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Plants for moodle


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  • 1. Plants!STS Biology Unit 6 Mrs. Stein
  • 2. Plant Kingdom Characteristics – Eukaryotic – Autotrophic (photosynthetic) – Multicellular Many aquatic “plants” are algae – No seeds or true roots Life on land required many adaptations
  • 3. Evolution of Plants
  • 4. Land Plants Need to be protected from drying out and methods to transport materials Early land plants were non-vascular and live in very moist environments – Mosses and liverworts Vascular plants have transport tissue – Xylem – thick, dead tissue which moves water UP from roots to leaves – Phloem – living tissue, transports FOOD (sugar) in both directions Ferns were the first vascular plants
  • 5. Seed Plants Seed Ferns Gymnosperms Angiosperms1st seed plants “naked” seed Flowering plants Extinct Conifer: gametes Seed(s) contained in cones, not in fruits fruits Oaks, corn, tulips Cycads, ginkos, pines, spruce Monocot DicotFemale cone Male cone
  • 6. Advantages of Seed Plants Can live on land Seed coat provides protection and prevents drying out - the seed can survive longer in harsh conditions Contains food supply for embryo Water is not needed for reproduction – pollinators and seed dispersal Roots, stems, and vascular tissue moves materials greater distances
  • 7. Seed Structures A cotyledon is a food storage organ which functions as the first seed leaf Monocots – one cotyledon Dicots – two cotyledons Endosperm is also food storage Embryo will grow into the new plant Hypocotyl is below the cotyledon and becomes the lower stem Epicotyl is above the cotyledon and becomes the upper stem and leaves Radicle becomes the roots
  • 8. Corn and Bean
  • 9. Seed Germination
  • 10. Monocots & DicotsPlant Part Dicot Monocot Seeds 2 cotyledons 1 cotyledon Roots Taproot Fibrous Leaves Branched Parallel Arranged in 4’s or Petals 5’s Arranged in 3’s Stem Vascular bundles Vascular bundles in a ring scattered
  • 11. Monocots & Dicots
  • 12. Leaves Function in food production (photosynthesis) Epidermal cells – outer layer of cells, covered with a waxy cuticle – Stomata surrounded by guard cells Mesophyll – cell layers containing chloroplasts – Palisade Layer – tall, closely packed, sit of most photosynthesis – Spongy Layer – loosely packed, air spaces allow gases to enter and exit the leaf
  • 13. Leaf Cross Section CuticleUpperEpidermis Palisade Mesophyll Spongy VeinMesophyll (vascular tissue) Lower Epidermis Guard Cells Stoma
  • 14. Stomata Greek for “mouth” Opening of stomata are regulated by guard cells Water exits through stomata (transpiration) Site of gas exchange – CO2 in, O2 out
  • 15. Roots Functions – Absorb water and nutrients from soil – Food storage (ie: carrots) – Anchoring the plant Structure – Xylem and phloem – Epidermis – thin layer that absorbs water and nutrients – Cortex – food storage – Meristematic Tissue – only site of mitosis, found at tips of roots and shoots
  • 16. Vascular Bundles in Roots Dicot roots have xylem in an “X” in the center of the root Monocot roots have vascular bundles in a circular pattern Dicot Root Monocot Root
  • 17. XYLEMDicot Root PHLOEMVascular Cylinder
  • 18. Stems Function – Support plant, hold leaves up to the sun – Transport foot and water Arrangement of vascular bundles – Dicots – arranged in a ring – Monocots – scattered throughout
  • 19. StemsDicot Stem Monocot Stem
  • 20. Flowers Reproductive structures of angiosperms Sepals are the outermost layer which encloses a bud and protects the developing flower Petals are just inside sepals, fragrance and color attracts pollinators The receptacle is where sepals, petals, and sex organs attach
  • 21. Flowers (cont.) Stamen - male sex organ – Anthers produce pollen – Filaments hold the anther up for pollinators or wind Pistil (aka carpel) – female sex organ – The stigma is the sticky end where pollen lands – The style is the “neck” which connects the stigma to the ovary – The ovary contains ovules, when mature the ovary becomes a fruit
  • 22. Flower Anatomy Petal Stigma en m Pis aSt Anther Style til Filament Ovary Sepal Ovule Receptacle
  • 23. Pollination Pollen transfers from anther to stigma – Self-pollination – pollen fertilizes the ovule of the same plant – Cross-pollination – pollen fertilizes ovules of another plant, thus increasing genetic variation
  • 24. Cross Pollination Methods Wind Pollination – Inefficient, high pollen production – Flowers (if present) are small and not colorful
  • 25. Cross Pollination Methods Vector pollination uses animals to carry pollen between plants More efficient, less pollen produced Plants attract pollinators by: – Colorful petals – Fragrance – Nectar production
  • 26. Coevolution Two species evolve in response to changes in one another
  • 27. BeePollination
  • 28. ButterflyPollination
  • 29. BatPollination
  • 30. MothPollination
  • 31. Seed Dispersal Wind scatters seeds – Maple trees, dandelions Animal dispersal occurs when barbs stick to animal fur – Burdock plant Animals eat and digest fruits, seeds are excreted
  • 32. Fertilization1. Pollen lands on stigma2. Pollen tube grows into the style3. Sperm and egg unite forming and zygote
  • 33. Double Fertilization  Two sperm enter the ovary  The 1st sperm fertilizes the egg resulting in a zygote (2N)  The 2nd sperm fertilizes the polar nuclei forming the endosperm (3N) /3902001.html