Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
Nervous system
Nervous system
Nervous system
Nervous system
Nervous system
Nervous system
Nervous system
Nervous system
Nervous system
Nervous system
Nervous system
Nervous system
Nervous system
Nervous system
Nervous system
Nervous system
Nervous system
Nervous system
Nervous system
Nervous system
Nervous system
Nervous system
Nervous system
Nervous system
Nervous system
Nervous system
Nervous system
Nervous system
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Nervous system

11,944

Published on

0 Comments
2 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
11,944
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
161
Comments
0
Likes
2
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Nervous System
  • 2. The Nervous System <ul><li>Two main divisions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Central Nervous System (CNS) includes the brain and spinal cord </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) contains nerves which carry info between the CNS and other organs </li></ul></ul>
  • 3. Central Nervous System <ul><li>The brain receives impulses and sends impulses back to the body </li></ul><ul><li>The spinal cord connects the brain to the body </li></ul>
  • 4. CNS: The Brain (UP 5) <ul><li>3 major regions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cerebrum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cerebellum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brainstem </li></ul></ul>Cerebrum Cerebellum Brainstem
  • 5. CNS: The Cerebrum <ul><li>Largest part of the brain </li></ul><ul><li>Involved in voluntary activities, intelligence, and consciousness </li></ul><ul><li>Divided into 4 lobes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Frontal - personality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Temporal - auditory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parietal - senses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Occipital - visual area </li></ul></ul>Parietal Occipital Frontal Temporal
  • 6. CNS: Cerebellum &amp; Brainstem <ul><li>Cerebellum – balance and coordination </li></ul><ul><li>Brainstem includes the pons and medulla oblongata </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Involuntary functions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>heart rate, breathing </li></ul></ul></ul>Cerebellum Brainstem Medulla Oblongata
  • 7. PNS: Peripheral Nervous System <ul><li>All nerves that are NOT part of the brain or spinal cord </li></ul><ul><li>Two major divisions of the PNS: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensory division sends impulses from sense organs (ears, nose, etc.) to the CNS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motor division send impulses from the CNS to the muscles or glands </li></ul></ul>
  • 8. PNS: Motor Divisions <ul><li>Motor division is then divided into the autonomic and somatic nervous systems </li></ul><ul><li>Somatic System – regulates activities under conscious control such as muscle movement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Also involved with reflexes </li></ul></ul>
  • 9. Autonomic Nervous System <ul><li>Regulates automatic, involuntary actions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parasympathetic Nervous System decreases heart rate and stimulates digestion; “rest and digest” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sympathetic Nervous System increases heart rate; “fight or flight” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>These systems have opposite effects </li></ul>
  • 10. Neuron Structure (UP 83) Cell Body Cytoplasm Nucleus Dendrites Myelin Axon Muscle (effector) End Brush Motor End Plate
  • 11. Neurons <ul><li>Three types: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensory : carry impulses from sense organs to CNS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motor : carry impulses from CNS to muscles/glands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interneurons : connect motor and sensory neurons </li></ul></ul>
  • 12. Neural Impulses <ul><li>Impulses move along a neuron due to electrical changes in the membrane </li></ul>
  • 13. Neural Impulses (UP 83) Membrane is polarized, more negative inside Na + ions enter; membrane depolarizes Repolarization follows depolarization Impulse travels the axon <ul><ul><li>http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/olc/dl/120107/bio_d.swf </li></ul></ul>
  • 14. Neural Impulses <ul><li>Resting potential – polarized state, negative charge inside membrane </li></ul><ul><li>Threshold –minimum stimulus needed to activate a neuron </li></ul><ul><li>Action potential – depolarization &amp; repolarization of membrane </li></ul><ul><li>Myelin increases rate of impulse </li></ul>
  • 15. Synapses <ul><li>Location where one neuron transfers an impulse to a cell </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Neuron to neuron </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neuron to muscle/gland </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chemicals called neurotransmitters carry signals across a synapse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Acetylcholine and serotonin </li></ul></ul>
  • 16. Synapses <ul><li>http://www.bishopstopford.com/faculties/science/arthur/synapse.swf </li></ul>
  • 17. Reflex Arc <ul><li>Reflexes prevent injury </li></ul><ul><li>Impulse travels from sensory neuron  interneuron  motor neuron </li></ul>http://www.sumanasinc.com/webcontent/anisamples/nonmajorsbiology/reflexarcs.html
  • 18. Reflex Arc (UP 84) Association Neuron (interneuron) Sensory Neuron Cell Body (Sensory Neuron) Motor Neuron Receptors (on dendrites) Synapse Synapse Effector (muscle) Motor End Plates
  • 19. Animations <ul><li>Action Potential </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/olc/dl/120107/bio_d.swf </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://outreach.mcb.harvard.edu/animations/actionpotential.swf </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chemical Synapse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.bishopstopford.com/faculties/science/arthur/synapse.swf </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/olc/dl/120107/anim0015.swf </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://outreach.mcb.harvard.edu/animations/synaptic.swf </li></ul></ul>
  • 20. Electroencephalogram (EEG) <ul><li>Records electrical activity of the brain </li></ul><ul><li>Diagnosis of neurological diseases: stroke, epilepsy, tumors, and sleep disorders </li></ul>
  • 21. EEG Activity
  • 22. Behavior Impacts EEG
  • 23. EEG During Seizures
  • 24. Diagnostic Techniques <ul><li>MRI – Magnetic Resonance Imaging uses radio waves and VERY powerful magnets to create images of the brain </li></ul><ul><li>Used to image soft tissue, not bone or teeth </li></ul>
  • 25. MRI of the Brain
  • 26. CT Scan <ul><li>Computerized Tomography </li></ul><ul><li>3-D x-ray image based on tissue density </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bone appears white, liquids/gases are black, and various tissues are grey </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Used to diagnose tumors </li></ul>
  • 27. PET Scan <ul><li>Positron Emission Tomography </li></ul><ul><li>Creates images based on the detection of radiation particles </li></ul><ul><li>Used to detect tumors, seizure disorders, and evaluate patients with memory loss </li></ul>
  • 28. Brain Death <ul><li>Irreversible cessation of brain activity for 24 hours so that cardiopulmonary function must be maintained by machine </li></ul>

×