF PEOPLE ENGAGING IN A SET FORM OF RITES &PRACTICES SUCH AS A RELIGIOUS CEREMONY OR ATHLETICEVENT.”
3) GENDER EQUALITY-PASSED IN 1972 AS PART OF THE EDUCATION AMENDMENTS ACT-DESIGNED TO PROHIBIT SEX DISCRIMINATION IN EDUCATIONALSETTINGS-GIRLS INVOLVED IN INTERSCHOLASTIC SPORTS NATIONWIDE: -PRE TITLE IX: 298,000 -2010: 3+ MILLION
1) SEXISMATHLETIC BUDGETS: -FROM 1972-2008 FEMALES RECEIVED $166 MILLION LESS IN SCHOLARSHIP MONEYTHAN THEIR MALE COUNTERPARTS -NCAA FEMALE TEAMS RECEIVE ABOUT 1/3 ($1.55 BILLION) LESS THAN MEN’SPROGRAMSLEADERSHIP ROLES: -BEFORE 1972: OVER 90% HEAD COACHES IN WOMEN’S ATHLETICS WERE FEMALE -2008: 42.8% HEAD COACHES IN WOMEN’S ATHLETICS WERE FEMALE -2008: 20% OF NCAA HEAD COACHES ARE FEMALE. -2006: 1 IN 7 WOMEN’S PROGRAMS HAD NO FEMALE ANYWHERE IN THE ATHLETICSADMINISTRATIVE STRUCTUREMEDIA COVERAGE: -2004: FEMALE ATHLETES RECEIVED ONLY 6.3% OF TOTAL SPORTS COVERAGE -2000: NY TIMES DEVOTED 10 TIMES MORE SPACE TO MEN THAN WOMEN
2) RACISMLEADERSHIP ROLES -STACKING: -”A DISPROPORTIONATE ALLOCATION OF ATHLETES TO CENTRAL & NONCENTRAL POSITIONS AS A FUNCTION OF THEIR RACE OR ETHNICITY -MLB: WHITES DOMINATE CATCHER & PITCHER -NFL: WHITES DOMINATE QUARTERBACK -NCAA COACHING: 50% NCAA D1 FOOTBALL PLAYERS ARE BLACK BUT LESS THAN5% HEAD COACHES ARE BLACKMEDIA COVERAGE -1957: SI PUTS FIRST AFRICAN AMERICAN WOMAN ON COVER -ALTHEA GIBSON (THE JACKIE ROBINSON OF TENNIS) -1987: SI PUTS 2ND AFRICAN AMERICAN WOMAN ON COVER -JACKIE JOYNER-KERSEE (SI VOTED HER GREATEST FEMALE ATHLETE OF 20TH CENTURY)
3) HOMOPHOBIA & HETEROSEXISM-HOMOPHOBIA:-”AN IRRATIONAL FEAR, A CONTEMPT, OR AN ANTIPATHY TOWARD HOMOSEXUALS &HOMOSEXUALITY.”-HETEROSEXISM:-”AN IDEOLOGY & A BEHAVIOR THAT PROMOTE PRIVILEGE FOR DOMINANT GROUPS.-FEMALE ATHLETES ARE PRESSURED TO EMBRACE A “FEMININE IMAGE”-ROLE OF SPORT IN MALES LIVES TO PROVE MASCULINITY & MANHOOD-GAY ATHLETES GET LESS MEDIA COVERAGE & ENDORSEMENT DEALS