Men, Women, And Team Sports


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Sport and gender research.

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Men, Women, And Team Sports

  1. 1. Men, Women, and Team Sports By: Jacqueline Heler
  2. 2. Benefits of Good Team Cohesion for Both Men and Women <ul><li>Formation of life skills </li></ul><ul><li>Buffering to maintain spirit in defeat and at other times of distress (aka coping skills) </li></ul><ul><li>Enhanced team performance </li></ul><ul><li>Improved enjoyment of the sport </li></ul><ul><li>Increased self-confidence, self-esteem, and trust (McClain, N.M., 2006) </li></ul><ul><li>Which are otherwise extremely applicable in the “real-world” </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Stars <ul><li>When you think of men’s team sports (soccer, basketball, etc.), who are the stars? </li></ul><ul><li>When you think of women’s team sports (soccer, basketball, etc.), who are the stars? </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Old Days… <ul><li>Traditionally, male team sport participation has been regarded as a natural phenomenon </li></ul><ul><li>Women were encouraged to exercise for health benefits, and therefore participated in individual sports such as tennis and swimming </li></ul>
  5. 5. These Days… <ul><li>Today, women compete in most national championships and are taking part in what were once considered male-only team sports in increasing numbers </li></ul><ul><li>Thanks to… </li></ul><ul><li>The worldwide women’s movement (women’s rights) </li></ul><ul><li>Title XI (in the States) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Why do Men and Women Participate in Sport/Exercise? (Kilpatrick, M. 2005) <ul><li>Why do YOU exercise? </li></ul><ul><li>Affiliation </li></ul><ul><li>Appearance </li></ul><ul><li>Challenge </li></ul><ul><li>Competition </li></ul><ul><li>Enjoyment </li></ul><ul><li>Health pressures </li></ul><ul><li>Ill-health avoidance </li></ul><ul><li>Nimbleness </li></ul><ul><li>Positive health </li></ul><ul><li>Revitalization </li></ul><ul><li>Social recognition </li></ul><ul><li>Strength and endurance </li></ul><ul><li>Stress management </li></ul><ul><li>Weight management </li></ul>
  7. 7. Study: Aggression in Male Team Sports <ul><li>Observed aggression in team sports as a function of gender, competitive level, and sport type </li></ul><ul><li>180 games, equally shared among males and females, soccer and handball, and departmental, regional, and national competitive levels were recorded on videotapes and observed using a grid to differ instrumental from hostile aggressive behaviors </li></ul>
  8. 8. The Results… <ul><li>The results revealed that male players always display more aggressive behaviors than female players, whatever the sport, the competitive level or the nature of the observed aggression, (Coulomb-Cabagno, G., 2006) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Study: Team Cohesion in Female Sport <ul><li>Much of the cohesion research has focused on what cohesion can do to enhance performance: teamwork and familiarity, i.e. a full-court press in basketball </li></ul><ul><li>Rather than other benefits of cohesion such as those related to social aspects of being part of a team, which may be more relevant to female athletes: friends, relationships, camaraderie </li></ul><ul><li>10 coaches of collegiate-level female sport teams were interviewed… </li></ul>
  10. 10. The Results… <ul><li>Compared to male athletes, the sporting experience for female athletes includes experiences on and off the field </li></ul><ul><li>To a greater extent than males, good communication between coach and athletes is essential for teaching cohesion among female athletes </li></ul><ul><li>Several barriers to team cohesion for female athletes include interpersonal and body image sensitivity and coaching style issues (aggression, motivators, etc.) (McClain, N.M., 2006) </li></ul>