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  2. 2. Competency Mapping Indira Priyadarshini College of Engineering & Technology (Affiliated To Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University,Anantapur Nannur(village), Kurnool(Dist)518002 2009-2011 Company certificateMBA DEPT 2 INPWCET
  3. 3. Competency Mapping INDIRA PRIYADARSHINI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY (Affiliated To Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Anantapur Nannur (village), Kurnool(Dist)518002 2009-2011 CERTIFICATE This is to certify that project work entitled a “ COMPETENCY MAPPING IN IT INDUSTRY” is submitted by S.GOUSIYA BEGUM for the award of degree of MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION to Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Anantapur is a record of independent research work undertaken by her /him under my supervision and guidance and has not been submitted earlier for the degree or diploma of any University or Institute. Mrs.V.RADHAMMAMBA DEPT 3 INPWCET
  4. 4. Competency Mapping Head of the Department (Project Guide) DECLARATION I here by declare that this project report titled A STUDY ON “COMPETENCY MAPPING IN IT INDUSTRY” is done by me in PRAGHATHI CONSULTANCY SERVICES Submitted by me as part of partial fulfillment for the award of the MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, at INDIRA PRIYADARSHINI COLLEGE OF ENGG&TECH.FOR WOMEN, JNTU University, is a record of Beneficed work done me. I also declare that this report has to my knowledge is my own and is neither submitted to any other university nor published any time before. DATE: PLACE: (S.GOUSIYA BEGUM)MBA DEPT 4 INPWCET
  5. 5. Competency Mapping ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I thanks to Ramana Reddy, Venkat Ram Reddy, Chairman, AVR & SVR Group of Institutions for making it convenient to undertake a project work. I would like to express my sincere thanks to Sudhakar Babu Principal , Indira Priyadarshini College of Engg & Tech., for Women for helping me in the completion of project work. My humble thanks to Mrs.V.RADHAMMA for being my project guide and for expert guidance, constructive criticism and valuable suggestions throughout the project work. I take it a privilege to record here my deep sense of gratitude to_____________, Human Resource Manager Praghathi Consultancy Services for giving me opportunity to work on my project in the company. I heart fully thank all the members who are working in Praghathi Consultancy Services, for giving me timely guidance and co-operation to complete this project report. I would like to express my sincere thanks to all my faculty members for helping me in the completion of project work. I thank all my classmates and friends who helped directly or indirectly in the completion of my project work. Last but not least I extremely thank my parents for giving moral support and encouragement without which the project would not be materialized.MBA DEPT 5 INPWCET
  8. 8. Competency Mapping CHAPTER-1 INTRODUCTION A competency is an underlying characteristic of a person, which enables him to deliver superior performance in a given job, role or a situation. This characteristic may be called an ‘attribute bundle’, consisting of knowledge, skills, traits, social role, self-image and motive. The ‘underlying characteristic’, manifests itself in the form of behavior, which helps identification and measurement of the competency. This is a competency era. It is beyond doubt that it is beneficial and cost effective, to have competent people to occupy higher-level positions. Alternatively, Competency also refers to the intellectual, managerial, social and emotional competency.MBA DEPT 8 INPWCET
  9. 9. Competency Mapping There are two basic levels of competencies: technical and behavioral. The first level, Technical Competencies are predominately about acquired knowledge and technical abilities and skills. These competencies are often easier to see, train for and develop. Examples of technical competencies include knowledge of applicable legislation and case law, knowledge of valuation methodology. The second level of competencies is Behavioral Competencies, such as communication skills or team member skills. These competencies can be harder to see and develop but are key indicators of how an individual approaches his/her work. COMPETENCY MAPPING: A competency is an underlying characteristic of a person, which enables him to deliver superior performance in a given job, role or a situation. This characteristic may be called an ‘attribute bundle’, consisting of knowledge, skills, traits, social role, self-image and motive. The ‘underlying characteristic’, manifests itself in the form of behaviour, which helps identification and measurement of the competency. This is a competency era. It is beyond doubt that it is beneficial and cost effective, to have competent people to occupy higher-level positions. Alternatively, Competency also refers to the intellectual, managerial, social and emotional competency. There are two basic levels of competencies: technical and behavioural. The first level, Technical Competencies are predominately about acquired knowledge and technical abilities and skills. These competencies are often easier to see, train for and develop. Examples of technical competencies include knowledge of applicable legislation and case law, knowledge of valuation methodology. The second level of competencies is Behavioural Competencies, such as communication skills or team member skills. These competencies can be harder to see and develop but are key indicators of how an individual approaches his/her work.MBA DEPT 9 INPWCET
  10. 10. Competency Mapping Functional Competency Mapping: FUNCTIONS OF HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT • Recruitment • Promotion • Transfer • Performance Appraisal • Personal record • Disciplinary action • Grievance handling Recruitment: T h e r e c r u i t m e n t a t H I L i s d o n e t h r o u g h d a t a b a n k s o r f r o m external sources like Employment Exchange, man power consultancies, campus and walk-interviews, advertisement in newspaper.MBA DEPT 10 INPWCET
  11. 11. Competency Mapping Promotion: Promotion is a scientific procedure to be adopted by the management to avoid any misunderstanding among the employees. A person to whom the promotion is given must be sufficiently tested in all respect. His efficiency, his record of job performance, his decision making capacity, leadership, initiative, all the qualities should be proper the tested and then given him an opportunity of promotion. Transfer: At HIL the transfer policy for the employees and standardized rules regarding transfer are as follows: a) Mode of travel from original location to new location:- Mode of travel with family from original location to new location as per grade entitlement specified in the travel policy b ) S t a y a r r a n g e m e n t s a t n e w l o c a t i o n f o r p r e v i e w trip:- Company will make stay arrangements for employee’s family for a maximum of fourteen days c) Setting allowance:- To facilitate employee setting down at new location. A one time allowance will be payable to her/him. d) Transfer advance: An employee can take an allowance from the original allowance to adjust against transfer reimbursement. Performance Appraisal: Performance appraisal system is developed by company for achieving continual development of strength and identifying the once requiring improvement of employees. Performance Appraisal process steps:MBA DEPT 11 INPWCET
  12. 12. Competency Mapping Setting of performance plan/ targets. S e l f - a p p r a i s a l by the employees of his own performance. Review by the supervisory management boss. Assessment of the approval of all individual. Assessment of the approval of all individual. Personal records: Proper record keeping is essential for the working of any establishment. In personal record include the entire information positive or negative if it is achievement, promotion, training etc., or negative such as Disciplinary action. Warning letter or suspended for the given time. Disciplinary action: It refers to action taken by the management authority against the worker for the offence committed by him. Disciplinary action is taken by the management to improve the behavior of the workers. Disciplinary action may include one or more of the following: 1.Verbal warning 2.written warning 3.Suspension for a particular period 4.Demotion 5.Dismissal 6.Cut-off wages Grievance handling A grievance as per HIL specification means communicationf r o m an employees or g r o u p o f e m p l o y e e s e x p r e s s i n g dissatisfaction with any mat ter or decisionfailing and acertain areas defined by a compan y c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e i r employment. This may include grievance in regarding pay onc o m p e n s a t i o n , t r a i n i n g , j o b s e c u r i t y , c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t , promotion,MBA DEPT 12 INPWCET
  13. 13. Competency Mapping working condition, transfer welfare activity communication, discipline, attendance, leave records etc. A Model for Competency Mapping Heads of Functional DepartmentsFinance/ Marketing /HR/Technical/OthersHeads of the Functional Departments explain in detailwhat all competencies should an employee possessHR DepartmentHR Department designs such aperformance appraisal method, whichchecks the competencies possessed byt h e e m l o e e a n d t o w h a t d e r e e .MBA DEPT 13 INPWCET
  14. 14. Competency Mapping Need of the Study Finding the right fit for the right job is a matter of concern for most organisations especially in today’s economic crisis. As meeting an individuals career aspirations are concerned, once the organisation gives an employee the perspective of what is required from him/her to reach a particular position, it drives them to develop the competencies for the same. Competencies enable individuals to identify and articulate what they offer -regardless of the job. Competency mapping is a process of identifying key competencies for a particular position in an organisation, and then using it for job-evaluation, recruitment, training and development, performance management, succession planning, etc. Introduction of competency mapping has also involved introducing skill appraisals in performance appraisals.MBA DEPT 14 INPWCET
  15. 15. Competency Mapping OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 1. Identifying various roles people play in this Practice - which means varied roles in the band level. 2. Identifying the basic understanding of the structure of Practice roles - which means understanding the framework pertaining to a particular band and the kind and nature of work done under it. 3. Identifying how do people and at what level do they interact with clients – which means identifying whether employees of the bands interact with clients, or it is a feature of higher bands. 4. Identifying the years of experience for all employee in the Practice which means from the secondary data. 5. Surveying via the mailed questionnaire method, which probes about kind of competencies they possess 6. Identifying various competencies/skill set associated with each band – mapping the competencies of each bandMBA DEPT 15 INPWCET
  16. 16. Competency Mapping SCOPE OF THE STUDY The span of the study instead of being limited to one particular band of the E- Governance Consulting Practice, [leaving the Programmers/Developers]; is spread over all the other 4 bands i.e. B1, B2, C1, C2. Since E-Governance Consulting Practice is a relatively new Practice, and is picking up on its demands; the study on finding competencies relevant to it will bring about dynamism in tuning the Practice to such levels, that always it will yield to high performance and the Practice will be able to gain more in being the most sought after. This stage deals with the start up to a competency development process involving data gathering and preparation for an intervention. It deals essentially with the following:  Identify an exhaustive set of job families in the organization. E.g. Developers, Consultants, Associate Consultants, Senior Consultants, Principal, Practice Heads  Obtain Role data in regard to such identified job families  Identify job roles within each job families E.g. In the Consultants family the employees are distinguished by their years of experience. Similarly with the other job familiesMBA DEPT 16 INPWCET
  17. 17. Competency Mapping  Review the job roles for its clarity in regard to Job Purpose, Objectives, Key Responsibilities, and critical success factors  Review for inadequacies, if any, and improve upon the Role Profile form, to prepare it to be reviewed for competency mapping requirement Stage 1: Identify major categories of skills  Each job has its minimum skill requirements, to establish proficiency levels of the incumbents, to perform their roles effectively  Determine skills required to perform a job effectively  Enable each job family and jobs within those job families to gain consistency in skills that have been stated as required to perform a job  These skill requirements are determined on a functional and managerial basis and demonstrate capabilities that would enable a role incumbent to perform his or her role  Consequently, every job has its set of critical or major skills and a set of supplementary skills. Alternatively, supplementary skills could be a sub- set of the major skill and would be essential to make out the role incumbent performing the major skill. For example, ‘Presentation skills’ could be a critical skill and ‘Patience and Perseverance’ could be supplementary skills. Similarly ‘Project Management’ could be a critical skill and ‘Ability to Handle Situations’ could be supplementary skills.  Identification of such skill sets, would establish a boundary, within which competencies should be defined. Effectively, competencies tend to be articulated from within the defined or pre determined skill sets Stage 1: Identify probable competencies  List the skills and evaluate which of them needs to be emphasized behaviourallyMBA DEPT 17 INPWCET
  18. 18. Competency Mapping  Add or eliminate skills that appear to over lap and may cause conceptual confusion for a role incumbent when it has to be manifested behaviourally  Clarify additional skills and the reason for placing those skills in relation to a particular job  Having identified the skills required for a particular role, possible competencies that are critical for that role profile to be listed. This provides a framework within which competencies definitions, assessment sets and other band matrix issues are resolved  Probable competency analysis would enable the evaluator to determine, whether all the required skills have been listed and defined. This acts as a checkpoint/benchmark Stage 2: Data Analysis Stage 2: Review and finalize list of competencies  Probable competencies that are identified from the last stage, is now reviewed to check for any internal consistency, validity versus other jobs, exhaustiveness of competencies to fulfill the job objectives and purposes  The competencies are now finalized for each job role  It is agreed with the management teams Stage 2: Construct competency definitions Each competency is placed in an individual and multiple boxes with both job family and competencies listed. An appropriate matching process is conducted to identify where similar competencies tend to be necessary. It is important to define the skill requirements for each of the said competency in each of the levels. It is likely that the skill emphasis may differ from one job to another, although it is for the same competencyMBA DEPT 18 INPWCET
  19. 19. Competency Mapping  Each of the competencies are now defined in the context of the role profile Thus the benchmark competencies have been determined. Now the next task is to identify the competencies and mapping them, such that it is compared against the benchmarks. This is done by following the Repertory Grid Technique. Stage 3: Validation The second mailed questionnaire used is the Repertory Grid questionnaire, which is utilized to understand and map the various competencies existing in the bands. This is the questionnaire which forms the basis for the study and is also targeted at the 58 identified employees. Here from the obtained competencies are compared with the benchmarks and a Gap Analysis is performed to understand what makes the band lack in which aspect, and what can be done to improve upon it. Based on above format the questionnaire is so designed that it specifies each requirement, and the intricate nature of the kind of job profile an individual holds.MBA DEPT 19 INPWCET
  20. 20. Competency Mapping Research Methodology Collection of DATA Primary Data : Questionnaires, Company Records and Respondents Secondary Data : Through web sites , Magazines, newspapers Sample size: 100 Sample Techniques: Random Technique Research Instrument RESEARCH METHODOLOGY RESEARCH DESIGN The design chosen for this project was “DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH DESIGN “.Which is used when the purpose of the researchMBA DEPT 20 INPWCET
  21. 21. Competency Mapping LIMITATIONS • The time constraint is more important. • The sample size is upto 100. • The employees are not responded because of their busy schedule. • The project is limited to pragathi consultancy servicesMBA DEPT 21 INPWCET
  22. 22. Competency Mapping CHAPTER-2MBA DEPT 22 INPWCET
  23. 23. Competency Mapping INDUSTRIAL PROFILEMBA DEPT 23 INPWCET
  24. 24. Competency Mapping In India, the software boom started somewhere in the late 1990s. The profile of the Indian IT Services has been undergoing a change in the last few years, partly as it moves up the value chain and partly as a response to the marketdynamics. The market competition is forcing organizations to cut down on costs of products. The professional IT services on the other hand are becoming increasingly expensive. Despite the global economic slowdown, the Indian IT software and services industry is maintaining a steady pace of growth. India’s most prized resource is its readily available technical work force. India has the second largest English-speaking scientific professionals in the world, second only to the U.S. It is estimated that India has over 4 million technical workers, over 1,832 educational institutions and polytechnics, which train more than 67,785 computer software professionals every year. The enormous base of skilled manpower is a major draw for global customers. .MBA DEPT 24 INPWCET
  25. 25. Competency Mapping S. NO. Compa nies 1. TCS 2. Infosys 3. Wipro 4. HP 5. IBM 6. SatyaMBA DEPT 25 INPWCET
  26. 26. Competency Mapping Advances in Information Technology and Information Systems delivery over the past decades have restructured industries and created enormous value. Interestingly however, research shows companies traditionally have a very difficult time capturing the value from their investment. Any surplus created by these improvements is often competed away and given back to customers. Decision makers are focused on demonstrating that information Technology expenditures result in positive net returns to the company. IT managers are faced with a fundamental question: How does the organization use Information Technology to create sustainable competitive advantage and capture value in its industry? This thesis proposes a framework, the Core Competency Model, to help companies think about Information Services strategy and Information Technology deployment. Instead of seeking to create competitive advantage through IT investment alone, it introduces the concept of core competencies. IT resources can be quickly duplicated by competitors, as has been shown in the research. Core competencies, the complex blending of unique resources and capabilities, are much more difficult to duplicate and form the basis for true sustainable competitive advantage. At its heart, the Core Competency Model suggests thatMBA DEPT 26 INPWCET
  27. 27. Competency Mapping the role of the IS group is to support the formation and enhancement of the organizations core competencies. It further identifies several capabilities and resources that the IS group must possess to fully support the core competencies of the enterprise. This model, if truly utilized, would change the nature of a companys internal dialog on IT spending. Debate over which business units should get which IT resources would be replaced with discussion of the strategic direction and core competencies of the company. Decisions concerning IS resource allocation and IT spending would follow very naturally from this discussion. The Core Competency Model provides a framework for this dialog, beginning with the strategic identification of core competencies, and ending with the tactical analysis of the Information Systems groups capabilities and resources ITAA Releases IT Competency Model The Information Technology Association of America (ITAA) is the premier IT and electronics industry association working to maintain America’s role as the world’s innovation headquarters. ITAA offers the industry’s only grassroots-to- global network, carrying the voice of IT to companies, markets and governments at the local, state, national and international levels to facilitate growth and advocacy. Arlington, VA – The Information Technology Association of America (ITAA) and the U.S. Department of Labor’s Employment and Training Administration (DOL/ETA) have launched a new information technology (IT) competency model to help individuals prepare for job opportunities in the technology industry. “We now have a common language for the dialogue between the educators and executives who are working together to rebuild the talent pipeline,” said ITAA President and CEO Phil Bond. The model provides aMBA DEPT 27 INPWCET
  28. 28. Competency Mapping clear description of the knowledge, skills, and abilities necessary to perform well in IT professions. In India however competency development and mapping still remains an unexplored process in most IT organisations despite the growing level of awareness. After all, Level 3 of PCMM is focused on the competency framework in an organisation. Is the underlying principle of competency mapping just about finding the right people for the right job? The issue is much more complex than it appears, and most HR departments have been struggling to formulate the right framework for their organisation. The competency movement has caught on much better in the non-IT sector than the IT sector. Only a few IT organisations which are at the higher end of the HR value chain are known to be doing some work in this area; most are more busy handling recruitment and compensation-related matters. "Unless managements and HR heads have holistic expectations from their HR departments, the competency movement is unlikely to succeed as it requires lot of time, dedication and money,adds an hr personnel, pointing out that before an organisation embarks on this journey it has to be very clear about the business goals, capability-building imperatives and core competencies of the organisation. The competency mapping process needs to be strongly integrated with these aspects. At Zensar and L&T Infotech Lynette DSilva, manager, learning & development, HR, Zensar Technologies, points out that competency mapping helps identify the success criteria (i.e. behavioural standards of performance excellence) required for individuals to be successful in their roles. It helps to: • Support specific and objective assessment of their strengths, and specifyMBA DEPT 28 INPWCET
  29. 29. Competency Mapping targeted areas for professional development. • Provide development tools and methods for enhancing their skills. • Provide the basis for a more objective dialogue with their manager or team about performance, development, and career-related issues. "If an individual is able to discuss the above with his manager, it will help him to chalk out his growth perspectives in the company," states DSilva. Zensar has a behavioural competency model which is based on various job roles in the organisation. DSilva describes the process of implementation: • Having defined the various job roles, a focused study was initiated where job role holders were interviewed on the critical incident method and the data of success-critical factors was collated. • The job roles and deliverables were finalised on the basis of the competencies derived from the data. This data was further analysed, and on the basis of this competencies that had an impact on the job roles and deliverables were finalised. • After identifying the competencies, a job analysis exercise was carried out where the importance level of every competency was ascertained before freezing the competency model. For team leaders and project managers, the company also runs development centres in-house; here, individuals are profiled on behavioural competencies required for their position. "This process creates awareness in the individual about his behavioural traits in detail, and helps him chalk out an individual development plan. Development centres help map an individuals potential,MBA DEPT 29 INPWCET
  30. 30. Competency Mapping which is useful to both the individual and the organisation. All management development programmes are also fine-tuned to address the specific competency needs at different levels," explains DSilva, adding that the 360- degree feedback has also been designed on the competency model, enabling managers to get feedback from their teams. This feedback is based on the rating of the competencies which are an integral part of their managerial skill- set. L&T Infotech, a PCMM Level 5 company, has a successful competency-based HR system. Recruitment, training, job rotation, succession planning and promotions-all are defined by competency mapping. Says Dr Devendra Nath, executive vice-president of the company, who had initiated the PCMM process in the parent company (L&T) in 1997, "Nearly all our HR interventions are linked to competency. Competencies are enhanced through training and job rotation." He adds that all people who have gone through job rotation undergo a transformation and get a broader perspective of the company. For instance, a person lacking in negotiation skills might be put in the sales or purchase department for a year to hone his skills in the area. Dhananjay Savarkar, head of the training department, L&T Infotech, asserts that in no two organisations can competency frameworks be the same; it will vary over time even in one organisation. It is not timeless, it is contextual. "We call it the DNA of success…it is what makes star performers work in a particular way. Isolate the DNA and make it available to ten others," says Savarkar. When the company started competency mapping the whole process took eight months for six roles and two variations. Eventually, 16-18 profiles were worked out. The company uses PeopleSoft for competency mapping.MBA DEPT 30 INPWCET
  31. 31. Competency Mapping "Behavioural competencies do not change every month. Two appraisals are done subsequently… every project-end for skills, and annual for behavioural competencies." He acknowledges that there was resistance from the line people, but when the numbers started flowing they sat up. Every quarter, an SBU-based skills portfolio is published. Nath says that it has been a very rewarding experience. As far as training and development is concerned, instead of asking people to attend classes, they themselves get pulled to the classes. Introduction of competency mapping has also involved introducing skill appraisals in performance appraisals. This has also led to training people on how to assess subordinates on competencies. Notes Nath, "The best human resources development is when people in the line department do HR. Where the HR department is the enabler, the line people see the advantage and drive us." Competency-based HR makes this almost-utopian dream attainable.MBA DEPT 31 INPWCET
  32. 32. Competency Mapping Competency Profile of a Project Manager in an SBU at L&T Infotech HCLMBA DEPT 32 INPWCET
  33. 33. Competency Mapping HCL telecom services in the unified communications (UC) area include product engineering services, deployment services, management services, and process mapping services. The Unified Communications service line addresses both the enterprise customers, to whom we can be integration partners, and OEMs, with whom we can partner to augment their development work. HCL telecom UC product engineering services include: • Development • Testing • Customization • Documentation • Interoperability • Localization • Geo customization • Support • Proof of concept The UC deployment services comprise: • System and application integration • SOA enablement • Implementation • 3rd party on boarding As part of its management services, HCL telecom UC practice offers: • Support for hosted servicesMBA DEPT 33 INPWCET
  34. 34. Competency Mapping • Unified customer care • Unified service management The process mapping services include: • Process management • Process consultancy HCL telecom UC competencies include: • Product design and sustaining • Mediation components • Mobility and voice enablement • Dashboards • User interface • Web, SOA, and security • ROI analysis and assessment • APO The benefits for our customers from our UC practice would be: • Increased productivity • Reduced costs • Increased control • Optimized enterprise TCO leading to increase in sales The tools and products available with the UC practice are:MBA DEPT 34 INPWCET
  35. 35. Competency Mapping • Voice-based mailing system application • CTI application for emergency services • Appointment notification service • Visual voice mail and MMS application • Smart call convergence client • SIP-based IVR application serverMBA DEPT 35 INPWCET
  36. 36. Competency Mapping WIPRO COMPANY Wipro Technologies is a global services provider delivering technology-driven business solutions that meet the strategic objectives of our clients. Wipro delivers unmatched business value to customers through a combination of process excellence, quality frameworks and service delivery innovation. Wipro is the Worlds first CMMi Level 5 certified software services company and the first outside USA to receive the IEEE Software Process Award. Wipro Infotech is the leading strategic IT partner for companies across India, the Middle East and Asia-Pacific - offering integrated IT solutions. They plan, deploy, sustain and maintain clients’ IT lifecycle through their total outsourcing, consulting services, business solutions and professional services. Wipro Infotech helps clients’ drive momentum in their organization - no matter what domain they are in. WIPRO INFOTECH -Consulting Wipro Infotech offers consulting services that support your strategic business objectives in todays competitive business environment. As organizations move up the value chain, they help drive clients’ business momentum in the light of challenges arising from globalization, competition and the dynamics of customer loyalty. The various consulting practices enable the client to achieve execution excellence, cost leadership and business agility through IT, resulting in sustainable business leadership in your industry. Leveraging people, process and technology experience, Wipro Infotech aligns the right set of practices to complement your business. Every successful project execution highlights the practitioner experience of our consultants. They drive home clients’ business advantage by providing advisory and implementation frameworks, delivered through a strong focus on core business issues, strongMBA DEPT 36 INPWCET
  37. 37. Competency Mapping process orientation and industry domain knowledge. From ideation to completion, they are there with the client at every step of the project to resolve any issues. Their partnership with each client is built on trust and excellence in performance leading to successful results. Wipro Infotech Consulting practice gives you the full benefit of:  Strategic cost reduction: Strategic sourcing, supply chain process consulting, procurement technology enablement, low cost country sourcing.  Business transformation: Business process improvement through Six Sigma, Lean, Triz, TOC and Integrated Quality Management System through ISO, CMMi, PCMM advisory and implementation  Security governance: Advisory and assurance, identity management, technical risk assessment, compliance to standards  Strategy: Enterprise architecture and IT strategy, technology selection and optimization, IT governance through ITIL, COBIT, ISO 20000, shared services advisory and roll out  E-governance: Capacity planning, e-governance strategy and roadmap, electronic government procurement system. Elaborating the range of service for E-Governance:  e-Governance Strategy and Road Map  Capacity Planning  Process re-engineering services  Program management  E-Tendering solution What is E-government?MBA DEPT 37 INPWCET
  38. 38. Competency Mapping It is the transformation of government to provide efficient, convenient & transparent services to the citizens & businesses through Information & Communication technologies. What is not e-government?  E-Government in not about ‘e’, but about Government!  It’s not about computers and websites, but about citizens & businesses!  It’s not about translating processes, but about transforming processes! WIPRO consulting in E-governance Responsiveness, efficiency and transparency are the keywords of governance. E-enabling various public departments have resulted in faster response time and greater coordination to deliver on promises to the citizens. Wipro Infotech assists in streamlining processes and policies to facilitate better public participation through the implementation of e-governance initiatives. Their approach to e-governance involves the 6C Model - cyber law, citizen interface, capital, connectivity, capacity and content. Using these parameters they assess the maturity level in e-governance. While framing clients’ e-governance strategy, Wipro Infotech takes into account risk assessment and securing e-transactions for complete quality and safety assurance. Organizational and qualified human resource developments are some of the key capacity-building issues that they address. Indicative career paths in consulting Like all organizations, Wipro Infotech also has a career path framework which tells the transition of an employee from one level to another, after serving the organization for particular time period and project tenure. The five levels alsoMBA DEPT 38 INPWCET
  39. 39. Competency Mapping known as ‘Bands’ at Wipro Infotech is identified as A1 – A3, B1, B2, C1, C2 and the highest level which succeeds C2. This framework is a applicable to all the consulting divisions under Wipro Infotech including E-Governance Consulting Practice. The diagrammatic representation of the career path is shown as below: The five Bands also give us the designation basket for its employees which are as under:MBA DEPT 39 INPWCET
  40. 40. Competency Mapping Band A1: Indicating Designation – Support Band A2: Indicating Designation – Analyst Band A3: Indicating Designation – Senior Analyst Band B1: Indicating Designation – Associate Consultant Band B2: Indicating Designation – Consultant/ Project Leader Band C1: Indicating Designation – Practice Manager/Senior Consultant Band C2: Indicating Designation – Principal Consultant Whereby the first 3 Bands i.e. A1 – A3 constitute largely of Programmers/Developers, who are fresh graduates from different colleges. Diagrammatically the Competency Mapping procedure can be shown as under: Identify and finalize Practice for Competency mappingMBA DEPT 40 INPWCET
  41. 41. Competency Mapping Identify the Practice structure or hierarchy Find out the inputs of competencies List down the competencies for each band differentiating by years of experience Define each core competency Finalize the proficiency levels of each competency and define it Get Approval from the department head and HR Prepare a competency sheet Competency mapping of each band Gap analysis Identify development areas and prepare action plan Get approval from Practice Head and HR.MBA DEPT 41 INPWCET
  42. 42. Competency Mapping COMPETENCY DEFINITION / COMPETENCY DICTIONARY Identifies issues; obtains relevant information, relates and compares data from different sources, and identifies Analytical Thinking alternative solutions. Plans and supports the development of others using a competency based system. Identifies skills and abilities Career and/or Skill to fulfill current or future job/role responsibilities more Development effectively. Develops and maintains strong relationships with clients (those who buy goods and services and for whom formal professional services are rendered) or customers (those who consume goods and services) by listening to the Client/Customer client/customer and understanding and responding to Service identified needs. Provides guidance and feedback to help an employee or groups of employees strengthen their knowledge and skills to accomplish a task or solve a problem, which in Mentoring turn should improve job performance. Communicates information to individuals or groups; delivers presentations suited to the characteristics and needs of the audience. Clearly and concisely conveys written information orally or in writing to individuals or groups to ensure that they understand the information and the message. Listens and responds appropriately to Communication others. Communication – Develops presentations using a variety of media and Presentations presents ideas effectively to individuals or groups;MBA DEPT 42 INPWCET
  43. 43. Competency Mapping delivers presentations suited to the characteristics and needs of the audience. Uses effective approaches for choosing a course of action or developing appropriate solutions and/or reaching conclusions; takes action consistent with available facts, constraints, and anticipated Decision Making consequences. Develops and maintains effective relationships with others in order to encourage and support communication and teamwork. Builds and maintains ongoing, collaborative, working relationships with coworkers to Interpersonal Skills achieve the goals of the work unit. Demonstrates a designated level of technical skill or knowledge in a specific technical area(s) and keeps up with current developments and trends in areas of expertise. May be acquired through academic, Domain Knowledge apprenticeship or on-the-job training or a combination of – Technical these. Demonstrated skills and abilities needed to coordinate, facilitate, and participate in a collaborative approach to Leadership the completion of tasks or assignments. Develops plans to accomplish work operations and objectives; arranges and assigns work to use resources efficiently. Advanced planning is more of a strategic nature to develop plans, organizational structures, and Planning and systems to fulfill legislative or mission driven Organizing Work organizational goals.MBA DEPT 43 INPWCET
  44. 44. Competency Mapping Coordinates and administers program, activities and protocols; manages resources, monitors activities and Program assesses environmental risks and quality control, if any, Management quality control, associated with the program. 1) Provides oversight for project(s) and all related activities in that setting to include quality assurance and safety; coordinates and manages facilities, equipment, supplies and related resources as necessary for the project; monitors environmental risks, if any and quality control; 2) establishes a set of tasks and activities associated with an intended outcome and timeline; 3) ensures actions are performed and/or implemented to Project Management achieve the results of the project. Analyzing competitive position by considering the market and industry trends, existing and potential customers, and strengths and weaknesses as compared to competitors, provides analysis of policy issues develops program proposals and develops plans that address long-term Strategic Thinker customer and stakeholder needs and concernsMBA DEPT 44 INPWCET
  45. 45. Competency Mapping CHAPTER-3 COMPANY PROFILE M/S Praghathi Consultancy Services At PCS, we energetically strive to deliver the best employment options for great companies and the associates we place within them. We serve best and respected companies by sending them the highest-quality individuals for temporary, temp-to-hire and full-time positions.MBA DEPT 45 INPWCET
  46. 46. Competency Mapping Companies make Pragathi their first choice for full-time, direct hire, temp-to-hire and temporary employment agencies because were at the forefront of the ever-changing staffing industry. We meet our clients needs - precisely, quickly and cost-effectively - with the finest talent. Young and very experienced - thats probably the best way to describe us ! Pragathi helps companies in searching, selecting and managing the ever-valuable human assets. Formed in 2005, PCS enjoys an enviable reputation for delivering efficient, effective and professional solutions to meet our IT and ITES clients’ diverse recruitment needs. We guide the candidates too about the best opportunities in the marketplace, and constantly advise them in their career progression. Pragathi Consulting brings valuable experience to benchmark, revise, implement and preach the best practices of recruiting to our clients. We will conduct business and HR process reviews to assess what works and what doesnt within the clients unique corporate environment. Pragathi Consulting will implement methods to decrease the joining time, reduce the cost- per-hire, and propose tailored solutions to streamline your recruitment process. Our services give you the opportunity to focus your expertise where it counts - on your unique business endeavors. Our goal is to ensure that our clients succeed in meeting their hiring goals with cost-effectiveness in mind. Our recruitment performance consulting services are designed to help take your company to the next level of recruitment capability. Our recruitment consultants are all senior level recruiters with years of IT and software experience in recruiting, screening, and hiring techniques that produce lasting results in IT sector. Adopt a "Do what it takes to get the job done” About PragathiMBA DEPT 46 INPWCET
  47. 47. Competency Mapping * Mission * Objectives PCS is a dream of professional technocrats incorporated in 2005, with an aim to provide customized software solutions of the utmost quality in the shortest of time spans and being the most cost effective. A committed technical and marketing team backs the core group of people having over 50 person-years of experience in the industry. Our role in unfurling the latest techniques, the quality of our services, our spirit of innovation and our sound management principles have earned us the confidence and trust of an extensive client base. We strive for excellence in: * Acquiring and in depth understanding of our clients business sectors * Proposing solutions tailored to the specific needs of each client firm * Effectively carrying out the technology transfer * Delivering our services according to deadlines and within budgets MISSION To be agents of change for our clients, facilitating their passage form given condition to a more desired, improved one and by providing information technology solutions to their business needs.MBA DEPT 47 INPWCET
  48. 48. Competency Mapping OBJECTIVES To be recognized and sought out as the best agents of change because of * The soundness of our recommendations * The relevance of our solutions * Our technical expertise * Our uncompromising search for excellence * Our concern of human impacts Companies make Prahgathi consultancy Services their first choice for full-time, direct hire, temp-to-hire and temporary employment agencies because were at the forefront of the ever- changing staffing industry. We meet our clients needs - precisely, quickly and cost- effectively - with the finest talent. Young and very experienced - thats probably the best way to describe us ! Prahgathi consultancy Services helps companies in searching, selecting and managing the ever-valuable human assets. Formed in 2005, Prahgathi consultancy Services enjoys an enviable reputation for delivering efficient, effective and professional solutions to meet our IT and ITES clients’ diverse recruitment needs. We guide the candidates too about the best opportunities in the marketplace, and constantly advise them in their career progression. Services 1. IT and Non- IT job consultancy 2. Education consultants 3. Computer sales and serviceMBA DEPT 48 INPWCET
  49. 49. Competency Mapping 4. Digital signature product Prahgathi consultancy Services Consulting brings valuable experience to benchmark, revise, implement and preach the best practices of recruiting to our clients. We will conduct business and HR process reviews to assess what works and what doesnt within the clients unique corporate environment. Prahgathi consultancy Services Consulting will implement methods to decrease the joining time, reduce the cost-per-hire, and propose tailored solutions to streamline your recruitment process. Our services give you the opportunity to focus your expertise where it counts - on your unique business endeavors. Our goal is to ensure that our clients succeed in meeting their hiring goals with cost-effectiveness in mind. Our recruitment performance consulting services are designed to help take your company to the next level of recruitment capability. Our recruitment consultants are all senior level recruiters with years of IT and software experience in recruiting, screening, and hiring techniques that produce lasting results in IT sector. Adopt a "Do what it takes to get the job done” attitude.” Priority ONE Consulting will work with you assess your companys current recruiting processes and identify methods to decrease cost per hire, time to fill rates, and enhance the screening process to hire people whose skills and talents align with our clients technical and corporate culture goals. We would be helping you to improve both your performance efficiency and effectiveness. HR Team:MBA DEPT 49 INPWCET
  50. 50. Competency Mapping PCS also had on Excellent HR and Development team of 50+ man power Strength across the world. About HR Team: Well Trained Staff of Four Professionals, and 2 of Business unit HR Professional, and another Two for Training and HR operations. Number of Departments in PCS 1. Technical Department 2. Administration 3. Human Resource 4. Finance& Accounts 5. Quality Department 6. Sale & Marketing Organization Chart of PCSMBA DEPT 50 INPWCET
  51. 51. Competency Mapping CEO Technical Finance HR & Admin TecTTTechnical Quality dept Dot net Testing Business Java one HR Organization ChartMBA DEPT 51 INPWCET
  52. 52. Competency Mapping Corporate Manager- HR Assi Mgr-Recruitment Assi.Mgr-Documentation Assi.MgrContract Staffing Documents Documents Staffing 2 Staffing 1 Recruitment1 Recruitment2 Organization Chart of Technical TeamMBA DEPT 52 INPWCET
  53. 53. Competency Mapping VP- Operations Java Team Dot net Team Testing Team TSR Group Intigrated QC Support 1 Support 2 Support 3 Support 4 Registered Corporate office Pragathi Consultancy Services, #331,1st floor, 8th Cross Aavalahalli Extn, BDA Layout Girinagar Bangalore - 560085. INDIAMBA DEPT 53 INPWCET
  54. 54. Competency MappingMBA DEPT 54 INPWCET
  55. 55. Competency Mapping CHAPTER-4 Theoretical frame work study of the Research methodMBA DEPT 55 INPWCET
  56. 56. Competency Mapping RESEARCH: A way of examining your practice… Research is undertaken within most professions. More than a set of skills, it is a way of thinking: examining critically the various aspects of your professional work. It is a habit of questioning what you do, and a systematic examination of the observed information to find answers with a view to instituting appropriate changes for a more effective professional service. DEFINITION OF RESEARCH When you say that you are undertaking a research study to find answers to a question, you are implying that the process; 1. is being undertaken within a framework of a set of philosophies ( approaches); 2. uses procedures, methods and techniques that have been tested for theirMBA DEPT 56 INPWCET
  57. 57. Competency Mapping validity and reliability; 3. is designed to be unbiased and objective . Philosophies means approaches e.g. qualitative, quantitative and the academic discipline in which you have been trained. Validity means that correct procedures have been applied to find answers to a question. Reliability refers to the quality of a measurement procedure that provides repeatability and accuracy. Unbiased and objective means that you have taken each step in an unbiased manner and drawn each conclusion to the best of your ability and without introducing your own vested interest. (Bias is a deliberate attempt to either conceal or highlight something). Adherence to the three criteria mentioned above enables the process to be called ‘research’.MBA DEPT 57 INPWCET
  58. 58. Competency Mapping However, the degree to which these criteria are expected to be fulfilled varies from discipline to discipline and so the meaning of ‘research’ differs from one academic discipline to another. The difference between research and non- research activity is, in the way we find answers: the process must meet certain requirements to be called research. We can identify these requirements by examining some definitions of research. The word research is composed of two syllables, re and search. re is a prefix meaning again, anew or over again search is a verb meaning to examine closely and carefully, to test and try, or to probe. Together they form a noun describing a careful, systematic, patient study and investigation in some field of knowledge, undertaken to establish facts or principles. Research is a structured enquiry that utilizes acceptable scientific methodology toMBA DEPT 58 INPWCET
  59. 59. Competency Mapping solve problems and create new knowledge that is generally applicable. Scientific methods consist of systematic observation, classification and interpretation of data. Although we engage in such process in our daily life, the difference between our casual day- to-day generalisation and the conclusions usually recognized as scientific method lies in the degree of formality, rigorousness, verifiability and general validity of latter. CHARACTERISTICS OF RESEARCH: Research is a process of collecting, analyzing and interpreting information to answer questions. But to qualify as research, the process must have certain characteristics: it must, as far as possible, be controlled, rigorous, systematic, valid and verifiable, empirical andMBA DEPT 59 INPWCET
  60. 60. Competency Mapping critical. -Controlled- in real life there are many factors that affect an outcome. The concept of control implies that, in exploring causality in relation to two variables (factors), you set up your study in a way that minimizes the effects of other factors affecting the relationship. This can be achieved to a large extent in the physical sciences (cookery, bakery), as most of the research is done in a laboratory. However, in the social sciences (Hospitality and Tourism) it is extremely difficult as research is carried out on issues related to human beings living in society, where such controls are not possible. Therefore in Hospitality and Tourism, as you cannot control external factors, you attempt to quantify their impact. -Rigorous-you must be scrupulous in ensuring that the procedures followed to findMBA DEPT 60 INPWCET
  61. 61. Competency Mapping answers to questions are relevant, appropriate and justified. Again, the degree of rigor varies markedly between the physical and social sciences and within the social sciences. -Systematic-this implies that the procedure adopted to undertake an investigation follow a certain logical sequence. The different steps cannot be taken in a haphazard way. Some procedures must follow others. -Valid and verifiable-this concept implies that whatever you conclude on the basis of your findings is correct and can be verified by you and others. -Empirical-this means that any conclusion drawn are based upon hard evidence gathered from information collected from real life experiences or observations. -Critical-critical scrutiny of the procedures used and the methods employed is crucialMBA DEPT 61 INPWCET
  62. 62. Competency Mapping to a research enquiry. The process of investigation must be foolproof and free from drawbacks. The process adopted and the procedures used must be able to withstand critical scrutiny. For a process to be called research, it is imperative that it has the above characteristics. TYPES OF RESEARCH Research can be classified from three perspectives: 1. application of research study 2. objectives in undertaking the research 3. inquiry mode employed Application: From the point of view of application, there are two broad categories of research: - pure research and - applied research.MBA DEPT 62 INPWCET
  63. 63. Competency Mapping Pure research involves developing and testing theories and hypotheses that are intellectually challenging to the researcher but may or may not have practical application at the present time or in the future. The knowledge produced through pure research is sought in order to add to the existing body of research methods. Applied research is done to solve specific, practical questions; for policy formulation, administration and understanding of a phenomenon. It can be exploratory, but is usually descriptive. It is almost always done on the basis of basic research. Applied research can be carried out by academic or industrial institutions. Often, an academic institution such as a university will have a specific applied research program funded by an industrial partner interested in that program. Objectives:MBA DEPT 63 INPWCET
  64. 64. Competency Mapping From the viewpoint of objectives, a research can be classified as -descriptive -correlational -explanatory -exploratory Descriptive research attempts to describe systematically a situation, problem, phenomenon, service or programme, or provides information about , say, living condition of a community, or describes attitudes towards an issue. Correlational research attempts to discover or establish the existence of a relationship/ interdependence between two or more aspects of a situation. Explanatory research attempts to clarify why and how there is a relationship between two or more aspects of a situation or phenomenon. Exploratory research is undertaken to explore an area where little is known or toMBA DEPT 64 INPWCET
  65. 65. Competency Mapping investigate the possibilities of undertaking a particular research study (feasibility study / pilot study). In practice most studies are a combination of the first three categories. Inquiry Mode: From the process adopted to find answer to research questions – the two approaches are: - Structured approach - Unstructured approach Structured approach: The structured approach to inquiry is usually classified as quantitative research. Here everything that forms the research process- objectives, design, sample, and the questions that you plan to ask of respondents- is predetermined. It is more appropriate to determine the extent of a problem, issue or phenomenon by quantifying the variation.MBA DEPT 65 INPWCET
  66. 66. Competency Mapping e.g. how many people have a particular problem? How many people hold a particular attitude? Unstructured approach: The unstructured approach to inquiry is usually classified as qualitative research. This approach allows flexibility in all aspects of the research proceMBA DEPT 66 INPWCET
  67. 67. Competency Mapping CHAPTER-5 DATA ANANLSIS & INTERPRETATION The Eleven Identified Competencies Deduced From Several Studies Are As Detailed Below Technical Knowledge 1. Legal & Legislation 2. Appraisal 3. SystemsMBA DEPT 67 INPWCET
  68. 68. Competency Mapping Thinking Skills 4. Analytical Thinking and Judgment 5. Planning & Organizing Personal/Professional Effectiveness 6. Communications Skills 7. Innovation & Change Management 8. Customer Focus 9. Professional Conduct Team Skills 10. Team Member Skills 11. Team Leadership Skills THE FIVE TYPES OF COMPETENCY CHARACTERISTICS ARE AS BELOW 1. Motives: The things a person consistently thinks about or wants that cause action. Motives “drive, direct, and select” behavior toward certain actions or goals and away from others. E.g. Achievement-motivated people consistently set challenging goals for themselves and use feedback to do better. 2. Traits: Physical characteristics and consistent response to situation or information. E.g. reaction time and good eyesight are physical trait competencies of combat pilots.MBA DEPT 68 INPWCET
  69. 69. Competency Mapping 3. Self-concept and values: A person’s attitude, values, or self-image. E.g. Self-confidence, a person’s belief that he can be effective in any situation is a part of that person’s concept of self. 4. Knowledge: Information a person has in specific content areas 5. Skill: The ability to perform a certain physical or mental task. Many organizations in India and abroad are channeling their efforts to mapping competencies and implementing assessment and development centers. THE DIFFERENT CATEGORIES OF COMPETENCIES Generic Competencies Competencies which are considered essential for all employees, regardless of their function or level. - Communication, teamwork, result oriented, interpersonal. Managerial Competencies Competencies which are considered essential for employees with managerial or supervisory responsibility in any functional area including directors and senior posts – Management skills, team player, people skills. Technical / FunctionalMBA DEPT 69 INPWCET
  70. 70. Competency Mapping Specific Competencies which are considered essential to perform any job in the organization within a defined technical or functional area of work. – Business awareness/domain knowledge, presentation, analytical thinking, strategic thinker, problem solving, listening skills, business writing, leadership & credibility, planning & organizing, initiative & creativity Differentiating competencies Competencies that mostly differentiate superior performers from mediocre performers - Results orientation, influence, and initiative. Threshold competencies Competencies in which a minimum level of proficiency is required for job success, but a higher level of proficiency is not highly correlated with superior performance. Threshold competencies however do not differentiate superior from average performers. Transformation competencies Competencies at which managers and employees are generally weak, which if improved will most likely to result in improved performance. COMPETENCY MAPPING Competency mapping is a process through which one assesses and determines one’s strengths as an individual worker and in some cases, as part of an organization. It generally examines two areas: emotional intelligence or emotional quotient (EQ), and strengths of the individual in areas like team structure, leadership, and decision-making. Large organizations frequently employ some form of competency mapping to understand how to mostMBA DEPT 70 INPWCET
  71. 71. Competency Mapping effectively employ the competencies of strengths of workers. They may also use competency mapping to analyze the combination of strengths in different workers to produce the most effective teams and the highest quality work. It is also defined as a process of identifying key competencies for a particular position in an organization, and then using it for job-evaluation, recruitment, training and development, performance management, succession planning, etc. "The competency framework serves as the bedrock for all HR applications. As a result of competency mapping, all the HR processes like talent induction, management development, appraisals and training yield much better results," states well-known HR consultant Ullhas Pagey. TECHNIQUES USED IN COMPETENCY MAPPING HISTORICAL APPROACHES TO COMPETENCY MAPPING Competencies are derived from specific job families within the organization and are often grouped around categories, such as strategy, relationships, innovation, leadership, risk-taking, decision-making, emotional intelligence, etc. “Job evaluation” based competency mapping include the following steps:  Conduct a job analysis by asking incumbents to complete a Role Profile Questionnaire – The primary goal, is to gather from incumbents what they feel are the key behaviours necessary, to perform their respective goals.  Using the results of the job analysis, we develop a competency based job description.MBA DEPT 71 INPWCET
  72. 72. Competency Mapping  With a competency based job description, we begin mapping the competencies throughout the human resource processes. The competencies of the respective job description becomes the factors for assessment on performance evaluation  By taking the competency mapping one step further, we use the results of the evaluation, to identify in what competency individuals need additional development or training. This will help in focusing the training needs on the goals of the position and company and help employees develop, toward the ultimate success of the organization “Role Profiling/Job Analysis Tools” – It helps companies to extract knowledge of core competency requirements from internal experts, and allows the company to have any number of job expert raters to contribute ratings on a standard competency scale for any job title or position. “Experts Panel” – In this method, a panel of experts (superior performers, immediate supervisors, consultants, HR managers) is constituted and are asked to brainstorm about the knowledge, skill, attitude, self-concept, and motivation required of people for superior performance of a particular job. This panel after detailed deliberation for a few hours and in some cases for a couple of days will list out the competency requirements. “360 ° multi-rater feedback” – Such surveys allow employees to rate themselves on global competencies and specific behaviours. Predefined groups of supervisors, peers, direct reports, or customers who perform ratings of persons on the same items, with the resulting report provide a detailed analysis of self- other gaps in perceived competency behaviours. “Behavioural Event Interview” – Behavioural Event Interview (BEI) basically intends to find out what people really do instead of hearing the stories about what they wanted to do or what they propose to do. In other words BEI findsMBA DEPT 72 INPWCET
  73. 73. Competency Mapping out the knowledge, skill, motives, traits, and self-concept from their behavioural actions, which are verifiable, rather than through abstract explanations. The BEI method includes Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) probes, which yield data about the interviewees’ personality and cognitive style like what they think about, feel and want to accomplish in dealing with the situation. This enables interviewers to measure competencies such as achievement motivation or logical ways of thinking and solving problems. “Critical Incident Technique” – The Critical Incident Technique (CIT) was developed by John Flanagan, to identify behaviour that contributes to the success or failure of individuals or organizations in specific situations. To analyze a situation using CIT, a researcher first asks people familiar with the situation for a recent example of effective or ineffective behaviour that is, a critical incident. Then it is determined from answers to some questions, which identifies themes represented by the incidents, and asks other involved parties to sort the incidents into proposed content dimensions. The CIT is a method for evaluating systems in functioning work environments. It relies on the idea that critical incidents will be memorable, making their capture possible either through interview, observation, or self-reporting. “Survey Method” – In the survey method, the HR department or the consultants based on their understanding of the job roles will prepare a questionnaire containing various competencies. The questionnaires will be then distributed to the role holders, their supervisors and any other persons (like HR professionals and consultants) who are thoroughly knowledgeable about the concerned job roles. The information collected through the questionnaire is then analyzed using descriptive statistical tools to determine the core competencies required for successful performance of the said job.MBA DEPT 73 INPWCET
  74. 74. Competency Mapping “Repertory Grid” – George Alexander Kelly was born in (1905-1967) Kansas, U.S.A. In 1955, the two-volume work, The Psychology of Personal Constructs, (PCT) was published and gained immediate recognition as a unique and major development in the study of personality. In 1965 he moved to Brandies University where he was appointed to the Riklis Chair of Behavioural Science. Even today no reading in personality theory is complete without the theory of personal constructs developed by Kelly. The key points of PCT to remember are:  Perceptions influence expectations, and expectations influence perceptions.  The medium through which this happens is known as the construct system.  Construct systems are unique to the individual and develop throughout life. Repertory Grid will help to draw out and make explicit the expertise that every manager has, and help lay out their problems in such a way that solutions may become more obvious. It allows the interviewer to get a mental map of how the interviewee views the world, and to write this map with the minimum of observer bias. Kelly’s practice is then not to have this map ‘interpreted’ by an expert, who judges where the problems and stresses are; rather Kelly’s approach is to discuss the map with the interviewee, to talk about things that perhaps the interviewee had not faced about himself before, to discuss with the interviewee the survival value of that particular map as a means of navigating around his or her life-space.MBA DEPT 74 INPWCET
  75. 75. Competency Mapping In the repertory grid process the respondents will identify a set of superior performers and another group of ineffective performers. They to justify their identification of people will identify a set of variables:  Knowledge  Skill  Attitude  Ethic  Self Concept  Appearance, etc Which are associated with superior and average performers. It is difficult to suggest which method is more useful or more accurate. Some methods are easy to use but quality of data may be inadequate. Some others may yield superior quality data but expensive and time consuming. Certain methods and tools are such that they cannot be used in all the cases. Some jobs may require the use of more than one method or tool for their mapping. HOW DO COMPETENCIES RELATE TO INDIVIDUAL CAREERDEVELOPMENT? First and foremost, competencies must be demonstrated by individuals. PerhapsMBA DEPT 75 INPWCET
  76. 76. Competency Mapping the most common place where they are demonstrated is within the scope of a particular job or project involvement. One of the first encounters with competencies for most individuals is in securing employment with a new organization. Organizations that are purposefully using cutting-edge methods to choose talent for positions or project roles are engaging in what is called “competency-based interviewing and selection”. These interviewing and selection methods are being used not only for hiring external applicants, but also for staffing internal roles, as described later in this article. Many organizations that use competency-based interviewing and selection are also later using the same competencies to assess performance, to encourage future development plans from individuals, and to plan for succession in the organization. Therefore, the individual employees in such an organization will have an ongoing need to use and map their competencies. WHY SHOULD INDIVIDUAL EMPLOYEES MAP THEIR COMPETENCIES? A list of compelling reasons includes, at a minimum, the following. An individual:MBA DEPT 76 INPWCET
  77. 77. Competency Mapping  Gains a clearer sense of true marketability in today’s job market; once the individual knows how his/her competencies compare to those that are asked for by the job market in key positions of interest.  Demonstrates self-confidence that comes from knowing one’s competitive advantages more convincingly, and from being able to articulate those advantages in specific language.  Secures essential input to resume development - a set of important terms to use in describing expertise derived from prior career experience.  Gains advanced preparation for interviews, many of which may be delivered using a competency-based approach called “structured behavioral interviewing” or “behavioral event interviewing.  Develops the capability to compare one’s actual competencies to an organization or position’s required/preferred competencies, in order to create an Individual Development Plan.  Support specific and objective assessment of their strengths, and specify targeted areas for professional development.  Provide development tools and methods for enhancing their skills.  Provide the basis for a more objective dialogue with their manager or team about performance, development, and career-related issues. Building Your Competency Model The steps to building a Competency Model include: Step 1: Understand the Competency Library. Step 2: Develop position description/s for your targeted classification/s.MBA DEPT 77 INPWCET
  78. 78. Competency Mapping Step 3: Identify the competencies that the superior performers in the classification possess. Step 4: Validate the competencies identified in Step 3. Step 5: Reconcile the validation results with those obtained in Step 3. Step 6: Review and finalize the results of Step 5 with the executive leadership team. Step 1: Understand the Competency Library In this step, your agency’s Human Resources Manager and other key HR staff will become familiar with the Competency Model and the Competency Library. The Competency Library includes 34 competencies that might be appropriate for a Competency Model for a specific classification or family of classifications. Most of them describe characteristics that are desirable in any job. However, the purpose of constructing your Competency Model is to identify the set of critical competencies that distinguish superior performance in your target classification/s. Step 2: Analyze and Develop Position Description/s In this step, development and/or updation of the position description/s for the targeted classification/s are done Having complete, accurate and up-to-dateMBA DEPT 78 INPWCET