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Competency Mapping  Ob Assignment
Competency Mapping  Ob Assignment
Competency Mapping  Ob Assignment
Competency Mapping  Ob Assignment
Competency Mapping  Ob Assignment
Competency Mapping  Ob Assignment
Competency Mapping  Ob Assignment
Competency Mapping  Ob Assignment
Competency Mapping  Ob Assignment
Competency Mapping  Ob Assignment
Competency Mapping  Ob Assignment
Competency Mapping  Ob Assignment
Competency Mapping  Ob Assignment
Competency Mapping  Ob Assignment
Competency Mapping  Ob Assignment
Competency Mapping  Ob Assignment
Competency Mapping  Ob Assignment
Competency Mapping  Ob Assignment
Competency Mapping  Ob Assignment
Competency Mapping  Ob Assignment
Competency Mapping  Ob Assignment
Competency Mapping  Ob Assignment
Competency Mapping  Ob Assignment
Competency Mapping  Ob Assignment
Competency Mapping  Ob Assignment
Competency Mapping  Ob Assignment
Competency Mapping  Ob Assignment
Competency Mapping  Ob Assignment
Competency Mapping  Ob Assignment
Competency Mapping  Ob Assignment
Competency Mapping  Ob Assignment
Competency Mapping  Ob Assignment
Competency Mapping  Ob Assignment
Competency Mapping  Ob Assignment
Competency Mapping  Ob Assignment
Competency Mapping  Ob Assignment
Competency Mapping  Ob Assignment
Competency Mapping  Ob Assignment
Competency Mapping  Ob Assignment
Competency Mapping  Ob Assignment
Competency Mapping  Ob Assignment
Competency Mapping  Ob Assignment
Competency Mapping  Ob Assignment
Competency Mapping  Ob Assignment
Competency Mapping  Ob Assignment
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Competency Mapping Ob Assignment

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  • seriously it help a lot in y project thankss
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  • very nice data. currently i am working on competency mapping project. and i want to collect primary data. do you have contacts with companies ? please help me.
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  • Useful information,Thanks
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  • I recently came across your blog and have been reading along. I thought I would leave my first comment. I don’t know what to say except that I have enjoyed reading. Nice blog, I will keep visiting this blog very often.
    Chech it for competency mapping & assessment
    http://nahrs.in/our_services.aspx?id=8
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  • its a very good article, anyone who reads it can understand, evaluate and create a competence model in their organization
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  • 1. Table of Contents S.No. Contents Page No. List of Figures……………………………………………………………………………iv List of Tables……………………………………………………………………………...v 1. Introduction……………………………………………………………………….1 2. Competency……………………………………………………………………….2 2.1 Definition……………………………………………………………….2 2.2 History…………………………………………………………………..2 3. Components of competency………………………………………………………3 3.1 Knowledge……………………………………………………………...4 3.2 Skill……………………………………………………………………..4 3.3 Attitude…………………………………………………………………4 3.4 Who Identifies Competencies?…………………………………………5 3.5 Behavior Indicators……………………………………………………..6 4. Classification of Competencies…………………………………………………...7 4.1Types of Basic Competencies…………………………………………..7 4.2 Type of Professional Competencies…………………………………….8 5. Types of Organizational Competencies…………………………………………….9 5.1 Generic Competencies…………………………………………………...9 5.2 Managerial Competencies……………………………………………….11 5.3 Functional/ Technical Competencies……………………………………12 6. Competency Mapping………………………………………………………………13 6.1 Definition…………………………………………………………………13 6.2 Process……………………………………………………………………13 7. Need for Competency Mapping………………………………………………………..14 8. Areas of Implementation……………………………………………………………….16 8.1 Recruitment and Selection………………………………………………...16 8.2 Training and Development……………………………………………….17 ii
  • 2. 8.3 Career and succession planning…………………………………………..17 8.4 Rewards and Recognition………………………………………………...18 8.5 Performance Management System……………………………………….18 9. Advantages of Competency Mapping…………………………………………………..19 9.1 For the company……………………………………………………….19 9.2 For managers…………………………………………………………..19 9.3 For employees………………………………………………………….20 9.4 Traditional Job Analysis versus Competency Approach……………… 20 10. Disadvantages of Competency Mapping………………………………………………21 11. Model of Competency Mapping……………………………………………………….22 11.1 Definition……………………………………………………………..22 11.2 Developing the model………………………………………………...22 11.3 Data Collection Methods……………………………………………...27 11.3.1 Literature Review…………………………………………...27 11.3.2 Focus Groups……………………………………………….27 11.3.3 Behavioral Event Interviews………………………………..28 11.3.4 Surveys……………………………………………………...28 11.3.5 Observations………………………………………………...28 11.3.6 Work Logs…………………………………………………..29 11.3.7 360 degree feedback………………………………………...29 12. Process of Competency Mapping………………………………………………………30 12.1 Laying Down Of Objectives………………………………………….31 12.2 Preparation of The Questionnaire…………………………………….31 12.3 Collection of Responses……………………………………………...32 12.4 Analysis ……………………………………………………………...32 12.4.1 The Opportunity Algorithm………………………………...32 12.5 Findings………………………………………………………………33 13. Competency Mapping at Ready-mix Concrete Company……………………………..34 14. Competency Mapping at Ambuja Cement…………………………………………….36 15. Conclusion……………………………………………………………………………..37 References…………………………………………………………….…………....38 iii
  • 3. iii
  • 4. List of Figures S.No. Figure Page No. 3.1 Components of Competency…………………………………………….3 3.2 Iceberg Model of components of competency………………………….5 7.1 Need for Competency Mapping………………………………………..15 8.1 Areas of Implementation of Competency Mapping……………………16 11.1 Stages In Developing An Organization Wide Competency Model…….23 11.2 Steps for implementing the Competency Mapping model……………..24 12.1 Process of Competency Mapping………………………………………30 13.1 Organization Chart……………………………………………………..34 13.2 Hierarchy defining various designations……………………………….35 iv
  • 5. List of Tables S.No. Table Page 4.1 Basic Competencies ………………………………………………8 9.1 Job Analysis versus Competency Approach………………………20 v
  • 6. 1. Introduction Ongoing and unrelenting economic, social and technological changes have spurred the need for flexible, skilled workers who can help their organizations succeed and sustain a competitive advantage. To be relevant within organizations and indispensable to clients and customers alike, workplace learning and performance professionals must continually reassess their competencies, update their skills and have the courage to make necessary changes. Businesses and managing business has and will always be complex. There is no denying the need to perform through a combination of utilizing predictive or forecasting tools, techniques and methods, yet without trivializing the need to sustain and drive a motivated high performing workforce. The company’s need to sustain in a competitive environment, gave rise to the need to understand and learn to establish the context of competency mapping. This report gives an overview of the competency mapping. The report presents the meaning and history of competency approach in the first section. In the following sections the components and types of competencies have been covered. Further the report discusses the meaning of competency mapping and also defines the competency map. The section that follows discusses the main advantages and disadvantages of competency mapping. The role of competencies in an organization as a vital tool for recruitment, selection and retention and the areas of application are discussed in the trailing section. The next section analyses how competency frameworks can be designed developed and implemented. It also discusses how to develop customized competency models based on the management philosophy, customer needs, and existing processes of the organization. The report also reveals the results of Industrial visits to Ambuja Cement Ltd. and Ready Concrete Mix Ltd. In this section the procedures followed by the respective organizations have been discussed and the stage of implementation of competency mapping has been analyzed and presented for both the organizations. Competency MappingIntroduction 1
  • 7. 2.Competency 2.1 Definition A combination of knowledge, skills, attitude and personality of an individual as applied to a role or job in the context of the present and future environment that accounts for sustained success within the framework of Organizational Values. Competencies include the collection of success factors necessary for achieving important results in a specific job or work role in a particular organization. Success factors are combinations of knowledge, skills, and attributes (more historically called “KSA’s”) that are described in terms of specific behaviors, and are demonstrated by superior performers in those jobs or work roles. Attributes include: personal characteristics, traits, motives, values or ways of thinking that impact an individual’s behavior. 2.2 History A team of Educationists lead by Benjamin Bloom in the USA in mid fifties laid the foundation for identifying educational objectives and thereby defining the knowledge, attitudes and skills needed to be developed in education. David McClelland the famous Harvard Psychologist has pioneered the competency movement across the world. His classic books on "Talent and Society", "Achievement Motive", "The Achieving Society", "Motivating Economic Achievement" and "Power the Inner Experience" brought out several new dimensions of the competencies. These competencies exposed by McClelland dealt with the affective domain in Bloom's terminology. The turning point for competency movement is the article published in American Psychologist in 1973 by McClelland, wherein he presented that traditional achievement and intelligence scores may not be able to predict job success and what is required is to profile the exact competencies required to perform a given job effectively and measure them using a variety of tests. Latter McBer a Consulting Firm founded by David McClelland and his associate Berlew have specialized in mapping the competencies of entrepreneurs and managers across the world. They even developed a new and yet simple methodology called the Behavior Event Interviewing (BEI) to map the competencies. Competency MappingCompetency 2
  • 8. 3. Components of Competency Competency has three major components which are as follows:  Knowledge  Skills  Attitude Surface Competencies Most easily developed Skill Self Concept Value Traits & Motives Attitude Knowledge Core Competencies Most difficult to develop Figure 3.1 : Components of Competency Competency MappingComponents of Competency 3
  • 9. 3.1 Knowledge: It refers to the information a person possesses about specific areas, knowledge comprises many factors like memory, numerical ability, linguistic ability, and is, therefore, a complex competency. It can be either:  Scientific Knowledge  Technical Knowledge  Job Knowledge 3.2 Skill: It represents intelligent application of knowledge, experience, and tools. This is the procedural "know how" knowledge (what one can do), either covert (e.g., deductive or inductive reasoning) or observable e.g. "active listening" skill in an interview. They are demonstrated abilities or proficiencies, which are developed and learned from past work and life experience. 3.3 Attitudes: Attitudes are predispositions to other individuals, groups, objects, situations, events, issues, etc. For example attitude to a particular occupation or type of machine or a particular technology all influence our behavior. If a person does not have a positive attitude to computers or IT, he is not likely to use a computer. If he is not positive about the uses of ERP or SAP, he is not likely to use the ERP or SAP. Attitudes determine the kind of things we choose and whether we are likely to approach a particular situation or not or whether we are open to try out the technology or meet the customer or sell a particular product with high motivation, etc. Attitudes decide our approach or avoidance behavior. They are normally conceptualized as positive or negative. A positive attitude makes us to treat that object, technology, method, situation, and person or group more positively and therefore we appreciate it and promote the same. Knowledge and skills tend to be visible and relatively surface, characteristics of people. But attitude, trait and motive competencies are more hidden “deeper” and central to personality. Competency MappingComponents of Competency 4
  • 10. Surface knowledge and skills are relatively easy to develop. But core motive and trait competencies are at the base of the personality and are more difficult to assess and develop. This has been depicted below in the form of an iceberg model. Figure 3.2: Iceberg Model of components of competency 3.4 Who Identifies competencies? Competencies can be identified by one of more of the following category of people:  Experts  HR Specialists  Job analysts  Psychologists  Industrial Engineers etc. In consultation with: Line Managers, Current & Past Role holders, Supervising Seniors, Reporting and Reviewing Officers, Internal Customers, Subordinates of the role holders and Other role set members of the role. Competency MappingComponents of Competency 5
  • 11. 3.5 Behavior Indicators A Competency is described in terms of key behaviors that enables recognition of that competency at the work place. These behaviors are demonstrated by excellent performers on-the-job much more consistently than average or poor performers. These characteristics generally follow the 80-20 rule in that they include the key behaviors that primarily drive excellent performance. Following are some key behavior indicators in an employee: • Independently researches for information and solutions to issues • Ability to know what needs to be done or find out (research) and take steps to get it done • Ask questions when not sure of what the problem is or to gain more information. • Able to identify the underlying or main problem. • Shows willingness to experiment with new things. • Develops a list of decision making guidelines to help arrive at logical solutions. Competency MappingComponents of Competency 6
  • 12. 4.Classification of Competencies Competencies can broadly be classified into two categories  Basic Competencies  Professional Competencies. Basic competencies are inherent in all individuals. Only their degree of existence differs. For example, problem solving is a competency that exists in every individual but in varying degrees. Professional competencies are over and above the basic competencies, and are job related. For example, handling a sales call effectively is a competency that a sales personnel would be required to have. Hence, it can be simply said that, Competencies = Basic Competencies + Professional Competencies 4.1 Types of Basic Competencies The basic competencies encompass the following: 1. Intellectual Competencies: Those which determine the intellectual ability of a person. 2. Motivational Competencies: Those which determine the level of motivation in an individual. 3. Emotional Competencies: Those which determine an individual's emotional quotient. 4. Social Competencies: Those that determine the level of social ability in a person. It has been proved by various scholars that all individuals have competencies. Only the combination and degree of these competencies differ from individual to individual. Hence, organizations have to identify the critical basic competencies required for individual employees to deliver their best in their organization. The importance of mapping the competencies proves critical for organizational success. Competency MappingClassification of Competencies 7
  • 13. These competencies have been presented below in the form of a grid. Motivational Competencies: Intellectual Competencies: o Continuous Learning o Communication o Perseverance o Creativity o Achievement Orientation o Analytical Ability o Time Management o Planning and Organizing Social Competencies: Emotional Competencies: o Team Work o Initiative o Inter-personal Skills o Optimism o Responsibility o Self Confidence o Customer Satisfaction o Leadership o Managing Stress o Managing Change Table 4.1: Basic Competencies 4.2 Types of Professional Competencies: The professional competencies encompass the  Knowledge  Experience  Expertise gained by an individual employee. Competency MappingClassification of Competencies 8
  • 14. 5. Types of Organizational Competencies The previous section classified competency as basic competencies and professional competencies. This section analyses the types of competencies in an organization. Competencies in organizations tend to fall into following broad categories:  Generic Competencies  Managerial Competencies  Functional/Technical Competencies We now delve into greater depths of each of these. 5.1 Generic Competencies Competencies which are considered essential for all staff, regardless of their function or level, i.e. Communication, program execution, processing tools, linguistic, etc. These competencies include broad success factors not tied to a specific work function or industry (often focusing on leadership or emotional intelligence behaviors). They can be represented as below, followed by a brief explanation of each of them:  Human • Communication • Team Working & Interpersonal Effectiveness • Influencing Ability • Achievement Orientation • Networking Ability Communication: Competency of Communication is defined as the set of human attributes required to communicate ideas, thoughts and feelings clearly and correctly using oral or written means. Competency MappingTypes of Organizational Competencies 9
  • 15. Team Working & Interpersonal Effectiveness: Competency of Interpersonal Effectiveness and Team working is defined as the set of human attributes required to impact team or group working to achieve the team objectives. Influencing Ability: Competency of Influencing ability is defined as the set of human attributes required to Impact the outcome of an interaction. Achievement Orientation: Competency of Achievement orientation is defined as the set of human attributes required to continuously seek and achieve higher goals. Networking Ability: Competency of Networking Ability is defined as the set of human attributes required to maintain contact and relationship with different people from different fields  Conceptual • Creative Thinking • Strategic Thinking • Tolerance to non-compliance, non-congruence, non-conformance Creative Thinking: Competency of Creative thinking is defined as the set of human attributes required to generate solutions. Strategic Thinking: Competency of Strategic thinking is defined as the set of human attributes required to visualize near and distant future conditions and develop appropriate organizational response. Tolerance to non-compliance, non-congruence, non-conformance: Competency of Tolerance to non-compliance, non-congruence, non-conformance is defined as the set of human attributes required to remain unfazed when encountered with unfamiliar and unacceptable situations. Competency MappingTypes of Organizational Competencies 10
  • 16. 5.2 Managerial Competencies Competencies which are considered essential for staff with managerial or supervisory responsibility in any service or program. They are as presented below: • Customer Orientation • Organizing Skills • Cross functional Perspective • Planning Skills • Execution Skills • Analytical Skills • Decision Making • Delegation: • Leadership • Developing and supporting subordinates for effectiveness Customer Orientation: Competency of customer orientation is defined as the set of human attributes required to understand and satisfy customer’s needs and requirements. Organizing Skills: Competency of organizing is defined as the set of human attributes required to establish, nurture and troubleshoot organizational processes and relationships for effective delivery of objectives. Cross functional Perspective: Competency of Cross functional perspective is defined as the set of human attributes required to understand one’s own job in relation with other functions within the organization. Planning Skills: Competency of Planning is defined as the set of human attributes required to understand inter relationships and requirements of different activities to be performed to achieve the desired objectives. Competency MappingTypes of Organizational Competencies 11
  • 17. Execution Skills: Competency of Job execution is defined as the set of human attributes required to carry out the assigned activities to the satisfaction of the customer cost effectively. Analytical Skills: Competency of Analytical skills is defined as the set of human attributes required to understand and interpret the data and information. Decision Making: Competency of decision making is defined as the set of human attributes required to decide the course of action under any situation. Delegation: Competency of delegation is defined as the set of human attributes required to empower the subordinates for effective operations. Leadership: Competency of Leadership is defined as the set of human attributes required to take responsibility for accomplishing the desired objectives. Developing and supporting subordinates for effectiveness: Competency of Developing and supporting subordinates is defined as the set of human attributes required to enable the subordinates to be effective in the assigned job and contribute to the organization. 5.3 Functional/Technical Competencies Specific competencies which are considered essential to perform any job in the organization within a defined technical or functional area of work. Business Awareness: Competency of Business Awareness is defined as the set of human attributes required to take business decisions for achieving business objectives. Business Skills: Competency of Business Skills is defined as the set of human attributes required to effectively perform the functional business processes. Technical Skills: Competency of Technical Skills is defined as the set of human attributes required to effectively perform the technical responsibilities of the job position. The technical skills have to be primarily assessed through technical interview or written test. Competency MappingTypes of Organizational Competencies 12
  • 18. 6. Competency Mapping 6.1 Definition Competency mapping is the process of identification of the competencies required to perform successfully a given job or role or a set of tasks at a given point of time. It generally examines two areas: emotional intelligence or emotional quotient (EQ), and strengths of the individual in areas like team structure, leadership, and decision-making. It consists of breaking a given role or job into its constituent tasks or activities and identifying the competencies (technical, managerial, behavioral, conceptual knowledge, an attitudes, skills, etc.) needed to perform the same successfully. 6.2 Process Competency Mapping process is designed to consistently measure and assess individual and group performance as it relates to the expectations of the organization and its customers. It is used to identify key attributes (knowledge, skills, and behavior attributes) that are required to perform effectively in a job or an identified process. Competency Mapping juxtaposes two sets of data. One set is based on organizational workflow and processes. It starts with the clear articulation of workflow and processes, including all quality and quantity requirements, inputs and outputs, decision criteria, and most important, internal and external customer requirements. The other set of data is based on individual and group performance capabilities. It is collected through the utilization of a variety of assessment tools and procedures (which may include a robust 360- degree feedback process) to assess the extent to which individuals and groups can consistently demonstrate over time the competencies required to meet the expectations. Where the output from the organizational maps meet the individual and group performance capabilities, an overall trend line is created that identified where in the process specific developmental opportunities exists, and with what specific population. Competency Mapping process can be the foundation for aligning workflow and process outputs with critical customer requirements with a foundation of required employee attributes and competencies. It is further covered in greater details in section Competency MappingCompetency Mapping 13
  • 19. 7. Need for Competency Mapping With global economy and the world becoming a global village, firms have become more aware of the need for having competent employees and developing distinguished competencies for every organization. This need arose due to the following reasons: • Increased cost of manpower • Need for ensuring that competent people are available for performing various critical roles. • Downsizing adds to the consequent need to get a lot of thing done with fewer people and thus reduce manpower costs and pass on the advantage to the customer. • Recognition that technology, finances, customers and markets, systems and processes can all be set right or managed effectively if we have the right kind of human resources. • The need for focus in performing roles-need for time management, nurturing of competence, increased emphasis on performance management systems. • And recognition of the strategic advantage given by employee competencies in building the core competencies of the organization. Several organizations have realized the importance of this in the last one decade and hence the rush for competency mapping. In good organizations with competent HR managers, competency mapping should already be in existence. Traditionally HR directors and their top management have always paid attention to competencies and incorporated them in their appraisal system. For example when L&T, LIC or NDDB, HLL, Bharat Petroleum, etc. revised their performance appraisal systems, they focused on the assessment of competencies Competency MappingNeed for Competency mapping 14
  • 20. . The following figure summarizes the need for competency mapping Figure 7.1: Need for Competency Mapping Competency mapping therefore is important and is an essential exercise. Every well managed firm should have well defined roles and list of competencies required for performing each role effectively. Such list should be used for recruitment, performance management, promotions, placement and training needs identification. Competency MappingNeed for Competency mapping 15
  • 21. 8. Areas of Implementation The competency mapping can be applied to the areas depicted in the following diagram: Figure 8.1: Areas of Implementation of Competency Mapping 8.1 Recruitment and selection Competencies can be used to construct a template for use in recruitment and selection. Information on the level of a competency required for effective performance would be used to determine the competency levels that new hires should possess. Depending upon the accepted definition, competency data may take the form of behaviors, skills, abilities and other characteristics. Competency based selection can be a way to gain competitive advantage. Some of these advantages are listed below:  A firm that knows how to assess competencies can effectively hire the best at a reasonable price, for example hire under priced but highly entrepreneurial MBA’s from lesser-known business schools. Competency MappingAreas of Implementation 16
  • 22.  There is high turnover due to high failure rate among new hires. The organization needs to identify new hires with the potential to become future managers or leaders.  A gap between the competencies needed and what the organization can hire for indicates the training new hires will need.  A lengthy training period may transpire before new hires become productive. New hires with the competencies to do a job become fully productive faster. 8.2 Training and Development It involves identifying gaps and helping employees develop in the right direction. Knowing the competency profile for a position allows individuals to compare their own competencies to those required by the position or the career path. Training or development plans could focus on those competencies needing improvement. If the training programs can be aligned to the development needs emerging out of the appraisal system and to the market led training needs they can contribute better to both individual and business objectives. This can be achieved in the following manner:  Firstly determine the competencies for a particular position  Secondly identify the competencies of the person holding that position  By mapping the competencies, identify gaps in terms of the competencies for that role and the competencies of the person doing that role to diagnose the training and development needs.  Identify the most appropriate training and development methodology for each trainable competency Accordingly, the person can be trained on those competencies only. Competency based training programs clearly tell what should be the competency level of the person entering the program. This would drastically reduce the training cost for the organization. 8.3 Career and succession planning It involves assessing employees’ readiness or potential to take on new challenges. Determining a person job fit can be based on matching the competency profile of an individual to the set of competencies required for excellence within a profession. Individuals would know the Competency MappingAreas of Implementation 17
  • 23. competencies required for a particular position and therefore would have an opportunity to decide if they have the potential to pursue that position or not. 8.4 Rewards and Recognition Competency based pay is compensation for individual characteristics for skills and competencies over and above the pay a job or organizational role itself commands. One way of improving employee performance is by recognizing and rewarding effort. Competency pay is the best way to do so. Rewarding employees for their ability to make the best use of their skills and competencies in accordance with the organization’s needs was the logic behind this once popular HR tool. Various elements are considered for arriving at compensation increase. Enhancement in competencies has to be one of them. There is a need for competency based compensation system  To attract more competent than average employees  To reward for results and competencies developed  To motivate employees to maintain and enhance their skills and competencies regularly By rewarding employees who develop relevant competencies the organization can benefit by improving its own capability to face the future 8.5 Performance Management System Performance has two dimensions  Achieving business results  Developing individual competencies These days performance appraisal is seen by managers and employees as a bureaucratic “paperwork” exercises that they do not take seriously because it has little impact on employee development. Performance appraisals do not address the employees’ questions about skill development or career advancement. Competency based performance management would:  Focus on “HOW” of performance and not on “WHAT” of performance i.e. not on results but how the results are achieved  Link to development of the individual and not just rewards Competency based PMS shift the emphasis of appraisal from organization results to employee behaviors and competencies demonstrated and hence help identify development gaps. Competency MappingAreas of Implementation 18
  • 24. 9. Advantages of Competency Mapping There are several advantages of competency mapping over traditional job analysis. The following section analyzes each of them in relation to the company, the managers and the individual employees. The section also gives a comparative view of the competency based approach and the job analysis approach. 9.1 For the company The advantages of competency mapping for the companies or organizations are as follows:  Establishes expectations for performance excellence  Improved job satisfaction and better employee retention  Increase in the effectiveness of training and professional development programs because of their link to success criteria.  Provides a common understanding of scope and requirements of a specific role  Provides a common, organization wide standard for career levels that enable employees to move across business boundaries  Help companies “raise the bar” of performance expectations  Help teams and individuals align their behaviors with key organizational strategies 9.2 For Managers The competency mapping provides following advantages to the managers:  Identify performance criteria to improve the accuracy and ease of the selection process  Provide more objective performance standards  Easier communication of performance expectations  Provide a clear foundation for dialogue to occur between the managers and employees and performance, development and career-oriented issues Competency MappingAdvantages of Competency Mapping 19
  • 25. 9.3 For employees The employees in an organization get the following advantages by competency mapping:  Identify the behavioral standards of performance excellence  Provide a more specific and objective assessment of their strengths and the tools required to enhance their skills  Enhances clarity on career related issues  Helps each understand how to achieve expectations 9.4 Traditional Job Analysis versus Competency Approach Job Analysis leads to…. Competency model leads to…. • Long list of tasks and skills / knowledge • A distilled set of underlying required to perform each of those tasks. characteristics. • Data generation from subject matter • Data generation from outstanding experts; job incumbents. performers in addition to subject matter • Effective performance. experts and other job incumbents. • Outstanding performance. Table 9.1: Job Analysis versus Competency Approach Competency MappingAdvantages of Competency Mapping 20
  • 26. 10. Disadvantages of Competency Mapping In spite of the several advantages offered by competency mapping, there are few drawbacks to the approach. Some of these are discussed below: 1. A problem with competency mapping, especially when conducted by an organization is that there may be no room for an individual to work in a field that would best make use of his or her competencies. 2. If the company does not respond to competency mapping by reorganizing its employees, then it can be of little short-term benefit and may actually result in greater unhappiness on the part of individual employees. 3. If too much emphasis is placed on 'inputs' at the expense of 'outputs', there is a risk that it will favor employees who are good in theory but not in practice and will fail to achieve the results that make a business successful. 4. They can become out of date very quickly due to the fast pace of change in organizations and it can therefore be expensive and time consuming to keep them up-to-date. . Competency MappingDisadvantages of Competency Mapping 21
  • 27. 11. Model of Competency Mapping 11.1 Definition A competency mapping model is an organizing framework that lists the competencies required for effective performance in a specific job, job family (e.g., group of related jobs), organization, function, or process. Individual competencies are organized into competency models to enable people in an organization or profession to understand, discuss, and apply the competencies to workforce performance. The competencies in a model may be organized in a variety of formats. No one approach is inherently best; organizational needs will determine the optimal framework. A common approach is to identify several competencies that are essential for all employees and then identify several additional categories of competencies that apply only to specific subgroups. Some competency models are organized according to the type of competency, such as leadership, personal effectiveness, or technical capacity. Other models may employ a framework based on job level, with a basic set of competencies for a given job family and additional competencies added cumulatively for each higher job level within the job family. 11.2 Developing the model The following are the steps involved in designing and developing the competency mapping model:  Strategize – assess business needs, evaluate contextual drivers, engage stakeholders and set goals.  Initiate – identify methodologies, develop project plans, review existing data, benchmark competencies, and collect competency data.  Model – analyze and synthesize data, identify competencies and develop models, and validate models. Competency MappingModel of Competency Mapping 22
  • 28.  Pilot – develop implementation and evaluation plans, develop and initiate competency applications, and continuously communicate activities.  Link – link to all human resources system components, and phase in implementation of other competency' based applications.  Evaluate – establish and evaluate measures, and continuously improve the system. Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 Data Gathering & Preparation Data Analysis Validation Review list of probable Content Validation Study Identified Jobs Competencies session Identify major Construct Reinforce proficiency categories of skills Competency of critical competencies Definitions Identify Probable Assign proficiency Refine competency competencies levels definitions, if necessary Figure 11.1: Stages In Developing An Organization Wide Competency Model Competency MappingModel of Competency Mapping 23
  • 29. These steps have been segregated in view of implementing the model and are depicted in the following figure: Identify Departments and Organization Hierarchy Obtain Job Description Conduct Semi Structured Interview Preparation of List of Skills Generate List of Competencies Indicate Proficiency Levels Validate competencies & Proficiency levels Prepare competency matrix Mapping of Competency Figure 11.2: Steps for implementing the Competency Mapping model Competency MappingModel of Competency Mapping 24
  • 30. Following is a brief description of each of these steps: Step 1: Identify departments for competency mapping Decide and select the departments within the organization which we would like to include into our study. The departments should be chosen based on their criticality and importance to the organization. Step 2: Identifying hierarchy within the organization and selection of levels Study the organization hierarchy across each of the selected departments. Step 3: Obtain the job descriptions. For all the levels at every department obtain each role’s job description. Job descriptions are a basic human resources management tool that can help to increase individual and organizational effectiveness.. For each employee, a good, up-to-date job description helps the incumbent to understand: their duties and responsibilities; the relative importance of the duties; and, how their position contributes to the mission, goals, and objectives of the organization. For the organization, good job descriptions contribute to organizational effectiveness by: ensuring that the work carried out by staff is aligned with the organizations mission; and, Helping management clearly identify the most appropriate employee for new duties and realigning work loads. Step 4: Preparation of semi structured interview In structured interviews, carefully planned questions are asked individually of job incumbents, their managers, or others familiar with the job. Benchmarking interviews with other organizations are especially useful in achieving a broader view of the job or determining which competencies are more universally deemed necessary for a particular job. However, it is important to be cautious in applying the information collected from other organizations as there are many variables such as work environment, culture, and differences in job responsibilities that may limit the relevance of the information. Competency MappingModel of Competency Mapping 25
  • 31. Step 5: Scheduling of interviews Obtain a list of employees from respective department heads and accordingly schedule interviews. A minimum of 5 candidates are to be interviewed at each level in each department. Step 6: Recording of interview details The candidate’s answers and opinions have to be recorded in as much detail as possible for further reference during the project. Step 7: Preparation of a list of Skills As per the interview and the details that were generated from the candidate, generate a list of skills observed for the job. Thereon a list of identified competencies should be drawn for each interviewed candidate. Step 8: Repeat for next levels and functions. The interviews and appropriate recording of answers should be done at all remaining levels and other departments within the Torrent Research Center. Step 9: Make the list of the competencies required for the department for each level and each function giving behavioral indicators. For each position at each department a list of competencies observed from both the job description and the semi structured interview (list of skills) should be drawn up. Each competency should be given a name and an appropriate definition that clearly indicates its meaning and essence. Step 10: Validate identified competencies and proficiency levels with Head of Departments. Confirm competency definitions with respective Head Of Department’s and obtain from the required proficiency levels of each competency that is ideal for each role. Also locate any missing competencies. Competency MappingModel of Competency Mapping 26
  • 32. Step 11: Preparation of competency matrix Prepare a matrix defining competencies required and corresponding proficiency levels for each level across all departments. Step 12: Mapping of competencies Map the competencies of selected employees against the competency matrix as per their employee level and department. Here an employee’s actual proficiency level of a particular competency would be mapped against the target proficiency level. 11.3 Data Collection Methods One of the major steps in developing the model for competency mapping is to collect the data. This sub-section discusses some of these methods in detail. 11.3.1 Literature Review A preliminary approach to defining job content and identifying required competencies is to conduct a review of the literature to learn about previous studies of the job or similar jobs. Quite often, no previous studies have been conducted. However, if they do exist, they can be extremely helpful in providing an introduction to the job and a preliminary list of competencies to consider. Sources of published literature include books, professional journals, association magazines, theses, and dissertations. Unpublished studies may be available from professional associations, consulting firms, colleges and universities that offer training programs for your target job, and through the Internet. The quality of these studies will vary widely and they need to be critically evaluated before use. 11.3.2 Focus Groups In focus groups, a facilitator works with a small group of job incumbents, their managers, supervisees, clients, or others to define the job content or to identify the competencies they believe are essential for performance. A series of focus groups is often conducted to allow many people in the organization to provide input. There are different approaches to conducting focus groups. Typically, the facilitator will use a prepared protocol of questions to guide a structured discussion. Expert panels are a special type of focus group in which persons who are considered Competency MappingModel of Competency Mapping 27
  • 33. highly knowledgeable about the job and its requirements meet to develop a list of competencies required for success. 11.3.3 Behavioral Event Interviews In behavioral event interviews (BEI), top performers are interviewed individually about what they did, thought, said, and felt in challenging or difficult situations. The competencies that were instrumental in their success are extrapolated from their stories. Often, average and low performers are also interviewed to provide a comparison. The interviewer will ask questions such as: “Tell me about a time when you had an extremely challenging client” or “Give me an example of a situation at work in which you had to make a difficult decision.” 11.3.4 Surveys In surveys, job incumbents, their supervisors, and perhaps senior managers complete a questionnaire administered either in print or electronically. The survey content is based on previous data collection efforts such as interviews, focus groups, or literature reviews. The respondents are typically asked to assign ratings to each listed job element or competency. For example, respondents may be asked how critical a competency is to effective job performance, how frequently the competency is used on the job, the degree to which the competency differentiates superior from average performers, and if the competency is needed on entry to the job or can be developed over time. Survey respondents are usually asked to provide in writing any additional information that they feel is important. 11.3.5 Observations In this data collection method, the research team visits high performing incumbents and observes them at work. The more complex the job and the greater the variety in job tasks, the more time is required for an observation. For a very routine job in which the same task is repeated over and over throughout the day, an observation of a couple hours might suffice. For very complex jobs, observation of a week or more may be required. If the job changes based on work cycles, seasons, or other factors, the observations may have to be conducted over a period of weeks or Competency MappingModel of Competency Mapping 28
  • 34. months. The observation process may include asking employees to explain what they are doing and why. Sometimes observations of average and low performers are also conducted to establish a basis for comparison. The competencies required for effective performance are then inferred from the observations by persons who are experts in competency identification. 11.3.6 Work Logs In the work log method of data collection, job incumbents enter into logs or diaries their daily work activities with stop and start times for each activity. Depending on the complexity and variety of the job, incumbents may be asked to make log entries for several days, weeks, or months. 11.3.7 360 degree feedback It’s a process whereby an individual (the recipient) is rated on their performance by people who know something about their work (the raters). This can include direct reports, peers and managers and in some cases customers or clients, in fact anybody who is credible to the individual and is familiar with their work can be included in the feedback process. This is usually in addition to completing a self-assessment on performance. The resulting information is presented to the individual with the aim of helping them to gain a better understanding of their skills and development areas. Each source can provide a different perspective on the individual’s skills, attributes and other job relevant characteristics and thus help to build up a richer, more complete and accurate picture than could be obtained from any one source. Competency MappingModel of Competency Mapping 29
  • 35. 12. Process of Competency Mapping Competency mapping requires a lot of planning and efforts of the HR department as it’s a lengthy and a time consuming process. It is essential to lay down the entire plan first, and then take it forward. Preparation of Questionnaire Collection of Responses Analysis Findings Figure 12.1: Process of Competency Mapping Competency MappingProcess of Competency Mapping 30
  • 36. The diagram explains the flow of the Competency Mapping Methodology. Each of the stages is explained in detail below: 12.1 Laying Down Of Objectives Before conducting any research it is very essential to understand the reason or the objectives one is planning to establish through the research. Therefore it is vital to list down the objectives which will help to plan the exercise in accordance with the objectives and ultimately establish what we desire to arrive at. The objectives of Competency Mapping are as follows:  To establish a Competency Model, which will create a benchmark for all the employees in the organization and will help in performing all HR functions more efficiently.  To map the competencies of the existing employees and understand where they fall low or average in comparison to the competencies essential for their job/role. This will help in identifying training and development needs for the employees. 12.2 Preparation of The Questionnaire The data required for competency mapping for the middle management is collected by undertaking “JOB EVALUATION” which includes the preparation of a “Role Profile Questionnaire”. This questionnaire is designed keeping in mind the objectives of the project. The questions are framed in such a way so as to derive accurate and appropriate responses relevant to the project. There are various tools of Competency Mapping for the employees as discussed earlier in the report. The application of these tools is visible in the questionnaire. These tools include:  Rank Order Rating  Behavioral Event Interview Rank Order Rating is used to find out which competencies are required for each job/role and their order of importance to each profile. The Behavioral Event Interview is a set of open ended questions to find out the STAR’s (Situation, Task, Action and Results). Competency MappingProcess of Competency Mapping 31
  • 37. Once the questionnaire is prepared, the responses are collected from the employees belonging to the middle level management by a one on one interaction with each respondent. 12.3 Collection of Responses This stage consumes the maximum time. As the employees to be interviewed belong to the middle management, they are usually pre-occupied with their work and therefore it becomes difficult for them to spare time for the questionnaire. Hence this stage takes almost a month to complete. 12.4 Analysis Once the data is collected from all the employees belonging to the middle level management, the data is then analyzed manually. To establish the Competency Model, the analysis is based on the ratings provided by each employee to the different competencies. The highest rated competencies form the critical competencies in the model and the others follow in the other categories. Another technique used is called the Opportunity Algorithm which is used to map the current competencies of the employees in relation to the competencies rated by the employees in question 2. The Opportunity Algorithm was introduced by the Harvard School of Business and is one of the most successful formulae used by many big organizations. The Opportunity Algorithm is explained in brief below: 12.4.1 The Opportunity Algorithm How can a company discover and prioritize the most promising skills and opportunities in their Human Resources to achieve their desired goals/objectives. Executives struggle with this question every day and an outcome based on research offers a surprisingly simple answer. The best outcomes spring from those skills that are important to the job/role but are not satisfied entirely or that are partially satisfied by the existing job/role holders. Competency MappingProcess of Competency Mapping 32
  • 38. Selecting the richest areas of opportunity from a long list of outcomes is critical since chasing the less promising ones is a drain on one’s resources. Fortunately, a simple mathematical formula known as “Opportunity calculation” makes it possible to discover the most promising areas. The formula [Importance + (Importance – Satisfaction) = Opportunity] yields highly accurate results. The companies ask the job/role holders to quantify on a scale, the importance of each desired outcome (skill) and the degree to which it is currently satisfied (how they assess themselves on each of the desired outcome). Those rankings are inserted into the formula, resulting in an overall opportunity score. After the application of the formula one arrives at various opportunity scores for each of the job/role holders. The highest score depicts the skills which the job/role holder should give his immediate attention and look for improvement in those areas. The job/role holder then looks at the second highest score and sharpens those skills later, after successful improvement in the first area where he scored the highest score. These scores will differ from individual to individual and from job/role to job/role. 12.5 Findings With the help of the Opportunity Algorithm and the ratings provided by the employees, the Competency Model and the Competency Scorecard for each employee can be established. Competency MappingProcess of Competency Mapping 33
  • 39. 13. Competency Mapping at Ready-mix Concrete Company Ready-mix Concrete industry is a fast growing and booming industry, so the employees working in this well known ready mix concrete company should not only possess basic knowledge about the concrete and cement industry but also be competent enough to contribute in the development and growth of the company. This is where “Competency Mapping” comes into picture, which helps to discover what kind of competency is required to deliver superior performances and eventually help the company grow leaps and bounds. The company has its plants spread across various cities like Mumbai, Bangalore, Hyderabad, Ahmedabad, Pune, Surat, Goa, Chennai, Kolkata, Nasik, Chandigarh, Jaipur and NCR. The following is the general organization chart of the company: C.E.O & E. D. General C.F.O & Manager Vice President Vice President C. S (Eng. & Dev.) Dy. G.M. Reg/ Dy. G.M. Project Team of Head H.R T.N. Engineering Maharashtra Lucknow Gujarat Jaipur NCR M.P. Aggregate A.G.M Kolkata Chandigarh Division Accounts Goa Figure 13.1: Organization Chart Competency MappingCompetency Mapping at Ready Mix Concrete Company 34
  • 40. Each region follows a normal hierarchy which defines various designations in each department. The hierarchy is explained with the help of the following diagram: General Manager Dy. General CEO & ED Manager CFO & CS Top Management Asst. General VP’s Manager Senior Manager Manager Dy. Manager Asst. Manager Middle Management Senior Officer Officer Asst. Officer Junior Management Figure 13.2: Hierarchy defining various designations The RMC Company is in the initial stage of implementing the Competency Mapping Process. The procedure followed is as follows: • Laying down of Objectives • Preparation of questionnaire and distributing it amongst all the employees • Collecting of data and responses through Experts and Resource Panels, Critical event interviews and generic competency dictionaries. • Analysis of data to build up a model. • Building up of Model Competency MappingCompetency Mapping at Ready Mix Concrete Company 35
  • 41. 14. Competency Mapping at Ambuja Cement At Ambuja Cements, competency mapping is at its nascent stage. Here performance management is a cyclical process aimed at improving performance (e.g.: achievement of business objectives). This process is implemented by following the principles underlying Performance Management, namely: • Measurement o establish performance measures o establish measurable behavioral goals that will improve performance o measure current behaviors • Appraisal o compare the current behaviors with the behavioral goals and identify the main differences • Action o For each difference, you plan how to bring actual behaviors in line with the goals, in order to improve the performance o implement the plan • Monitoring o Check that the new plans are being followed o At an appropriate time, you return to the appraisal stage to assess the impact of the changes on the behavioral and performance measures Competency MappingCompetency Mapping at Ambuja Cement 36
  • 42. 15. Conclusion Competency Mapping therefore, is a process of identifying key competencies for an organization and/or a job and incorporating those competencies throughout the various processes (i.e. job evaluation, training, recruitment) of the organization. A lot is going on in recent times on the issue of competency mapping. A lot of resources are spent and consultants are being invited to do competency mapping. Increased manpower costs, need for ensuring that competent people man critical positions, and the need to be competitive and recognition of the strategic advantages of having good human resources have compelled firms to be more competency driven. In the report we have discussed how competent employees have become need of the hour in every organization and it is now essential that they undertake competency mapping, identify models, gaps and imbibe this as an every day practice in an organization. Often competency mapping runs the risk of being just another new-fangled process that happens to be the flavour of the season. Such a powerful organisational tool is often resorted just because rival organisations have implemented it and not because there is genuine appreciation of its benefits. Competency mapping should not be seen as just another means to apportion and dispense rewards. All the stakeholders must see in the exercise an opportunity for long-term growth. The key is to look at competency mapping as going beyond mere processes. And to see in it an exercise that has a significant and lasting value to project managers as well as to the organisation. Competency MappingConclusion 37
  • 43. References Industries Visited 1. RMC India Ltd. Infocom Network Ltd, 194, Arvind Chambers, 2nd floor, Sai Service Compond, W.E. Highway, Andheri (E) 2. Ambuja Cements Limited Elegant Business Park Behind Kotak Mahindra Bank MIDC Cross Road - B, off Andheri Kurla Road Andheri (E), Mumbai - 59 Books and Journals: 1. T.V.Rao, Performance management and appraisal systems: HR tools for global competencies, Sage publications. 2. Sudipta, “Competency based HR”, Express Computer, 10 Jan 2005. 3. Sudipta, “Competency mapping”, Express Computer, 10 Jan 2005. 4. M. Verma, V. Sinha, “Don’t take your junior colleagues for granted: Cos Using Feedback From Peers & Subordinates To Assess Executives”, Economic Times Mumbai, Sep 3, 2007. Website references: www.tvrls.com www.careertrainer.com www.indianmba.com www.citehr.com www.hrworkbench.in/eng en.allexperts.com/q/Human-Resources-2866/competency-mapping-1.htm
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  • 45. Competency MappingReferences 38

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