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Principles of Management of Hand Eczema,

Principles of Management of Hand Eczema,
irritant contact dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis
Pompholyx, Hyperkeratotic palmar eczema, patch test

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  • The thick stratum corneum (e.g., palms, palmar aspects of fingers, and around nails) often requires higher potency preparations, such as clobetasol propionate 0.05% ointment 1-2 times daily for a few weeks and then 2-3 times a week thereafter, as needed.
  • There are 2 families of nuclear receptors associated with retinoids – retinoid acid receptors (RARs) and retinoid X receptors (RXRs). Alitretinoin binds to both RARs and RXRs.
  • Whole wheat bread, multi grain breads, cauliflower, spinach, canned vegetables, cabbage, corn, mushrooms, onions, carrots, pears, bananas, canned fruits, tomatoes, Tea, chocolate milk, beer, red wine, Chocolate and cocoa powder(especially dark chocolate)

Seminar hand eczema Presentation Transcript

  • 1. SEMINAR PRESENTATION Principles of Management of Hand Eczema MODERATOR: Dr. U. S. Agarwal
  • 2. • A clear and worldwide-accepted definition of "Hand Eczema" does not exist • Hand eczema implies the dermatitis which is largely confined to the hands, with none or only minor involvement of other areas. • If the eczema is widespread and the hands appear to be involved only coincidentally, it is preferable to speak of hand involvement.
  • 3. • It is a common and widespread condition. • 2% to 10% of population develop hand eczema at some point of time during life. • In addition, 20% to 35% of all dermatitis affects the hands. • Most common occupational skin disease, comprising 9% to 35% of all occupational disease.
  • 4. • Enormous socio-economic consequences e.g. – social embarrassment(depression) – a devastating change in the working capacity of a patient – negative impact on patients’ quality of life – economic consequences – forced to change of occupation
  • 5. Pompholyx, showing confluent vesicles of the palm. Hyperkeratotic palmar eczema
  • 6. MANAGEMENT • The management of HE discussed under 4 subtitles. 1. Assessment of severity 2. Diagnostic (history and investigations); identifying etiological factors 3. Preventive and protective measures 4. Treatment
  • 7. Assessment of Severity • The severity of hand eczema can be assessed by various scoring methods. 1. Osnabrück hand eczema severity index (OHSI) (Range 0-18). 2. Hand eczema severity index (HECSI) (Range 0-360). 3. Manu score (Range 0-6480). 4. Hand eczema score for occupational screenings at the workspace (HEROS) (Range 0-2260). • These scoring systems for quantifying HE are useful in evaluating an outcome of treatment.
  • 8. Diagnostic (History and Investigations) • History of atopy (atopic dermatitis/asthma/rhinitis). Of these, dermatitis correlates most with hand eczema. • Previous episodes of dermatitis, aggravating factors, remissions should be noted. Exposure Assessment Contact allergens • Chemical constitution of product. • Workplace visit -Occupational exposure to paints, glues, cutting oils. -Procure allergens for patch testing from manufacturer.
  • 9. • Chemical spot tests: Nickel, chromate, and cobalt. • Testing for formaldehyde in products. • Chemical analysis of product in specialized laboratories. Irritants: • Wet work • Contact with detergents, alkaline substances, oil products, cutting oils, organic solvents
  • 10. • Glove usage (hours spent with tight-fitting/ hours spent with wet hands/number of times hands are washed/number of glove changes) • Mechanical (frictional) trauma Wet Work: Based on German standard, the following can give rise to irritant hand eczema • Wet hands for more than 2 hours daily. • Frequent hand washing > 20 times / day • Wearing tight fitting gloves for more than 2 hours per day.
  • 11. Investigations 1. Patch Testing For allergic contact dermatitis • With Indian Standard series (ISS), which is the baseline series. • With specific series based on results of baseline series. • Specific test series may be suggested based on exposure related to occupation (hairdressing, health care workers) and hobbies/leisure/household activities • In addition, materials by the patient could be included while testing (skin care products, topical medicaments, gloves, etc.) • Strong irritants, corrosive or sensitizing products should not be tested.
  • 12. • Patch testing is performed according to the International Contact Dermatitis Research Group (ICDRG) guidelines. • Exposure is for 2 days, and readings are to be taken on D2 and D3 or D4 and ideally on D7 also. For irritant contact dermatitis • Detergents are a common cause for hand eczema in housewives, cleaners, and nurses. • 24-hour patch testing with detergent and soap solutions (8% w/v), would help identify the cleanser/detergent producing the least irritation.
  • 13. 2. Prick Testing • With standardized allergens • Prick test with fresh food stuffs. • Procedure – done by standard method with histamine as positive control and saline as negative control. The maximum wheal diameter is measured in mm. Whenever possible, record the late phase reaction (LPR) in mm at 24 hours at the prick tested site.
  • 14. 3. 4. 5. • Serum IgE estimation RAST (Radio Allergo Sorbent Test) RPA test (R Nase Protection Assay) This measures small quantities of RNA obtained from tape stripping of human skin and is very sensitive. The RPA test discriminates between irritant and allergic patch test reactions. Interleukin-4 (IL-4) was found to be increased in allergic but not in irritant reactions. 6. Chemical spot tests: For nickel, chromate, and cobalt 7. Test for formaldehyde in product
  • 15. Preventive and Protective measures Preventive measures • High risk groups such as those with history of atopic dermatitis, hairdressers, health-care workers, foodhandlers, and those working with solvents and cutting oils should be identified and educated. • In work related disease, occupational screening and education reduce the incidence of HE.
  • 16. • During occupational screening evaluation, issues related to hazardous chemicals, their attributable risk, and reduction of exposure should be addressed. • Pre-employment patch testing of healthy subjects identified culprit allergens in 7% of subjects. • Long hours of wet work, low humidity, and hard water increase the risk for dermatitis. • Hand outs on skin care in HE are advised for all patients
  • 17. Patient Information Brochure: HAND ECZEMA  Avoid handling food items (raw vegetables, especially onion and garlic, raw meat, and fish) with bare hands.  Direct contact with solvents, polishes (metal, shoe, furniture, car, etc.), adhesives, and epoxy resins has to be avoided. Use protective gloves.  Vinyl gloves can be used for these jobs. Do not use latex gloves since solvents pass through latex rubber gloves. Vinyl gloves are less likely to cause allergic reactions.  Use lukewarm water and mild cleansers without perfume, colors, anti-bacterial agents for washing hands. Take off rings before washing. Pat hands dry, especially the fingerwebs and wrist.
  • 18.  Use corticosteroid ointments and emollient creams as advised. Do not use any other hand creams. Repeat application of emollients (Vaseline) as many times as possible.  Thin polyethylene gloves at night after applying corticosteroid ointment will provide occlusion and enhance the effect of ointment.  Protect hands from cold weather. Use leather gloves; thin cotton gloves may be first worn.  Cut off the tips of the gloves or fingers if necessary, based on the requirement of occlusion. Normal skin need not be occluded.
  • 19. Protective measures At the workplace, skin protection is achieved by 1. Pre-exposure barrier/protective creams to be used on intact skin before and during work. - o/w emulsions, w/o emulsions, tanning agents (cause hardening and increase resistance to irritants. They are also useful under occlusive gloves to reduce skin maceration), aluminium chlorohydrate, zinc oxide which has a shielding effect, talcum, chelating agents.
  • 20. 2. Cleansing during and after work with mild skin cleansers 3. Post-exposure skin care after work with emollients, moisturizers, humectants (glycerol, sorbitol, urea), lipids (complex mixtures of ceramide, fatty acid, cholesterol). • It has to be kept in mind that some ingredients like urea in moisturizers may increase skin permeability and enhance penetration of hazardous substances.
  • 21. • Emollients and moisturizers are post-exposure skin products that are advisable on diseased skin; they are the mainstay in the prevention and treatment of HE. • Barrier creams or protective creams are to be used on intact skin and should be used prior to the exposure to the irritant. • Rarely, barrier creams may trap allergens, and result in worsening of the dermatitis. • Allergy to some component of the barrier cream may also rarely occur.
  • 22. • Greasy creams are helpful in restoring barrier function of skin. • Preparations, which are fragrance free and preservativefree, are preferred. • Petrolatum is effective against water-soluble and waterinsoluble irritants, it is recommended as a standard substance against which barrier creams are compared. • White petrolatum (pet.) is a refined, purified, and hydrogenated derivative from mineral oil, consisting of a complex combination of long-chained aliphatic hydrocarbons.
  • 23. • Experimental studies using in vivo techniques have proved that white petrolatum effectively protects the skin from water-soluble skin irritants in moderate concentrations and accelerates barrier recovery. • Alcohol-based disinfectants with or without glycerin are less irritant than soap and water and are preferred.
  • 24. Protective Gloves • Gloves provide an effective protection against most irritants. • No single glove protects against the various causes of dermatitis, and wrong selection of gloves may not only lead to increased chance of injury or aggravation of dermatitis but also reduce efficiency during work. • Some glove materials are permeable to certain chemicals and thus do not protect against those exposures. • Occlusion, latex sensitivity, and contact allergy to other additives in rubber limits their use.
  • 25. Treatment • In the acute stage, it is important to soothe the irritated skin with wet compresses or soaks (saline, 1% liquor aluminum acetate (Burrow’s) or 1:8000 potassium permanganate solution may be used), and not use occlusive ointments. • Without therapy, an episode of dermatitis may be expected to persist for up to 3 to 4 weeks. • Early adequate use of oral steroids can shorten this course significantly.
  • 26. • In the sub-acute stage, creams may be introduced and in the chronic stage, ointments (Soothe the acute with compresses and anoint the chronic with occlusive ointments). • Topical treatment with emollients and topical corticosteroids in addition to skin protection measures form the mainstay of therapy.
  • 27. Elimination diets: • Ingested allergens may cause variety of skin and mucocutaneous lesions including perioral dermatitis, gingivostomatitis, pruritis ani related to sites of contact. • In addition, systemic contact dermatitis and a flare-up of dermatitis in previously sensitized sites may also occur. • Ingestion of nickel in diet may provoke these reactions, and a nickel elimination diet may lead to clinical improvement or clearance of hand eczema. • A low cobalt diet is also proposed in some patients.
  • 28. • The rule of the 4 R’scan be applied in the management of hand eczema. 1. 2. 3. 4. Recognition of the culprit irritant/allergen Removal of the irritant/allergen Reduction of skin inflammation Restoration of the skin barrier
  • 29. Therapeutic armamentarium in hand eczema
  • 30. Emollients and Barrier creams • Following an episode of dermatitis, it takes weeks to months for the skin barrier to be restored. • Emollients and moisturizers help to restore the barrier. • Sometimes, the demarcation between moisturizers used to restore the barrier and barrier creams, which are used to prevent dermatitis (irritant/contact), is not clear. • They may prove harmful to the skin barrier. • White petrolatum would be an effective emollient and barrier cream, so would be the topical emollient of choice.
  • 31. • The concomitant treatment of dermatitis influences the barrier repair. • Topical and systemic corticosteroids, retinoids control the inflammation well but have a negative effect on barrier recovery. • UV- phototherapy exerts its beneficial effect by skin hardening or accommodation (strengthening the barrier), thus making it less sensitive to irritants and control of ACD even with continued exposure.
  • 32. • Keratolytics used include salicylic acid up to 20%, and urea 510%. • Urea softens the horny layer, and increases its water-binding and penetration enhancing capabilities. • Occlusion may cause skin irritation and burning. • The potential to enhance penetration of noxious chemicals should also be kept in mind.
  • 33. Topical Steroids • They, along with emollients are the mainstay of therapy. • Potent topical steroids are used daily for about 4 weeks and then tapered to alternate day regimen. • Long term intermittent monotherapy with moderately-potent steroid-like mometasone furoate has been found to be effective. • Potent steroids are more effective and reduce the risk of recurrences as compared to moderately-potent steroids. • The adverse effects of long term topical corticosteroid usage are wellknown (skin atrophy, tachyphylaxis, and adrenal suppression).
  • 34. • Alternating a moderately-potent topical steroid with a topical calcineurin inhibitor reduces these side effects and clinically found to be effective. • Topical tacrolimus is reported to be as effective as mometasone furoate in dyshidrotic palmar eczema, while the efficacy of pimecrolimus is comparable to a mild potent steroid. • Hypersensitivity to corticosteroids or other ingredients should be suspected if there is worsening. • Wet wrap dressings have been found to be effective in atopic eczema.
  • 35. • Phototherapy improves the skin barrier. • Topical psoralen UVA (PUVA) has been found to be superior to phototherapy with UVB although pigmentation may be of concern in Indian patients. • PUVA should be considered first for hyperkeratotic eczema as it is relatively safe. • Broad and narrow band UVB, and PUVA have been reported to be beneficial. • Moderate to high doses give long remissions. [40 J/cm2 5 times per week for 3 weeks (~ 600 J/cm2) per treatment cycle.
  • 36. • Topical bexarotene gel, a retinoid used for the treatment of lymphoma, has been reported to be effective although irritation, stinging, burning, and a flare of dermatitis has been reported. • Coal tar-based products are effective in sub-acute and chronic eczema and have an antiinflammatory, antipruritic, and anti-proliferative effect.
  • 37. Systemic Therapy • There are several drugs which are commonly used in treatment. • Excepting alitretinoin, most of these drugs are not licensed for the treatment of hand eczema. • Alitretinoin is approved in adults for the treatment of HE unresponsive to topical steroids, based on evidence from a larger randomized trial.
  • 38. Systemic corticosteroids • Oral corticosteroids are used in the short term management of acute hand eczema or during an exacerbation of chronic HE (0.5 - 1 mg/kg/day) with rapid tapering; long term use is not advocated due to their side-effects.
  • 39. Oral retinoids • Retinoids are vitamin A derivatives which are either endogenous (physiological) or synthetic. • Acitretin, a synthetic retinoid, 40 mg oral daily showed 50% improvement at 4 weeks in a study (n = 14) of patients with hyperkeratotic hand eczema. • There was no further improvement at week 8. • Combined therapy with other drugs may prove more beneficial.
  • 40. Alitretinoin (9-cis-retinoic acid) • Alitretinoin is a new oral retinoid that received regulatory approval in Canada in November 2009 and has been commercially available since November 2010. • It is the only systemic agent that is indicated for the treatment of adults with severe CHD that is refractory to high-potency topical steroids. • Alitretinoin is an isomer of isotretinoin (13-cis-retinoic acid) and is an endogenous physical retinoid. • Although structurally similar to isotretinoin, sebum secretion is not suppressed significantly, which could explain the lower incidence of mucocutaneous side-effects like dryness, cheilitis, etc. and also the lack of efficacy in acne.
  • 41. • Two randomized, double-blind, placebocontrolled, multicenter trials involving over 1300 patients treated with alitretinoin demonstrated significant clinical improvements in moderate-to-severe CHD. • One study assessing once-daily use for 12 weeks showed a dose-dependent improvement in 53% of HD patients, who exhibited up to 70% mean reduction in disease signs and symptoms. • In second study once-daily use for up to 24 weeks reported 48% of alitretinoin-treated patients achieved clear or almost clear hands, with up to 75% median reduction in disease signs and symptoms, compared with 17% of placebo.
  • 42. • After cessation of therapy, the median time to relapse was 5.5-6.2 months. • Alitretinoin was well-tolerated. • Side-effects were dose dependent and included headache, flushing, mucocutaneous events (e.g., dryness of the skin, lips, and eyes), hyperlipidemia, and decreased levels of free thyroxine and TSH. • For most patients, the recommended starting dose is 30mg once-daily for up to 24 weeks, depending on response. • A starting lower dose of 10mg daily may be tried in patients exhibiting unacceptable adverse reactions to the higher dose.
  • 43. • Alitretinoin is an endogenous retinoid, with concentrations returning to normal range within 1-3 days after treatment cessation. • It is rapidly eliminated and does not accumulate in the body. • As with all systemic retinoids, alitretinoin is teratogenic and requires strict monitoring when used in women of childbearing potential. • Pregnancy testing and the use of acceptable methods of contraception are required just prior to, during, and 1 month after therapy.
  • 44. Cyclosporine • Cyclosporine at 3 mg/kg/day for 6 weeks was reported to be as effective as topical betamethasone dipropionate. • It has been studied extensively in the treatment of atopic dermatitis. • Very slow tapering over a period of 6 months is recommended. • A lack of response beyond 8 weeks should suggest discontinuation of therapy. • Blood pressure, serum potassium, and creatinine should be monitored.
  • 45. Azathioprine • It is an effective steroid-sparing agent and can also be used alone in hand eczema (2 mg/kg/day). • Hand eczema seen with parthenium dermatitis responds well to azathioprine. • Atopic hand eczema also shows good response. • Due to genetic polymorphisms, 11% of the population have intermediate TPMT activity and are predisposed to toxic effects. • Dosage should be advised after checking the TPMT levels.
  • 46. • In a study of 91 patients with chronic hand eczema at 24 weeks mean percentage improvement in itching score was 74.15 and 95.55% for Group A (Topical clobetasol alone) and Group B (Topical clobetasol + Azathioprine) respectively (P = 0.003). • At 24 weeks mean percentage improvement in HECSI score was 64.66 and 91.29% (P = 0.001) in Group A and Group B respectively. * Agarwal US, Besarwal RK. Topical clobetasol propionate 0.05% cream alone and in combination with azathioprine in patients with chronic hand eczema: An observer blinded randomized comparative trial. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 2013;79:101-3.
  • 47. Methotrexate • Low dose methotrexate (5-20 mg weekly) has been reported to be effective in chronic hand eczema. • In an atopic patient with parthenium dermatitis presenting as hand dermatitis, methotrexate has been found to be effective.
  • 48. IRON THERAPY IN HAND ECZEMA: A NEW APPROACH FOR MANAGEMENT Ashimav Deb Sharma Indian Journal of Dermatology 2011; 56(3) Abstract • It is observed that adequate iron intake and status can limit nickel absorption from the diet in the human body. Chronic vesicular hand eczema (CVHE) due to nickel sensitivity is a common dermatological condition where the dietary nickel acts as a provocating factor. Such patients are usually treated with low nickel diet (LND). The present study was conducted to observe the result of addition of oral iron with LND in the treatment of CVHE in patients due to nickel sensitivity. 23 patients with CVHE due to nickel sensitivity were taken for this study. Study group (12 patients) were advised LND with oral iron for a period of 12 weeks. Control group (11 patients) were advised LND alone for a period of 12 weeks. Fast improvement noted in the skin lesions of the study group patients; 10 (83.33%) patients had complete clearance of their hand eczemas at the end of 12 weeks. There were significant reductions in the blood level of nickel in those patients. Moderate improvement noted in the skin lesions of the control group patients; 5 (45.45%) patients showed complete clearance of hand eczema at the end of 12 weeks. This study showed that oral iron helped to reduce nickel absorption from the diet. The study also showed that combination of LND and oral iron can bring a faster reduction in the severity of clinical symptoms of CVHE in a nickel sensitive individual.
  • 49. Conclusion • Hand dermatitis or eczema poses an extraordinary challenge in diagnosis and treatment and demands expeditious and aggressive attention to prevent disability and consequent limitation of lifestyle. • Formulation of an effective treatment strategy will depend on many factors, including findings from diagnostic investigations, extent and severity of HD, treatment history, age, and patient preferences. • Early diagnosis and ongoing medical and adjunctive care are crucial for controlling chronicity and disease severity.
  • 50. • There is a significant unmet need for pharmacologic agents that are effective in the long-term management of severe CHD. • Present treatment options are plagued with side-effects and unable to induce sustained periods of remission. • However, the recent introduction of alitretinoin has broadened the therapeutic options and improved the outlook for patients who are unresponsive to conventional therapies.
  • 51. Thanks