Nervous System
The Nervous System <ul><li>Two main divisions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Central Nervous System  (CNS) includes the brain and s...
Central Nervous System <ul><li>The  brain  receives impulses and sends impulses back to the body </li></ul><ul><li>The  sp...
CNS: The Brain  (UP 5) <ul><li>3 major regions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cerebrum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cerebellum </li><...
CNS: The Cerebrum <ul><li>Largest part of the brain </li></ul><ul><li>Involved in voluntary activities, intelligence, and ...
CNS: Cerebellum & Brainstem   <ul><li>Cerebellum  – balance and coordination </li></ul><ul><li>Brainstem  includes the  po...
PNS: Peripheral Nervous System <ul><li>All nerves that are NOT part of the brain or spinal cord </li></ul><ul><li>Two majo...
PNS: Motor Divisions <ul><li>Motor division is then divided into the  autonomic  and  somatic  nervous systems </li></ul><...
Autonomic Nervous System <ul><li>Regulates automatic,  involuntary actions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parasympathetic Nervous S...
Neuron  Structure   (UP 83)   Cell Body Cytoplasm Nucleus Dendrites Myelin Axon Muscle (effector) End Brush Motor End Plate
Neurons  <ul><li>Three types: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensory : carry impulses from sense organs to CNS </li></ul></ul><ul><...
Neural Impulses <ul><li>Impulses move along a neuron due to electrical changes in the membrane  </li></ul>
Neural Impulses   (UP 83) Membrane is polarized, more negative inside Na +  ions enter; membrane depolarizes Repolarizatio...
Neural Impulses <ul><li>Resting potential  – polarized state, negative charge inside membrane </li></ul><ul><li>Threshold ...
Synapses <ul><li>Location where one neuron transfers an impulse to a cell </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Neuron to neuron </li></ul...
Synapses <ul><li>http://www.bishopstopford.com/faculties/science/arthur/synapse.swf </li></ul>
Reflex Arc <ul><li>Reflexes prevent injury </li></ul><ul><li>Impulse travels from sensory neuron    interneuron    motor...
Reflex Arc   (UP 84) Association Neuron (interneuron) Sensory Neuron Cell Body  (Sensory Neuron) Motor Neuron Receptors  (...
Animations <ul><li>Action Potential </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/olc/dl/120107/bio_d.swf </li></u...
Electroencephalogram (EEG) <ul><li>Records electrical activity of the brain </li></ul><ul><li>Diagnosis of neurological di...
EEG Activity
Behavior Impacts EEG
EEG During Seizures
Diagnostic Techniques <ul><li>MRI – Magnetic Resonance Imaging  uses radio waves and VERY powerful magnets to create image...
MRI of the Brain
CT Scan <ul><li>Computerized Tomography </li></ul><ul><li>3-D x-ray image based on tissue density </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bo...
PET Scan <ul><li>Positron Emission Tomography </li></ul><ul><li>Creates images based on the detection of radiation particl...
Brain Death <ul><li>Irreversible cessation of brain activity for 24 hours so that cardiopulmonary function must be maintai...
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Nervous system

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Nervous system

  1. 1. Nervous System
  2. 2. The Nervous System <ul><li>Two main divisions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Central Nervous System (CNS) includes the brain and spinal cord </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) contains nerves which carry info between the CNS and other organs </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Central Nervous System <ul><li>The brain receives impulses and sends impulses back to the body </li></ul><ul><li>The spinal cord connects the brain to the body </li></ul>
  4. 4. CNS: The Brain (UP 5) <ul><li>3 major regions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cerebrum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cerebellum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brainstem </li></ul></ul>Cerebrum Cerebellum Brainstem
  5. 5. CNS: The Cerebrum <ul><li>Largest part of the brain </li></ul><ul><li>Involved in voluntary activities, intelligence, and consciousness </li></ul><ul><li>Divided into 4 lobes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Frontal - personality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Temporal - auditory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parietal - senses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Occipital - visual area </li></ul></ul>Parietal Occipital Frontal Temporal
  6. 6. CNS: Cerebellum & Brainstem <ul><li>Cerebellum – balance and coordination </li></ul><ul><li>Brainstem includes the pons and medulla oblongata </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Involuntary functions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>heart rate, breathing </li></ul></ul></ul>Cerebellum Brainstem Medulla Oblongata
  7. 7. PNS: Peripheral Nervous System <ul><li>All nerves that are NOT part of the brain or spinal cord </li></ul><ul><li>Two major divisions of the PNS: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensory division sends impulses from sense organs (ears, nose, etc.) to the CNS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motor division send impulses from the CNS to the muscles or glands </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. PNS: Motor Divisions <ul><li>Motor division is then divided into the autonomic and somatic nervous systems </li></ul><ul><li>Somatic System – regulates activities under conscious control such as muscle movement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Also involved with reflexes </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Autonomic Nervous System <ul><li>Regulates automatic, involuntary actions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parasympathetic Nervous System decreases heart rate and stimulates digestion; “rest and digest” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sympathetic Nervous System increases heart rate; “fight or flight” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>These systems have opposite effects </li></ul>
  10. 10. Neuron Structure (UP 83) Cell Body Cytoplasm Nucleus Dendrites Myelin Axon Muscle (effector) End Brush Motor End Plate
  11. 11. Neurons <ul><li>Three types: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensory : carry impulses from sense organs to CNS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motor : carry impulses from CNS to muscles/glands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interneurons : connect motor and sensory neurons </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Neural Impulses <ul><li>Impulses move along a neuron due to electrical changes in the membrane </li></ul>
  13. 13. Neural Impulses (UP 83) Membrane is polarized, more negative inside Na + ions enter; membrane depolarizes Repolarization follows depolarization Impulse travels the axon <ul><ul><li>http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/olc/dl/120107/bio_d.swf </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Neural Impulses <ul><li>Resting potential – polarized state, negative charge inside membrane </li></ul><ul><li>Threshold –minimum stimulus needed to activate a neuron </li></ul><ul><li>Action potential – depolarization & repolarization of membrane </li></ul><ul><li>Myelin increases rate of impulse </li></ul>
  15. 15. Synapses <ul><li>Location where one neuron transfers an impulse to a cell </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Neuron to neuron </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neuron to muscle/gland </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chemicals called neurotransmitters carry signals across a synapse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Acetylcholine and serotonin </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Synapses <ul><li>http://www.bishopstopford.com/faculties/science/arthur/synapse.swf </li></ul>
  17. 17. Reflex Arc <ul><li>Reflexes prevent injury </li></ul><ul><li>Impulse travels from sensory neuron  interneuron  motor neuron </li></ul>http://www.sumanasinc.com/webcontent/anisamples/nonmajorsbiology/reflexarcs.html
  18. 18. Reflex Arc (UP 84) Association Neuron (interneuron) Sensory Neuron Cell Body (Sensory Neuron) Motor Neuron Receptors (on dendrites) Synapse Synapse Effector (muscle) Motor End Plates
  19. 19. Animations <ul><li>Action Potential </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/olc/dl/120107/bio_d.swf </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://outreach.mcb.harvard.edu/animations/actionpotential.swf </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chemical Synapse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.bishopstopford.com/faculties/science/arthur/synapse.swf </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/olc/dl/120107/anim0015.swf </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://outreach.mcb.harvard.edu/animations/synaptic.swf </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Electroencephalogram (EEG) <ul><li>Records electrical activity of the brain </li></ul><ul><li>Diagnosis of neurological diseases: stroke, epilepsy, tumors, and sleep disorders </li></ul>
  21. 21. EEG Activity
  22. 22. Behavior Impacts EEG
  23. 23. EEG During Seizures
  24. 24. Diagnostic Techniques <ul><li>MRI – Magnetic Resonance Imaging uses radio waves and VERY powerful magnets to create images of the brain </li></ul><ul><li>Used to image soft tissue, not bone or teeth </li></ul>
  25. 25. MRI of the Brain
  26. 26. CT Scan <ul><li>Computerized Tomography </li></ul><ul><li>3-D x-ray image based on tissue density </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bone appears white, liquids/gases are black, and various tissues are grey </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Used to diagnose tumors </li></ul>
  27. 27. PET Scan <ul><li>Positron Emission Tomography </li></ul><ul><li>Creates images based on the detection of radiation particles </li></ul><ul><li>Used to detect tumors, seizure disorders, and evaluate patients with memory loss </li></ul>
  28. 28. Brain Death <ul><li>Irreversible cessation of brain activity for 24 hours so that cardiopulmonary function must be maintained by machine </li></ul>

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