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Ch22 Intro to Plants

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Ch22 Intro to Plants

  1. 1. Chapter 22 Introduction to Plants
  2. 2. What is a Plant?? <ul><li>Plants Are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Members of kingdom Plantae </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multicellular eukaryotes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cell walls made of cellulose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop from multicellular embryos </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carry out photosynthesis using chlorophyll a and b </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most are autotrophs – some can be parasites </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Are Plants Really Alive? <ul><li>Yes! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Even though </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They do not move </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They do not gather food </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They do not struggle directly w/ predators </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. What Does a Plant Need to Survive? <ul><li>Plants need: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water and Minerals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sunlight – for photosynthesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gas Exchange – require oxygen (WHY?) – must exchange gases w/o loosing water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transport of Water and Nutrients – take up through roots – but make food in leaves  must have specialized tissues to carry up from soil </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Life Cycle of a Plant - General <ul><li>Life cycle – two alternating phases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A diploid (2N) and haploid (N) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Known as alternation of generations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mitosis & Meiosis alternate to produce 2 types of reproductive cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sporophyte – spore-producing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gametophyte – gamete producing </li></ul></ul>Haploid Diploid MEIOSIS Spores (N) Sporophyte Plant (2N) Gametophyte Plant (N) FERTILIZATION Sperm (N) Eggs (N)
  6. 6. 4 Groups of Plants <ul><li>Groups of Plants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bryophytes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seedless Vascular Plants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seed Plants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gymnosperms </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Angiosperms </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Grouped based on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water-conducting tissue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seeds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flowers </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. A Cladogram of Plant Groups Flowering plants Cone-bearing plants Ferns and their relatives Mosses and their relatives Green algae ancestor Flowers; Seeds Enclosed in Fruit Seeds Water-Conducting (Vascular) Tissue
  8. 8. What Are Bryophytes <ul><li>Includes plants: mosses, liverworts and hornworts </li></ul><ul><li>Have life cycles that depend on water for reproduction </li></ul><ul><li>How do bryophytes depend on water? </li></ul><ul><li>Lack vascular tissue – draw up water by osmosis only a few cm above ground - This keeps these plants very small </li></ul><ul><li>Sperm must swim through water to reach the eggs  must live in places where there is rainfall </li></ul>
  9. 9. The Life Cycle of a Moss Haploid (N) Diploid (2N) MEIOSIS FERTILIZATION Mature sporophyte (2N) Gametophyte (N) Gametophyte (N) Young sporophyte (2N) Zygote (2N) Sperm (N) Sperm (N) Egg (N) Spores (N) Capsule (sporangium) Protonema (young gametophyte) (N) Male gametophyte Female gametophyte Antheridia Archegonia
  10. 10. What Are Seedless Vascular Plants <ul><li>Examples: ferns, horsetails & club mosses </li></ul><ul><li>First plants to have a transport system w/ vascular tissue – specialized to conduct water and nutrients throughout the plants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tracheid – specialized cell to conduct water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 parts of the vascular tissue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Xylem – moves water up from roots </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Phloem – moves solutions of nutrients/carbs produced by photosynthesis </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11.   The Life Cycle of a Fern Haploid gametophyte (N) Diploid sporophyte (2N) MEIOSIS FERTILIZATION Mature sporophyte (2N) Gametophyte (N) Frond Sperm Egg Spores (N) Antheridium Archegonium Developing sporophyte (2N) Sporophyte embryo (2N) Mature gametophyte (N) Young gametophyte (N) Sporangium (2N)
  12. 12. What Are Seed Plants <ul><li>2 groups of seed plants: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gymnosperms – bear seeds on surface of cones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: conifers (pines/spruces) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Angiosperms – bear seeds w/in a layer of tissue that protects seeds (aka flowering plants) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: grasses, flowering trees, wildflowers </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Adaptations of Seed Plants <ul><li>How can these plants reproduce w/o water? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cones and Flowers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pollen – entire male gametophyte is in pollen grain – sperm doesn’t swim through water – carried by wind, insects, small animals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seeds – embryo of a plant – encased in protective covering and surrounded by food supply </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. All About Angiosperms <ul><li>Unique reproductive organ: flowers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Advantage to plants because they attract animals – transports the pollen </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Flowers contain – ovaries which surround and protect the seeds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ovary gives angiosperms their name: enclosed seed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Unique - angiosperm fruit – a wall of tissue surrounding the seed – another reason for success </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Animal eats fruit – seeds enter digestive system </li></ul></ul>
  15. 16. Diversity of Angiosperms <ul><li>2 classes: monocots & dicots </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Named for the number of seed leaves or cotyledons in the plant embryo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Monocots : 1 seed leaf </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dicots : 2 seed leaves </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cotyledon : first leaf or first pair of leaves produced by the embryo of a seed plant </li></ul></ul>
  16. 17. Comparison of Monocots and Dicots Monocots Dicots Seeds Leaves Flowers Stems Roots Single cotyledon Parallel veins Floral parts often in multiples of 3 Vascular bundles scattered throughout stem Fibrous roots Two cotyledons Branched veins Floral parts often in multiples of 4 or 5 Vascular bundles arranged in a ring Taproot
  17. 18. Monocot Stem Dicot Stem
  18. 19. Plant Life Spans are categorized as that complete their life cycle in that complete their life cycle in that complete their life cycle in Plants Annuals Biennials Perennials 1 growing season 2 years More than 2 years

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