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Pscyhology 101: Chapter14

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  • Chapter 14 slides are relevant to APA Outcomes 4.2b ( identifying the application of psychology to the origin and treatment of abnormal behavior ) and 1.2a(2). Specific slides are additionally relevant to other outcomes as noted on the notes page associated with the relevant slide.
  • The mention of cultural deviance on this slide recalls the issue of the sociocultural context of abnormality, relevant to Outcomes 1.2d(6) and 8.2.
  • Figure 14.1. “Abnormal” and “normal” are not fixed categories, but endpoints on a continuum. To a certain degree, everyone has acted unusually, suffered from emotional distress, or failed to follow an adaptive strategy.
  • The Medical Model may be seen as exemplifying a general perspective in psychology, Outcome 1.4.
  • The treatment of the DSM-IV-TR on this and the following 2 slides is relevant to psychological assessment, Outcome 4.2c.
  • Figure 14.4. Each bar shows the percentage of individuals in a sample of more than 8,000 participants who reported suffering from the listed psychological disorder during the previous 12 months or earlier. Note : A given individual might have reported suffering from more than one of these disorders concurrently. (Data from Kessler et al., 1994.)
  • The Gender and Culture discussions following this and the descriptions of the of the other major clinical disorders are relevant to Outcomes 1.2d(6) and 8.2.
  • The Gender and Culture discussions following this and the descriptions of the of the other major clinical disorders are relevant to Outcomes 1.2d(6) and 8.2.
  • Figure 14.6. Individuals diagnosed with dissociative identity disorder were asked to undergo ophthalmological (eye) exams while “inhabited” by three different personalities in turn. Significant differences were found in optical functioning across personalities, more so than occurred for normal control subjects who were asked to fake different personalities during each exam. (Data from Miller, 1989.)
  • The Gender and Culture discussions following this and the descriptions of the of the other major clinical disorders are relevant to Outcomes 1.2d(6) and 8.2.
  • The discussion of the biological and genetic contributions to abnormality is relevant to the nature/nurture issue, Outcome 1.2d(1).
  • Figure 14.7. Each bar shows the risk of developing schizophrenia when one or more relatives have been diagnosed with the disorder. In general, the closer an individual is genetically to the person with schizophrenia, the more likely he or she is to develop the disorder. (Based on Gottesman, 1991.)
  • Figure 14.8. Depressed individuals tend to attribute failure to internal, stable, and global conditions.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 14 Chapter 14Psychological Disorders
    • 2. Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 14 What’s It For? Psychological Disorders• Conceptualizing Abnormality• Classifying Psychological Disorders• Understanding Psychological Disorders
    • 3. Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 14 Conceptualizing Abnormality: Learning Goals1. Evaluate the various criteria that have been used to define abnormality.2. Discuss the legal definition of insanity.3. Explain how the medical model classifies and categorizes abnormality.4. Discuss the effects of diagnostic labeling.
    • 4. Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 14 Characteristics of Abnormal Behavior• Behavior must fit at least several of the following criteria to be labeled abnormal: – Statistical deviance -- infrequency – Cultural deviance -- violates norms – Emotional distress -- unhappiness, torment – Dysfunction -- difficulties with daily living• “Abnormal” behavior not a rigid category
    • 5. Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 14
    • 6. Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 14 The Concept of Insanity• Insanity: A legal term defined as inability to understand that certain actions are wrong at the time of a crime – Under this definition, people with disorders may be judged legally sane• Famous cases in which the insanity defense succeeded: John Hinckley Jr., Jeffrey Dahmer• Used in < 1% of criminal felony cases
    • 7. Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 14 Abnormality as a Disease: The Medical Model• View that abnormal behavior is symptomatic of underlying “disease” that can be “cured” with appropriate therapy – Draws an analogy between mental and physical illness• A widely held view, but some question it – Causes of mental illness often unclear – Social, cultural context of symptoms is important, more so than for physical illness
    • 8. Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 14 Problems Associated With Labeling• Diagnostic labeling effects: Labels for psychological problems can become self- fulfilling prophecies – Make it difficult to recognize normal behavior when it occurs – May increase likelihood of abnormal behavior• Rosenhan (1973): Participants faked disorders to enter psychiatric ward – Other patients saw through the deception, but staff did not
    • 9. Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 14 Classifying Psychological Disorders: Learning Goals1. Describe the DSM-IV-TR.2. Describe the common anxiety disorders.3. Describe the somatoform disorders.4. Describe the common dissociative disorders.5. Describe the common mood disorders.6. Describe the characteristics of schizophrenia.7. Describe the common personality disorders.
    • 10. Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 14 What Is the DSM-IV-TR?• Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, Text Revision – Published by the American Psychiatric Association• Used for the diagnosis and classification of psychological disorders – Intended to give objective, measurable criteria for diagnosing disorders – Does not suggest therapies or treatments – Does not discuss possible causes
    • 11. Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 14 The Five Axes of the DSM-IV-TR• “Axis” = Rating dimension• Axis I: Major clinical disorders – Examples: Schizophrenia; substance abuse• Axis II: Personality disorders – Example: Paranoid personality disorder
    • 12. Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 14 The Five Axes, continued…• Axis III: General medical conditions – Example: Diseases of the circulatory system• Axis IV: Psychosocial and environmental problems – Example: Homelessness• Axis V: Global assessment of functioning scale
    • 13. Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 14 Anxiety Disorders• Marked by excessive apprehension, worry that impairs normal functioning• Generalized anxiety disorder: “Free-floating” anxiety, chronic worrying lasting over 6 months• Panic disorder: Recurrent discrete episodes or attacks of extremely intense fear or dread – Many physical symptoms such as chest pains – May be associated with agoraphobia (fear of public places)
    • 14. Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 14 Anxiety Disorders, continued…• Obsessive-compulsive disorder: Persistent, uncontrollable thoughts (obsessions) or compelling need to perform repetitive acts (compulsions) – Examples: Excessive cleaning, checking• Phobic disorders: Highly focused, irrational fear of a specific object or situation (e.g., snakes)• Social anxiety disorder: Extreme anxiety in everyday social situations, often accompanied by physical symptoms
    • 15. Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 14
    • 16. Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 14 Anxiety Disorders: Gender and Culture• Women are more likely to suffer from anxiety disorders than are men – Explanations focus on socialization differences between men and women• Anxiety disorders occur in all cultures, but the focus of the anxiety can differ
    • 17. Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 14 Somatoform Disorders• Psychological disorders that focus on the physical body• Hypochondriasis: Long-lasting preoccupation with idea that one has a serious disease, based on misinterpretation of normal body reactions• Somatization disorder: Long-lasting preoccupation with body symptoms that have no physical cause• Conversion disorder: Real physical problems that seem to have no physical cause
    • 18. Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 14Somatoform Disorders: Gender and Culture• Somatization and conversion disorders occur somewhat more frequently in women than in men• Hypochondriasis occurs equally often in men and women• Somatoform disorders occur cross-culturally but with some culturally specific expressions – e.g., koro -- Asian men – e.g., dhat -- men in India
    • 19. Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 14 Dissociative Disorders• Characterized by separation, or dissociation, of conscious awareness from previous thoughts or memories• Dissociative amnesia: Inability to remember important personal information – Generally psychological in origin• Dissociative fugue: Loss of personal identity, often accompanied by a flight from home
    • 20. Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 14 Dissociative Identity Disorder• Individual alternates between what appear to be two or more distinct identities or personalities – Also known as multiple personality disorder• Recognized by DSM-IV-TR, but not all clinicians believe in it – Some symptoms can be faked; others, such as optical changes, less easy to fake – Some clinicians view it as role-playing
    • 21. Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 14
    • 22. Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 14 Mood Disorders• Prolonged, disabling disruptions in emotional state• Two types: – Depressive disorders: Individual suffers mainly from depression – Bipolar disorders: Mood swings between depression and extreme highs called manic states
    • 23. Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 14 Major Depressive Episode• Five or more of these symptoms for at least 2 weeks: – Depressed mood for most of the day – Loss of interest in normal daily activities – Significant weight change – Change in activity level – Daily fatigue or loss of energy – Negative self-concept – Trouble concentrating or making decisions – Suicidal thoughts
    • 24. Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 14 Suicide• One possible consequence of mood disorders, including bipolar disorder – Third leading cause of death among adolescents, eighth leading among all ages – Risk factors besides mood disorders include alcohol use, stressful events• Another major predictor: Prior suicide attempts and thoughts – Suicidal thoughts are a serious warning sign
    • 25. Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 14 Bipolar Disorder: Mania• Manic state: Person becomes hyperactive, talkative, decreased need for sleep• Manic state must last at least a week to be classified as such, but may last for months• Note that functioning is often severely impaired
    • 26. Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 14 Mood Disorders: Gender and Culture• Around the world, women more likely than men to suffer from major depression• Women more likely than men to attempt suicide; men more likely to succeed• No gender difference for bipolar disorder• Symptoms of depression are similar across cultures, though content of depressive thoughts varies somewhat
    • 27. Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 14 Schizophrenia• Involves fundamental disturbances in thought processes, emotion, and/or behavior• Complex disorder that may be expressed in a variety of ways – Diagnosis comes from a variety of symptoms
    • 28. Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 14 Schizophrenia• Positive symptoms: Observable expressions of abnormal behavior – Hallucinations – Delusions – Disorganized speech• Negative symptoms: Elimination or reduction of normal behavior – Flat affect: Little or no emotional reaction to events – Refusing to take care of self
    • 29. Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 14 Schizophrenia: Gender and Culture• Men at slightly greater risk than women for schizophrenia• Men tend to develop schizophrenia earlier in life than do women• Schizophrenia occurs worldwide, but there are some racial differences in diagnosis rates in the U.S.
    • 30. Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 14 Personality Disorders• Chronic, enduring patterns of behavior leading to significant impairment in social functioning – Tendency to act inflexibly• Examples: – Paranoid personality disorder – Dependent personality disorder – Antisocial personality disorder• Some clinicians view these as extremes of personality rather than disorders per se
    • 31. Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 14 Understanding Psychological Disorders: Learning Goals1. Explain how biological and genetic factors can contribute to psychological disorders.2. Discuss how maladaptive thoughts can contribute to psychological disorders.3. Explain how environmental factors can contribute to psychological disorders.
    • 32. Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 14 Biological Factors• Include physical problems with the body, brain, as well as genetic influences• Neurotransmitter imbalances: – Dopamine excess in schizophrenia – Serotonin involved in mood disorders, but exactly how is less clear• Structural problems in the brain: – Schizophrenia associated with enlarged ventricles
    • 33. Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 14 Genetic Contributions• Do some people inherit predispositions toward developing disorders?• Genetic component of schizophrenia: – Likelihood of having it increases with closeness of a relative who also has it – Highest likelihood for identical twin (chances are 1 in 2)• Similar pattern for depression, bipolar disorder
    • 34. Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 14
    • 35. Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 14 Cognitive Factors• Maladaptive thought patterns may contribute• Maladaptive attributions – Internal, stable, global attributions for negative experiences may play a role in depression• Learned helplessness: Acquired when people repeatedly fail in attempts to control environment – May also contribute to depression
    • 36. Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 14
    • 37. Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 14 Environmental Factors• Do people learn to act abnormally?• Role of culture – A culture that emphasizes thinness may predispose you to anorexia nervosa – Cultural background may influence the kinds of delusions seen in schizophrenia• Conditioning may play a role as well – Specific phobias may be acquired through classical conditioning or observational learning