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college coursework - my E book

college coursework - my E book


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  • 1. The MacThe name Mac is the marketed name for a PC line called The Macintosh. SteveJobs introduced the first Macintosh on the 24th January 1984 and it quicklybecame the first commercially successful PC. The current Mac’s use an Intel x86-84 processor and all standard Mac models are fitted with at lead 2GB of randomaccess memory (RAM).The Mac Mini, which is the entry level Macintosh, is fitted with 2.5Ghz dual-coreIntel Core i5 processor with 3MB L3 cache. The storage option of the Mac Mini is500GB of hard drive and 4GB of 1600Mhz memory. The graphics card that theMac Mini has is an Intel HD graphic 4000 and it is also fitted with Thunderboltdigital video output. The audio options that the Mac Mini comes with is an Audioline in minijack, line out/headphone, HDMI port (multichannel audio output) and abuilt-in speaker. SpeakersWhen turning your equipment on in the studio, you should always turn the Macand MIDI keyboard on first. Then after everything is on you should then turn thespeakers on. This is because a ‘pop’ sound is created when the speakers are onand then you decide to turn on the Mac on. This ‘pop’ sound can be verydamaging to the speakers and it may result in the speakers blowing. You shouldalso turn the speakers off before you turn the Mac and MIDI keyboard off.Also when you are going to record with a microphone, you should always turn thespeakers off before you press record. This is because you will end up getting afeedback sound from the speakers that can damage your hearing and thespeakers themselves. You get the feedback sound because there is an infiniteloop of sound from the microphone going through the speakers and back throughthe microphone. This creates a really high pitched sound. What does MIDI mean?MIDI is the shortened name given to a Musical Instrument Digital Interface. AMIDI is a device that enables digital music instruments, PC’s and other musicaldevices to connect with one another. A MIDI instrument gets note events and itallows you to control those events by buttons and knobs. It then changes thosesignals into digital messages and sends those messages to a PC or other deviceso you can control the sound and other parts of the signal message. MIDI keyboardsA MIDI keyboard is a piano-styled interface keyboard that is used for sendingMusical Instrument Digital Interface commands over MIDI cable or USB to a PCor other device. The average MIDI keyboard will usually send the commands toDAW software, (Digital Audio Workstation software) where the commands areprocessed. The normal MIDI keyboard usually doesn’t produce any type ofsounds, but instead the information from the keyboard is sent to an electronicmodule that produces a varied list of digital samples or sounds that mimic thenormal analog musical instruments.
  • 2. The main parts of most MIDI keyboards are a transpose button that sets whichoctave you would like to play in, a pitch bend and modulation wheel, thekeyboard notes itself and a volume adjustment knob/button. Other MIDIkeyboards also have assignable buttons/knobs and output and input knobs thatadjust the amount of output or input signal is received or distributed. CablesThere are many types of cables that are used in the studio and for Logic. One ofthese cables that can be used is the XLR cable. The XLR is a circular cable thathas between 2-9 pins and they are usually used for balanced audio signals. TheXLR able usually comes with two ends, the female end and the male end. For themost common style of XLR (the three pin cable) the female end is used toconnect the 1st pin before the other pins make contact with the receiving device.The female XLR end is the end with the three holes in and the male XLR end isthe end with tree pins. The 1st pin is the earth pin; the 2nd pin is the positive polarfor balanced audio and the 3rd pin is the negative polar for balanced circuits.Another type of able commonly used in the studio is the 1/4” jack cable. You caneither get balanced or unbalanced 1/4” jack cables and they way you can tellwhich one it is, is that the balanced cables have two rings around the top of thejack and unbalanced have just one ring. The XLR cables are mainly used in thestudio for microphones and for some speakers. The 1/4” jack is mainly used forspeaker cables, a cable to connect your musical instrument to your MIDI deviceand sometimes a cable to connect your MIDI device to your PC or receivingdevice. The main cable that is used to connect the MIDI device to the PC is aUSB 2.0 cable. USB is short for Universal Serial Bus and it transfers the datafrom the MIDI device to the receiving device. The DockThis is the Apple Mac dock. The dock is the bar at the bottom of the Mac desktopand it is there so you can get easy access to your applications. It also showswhat applications are currently running and which applications are minimized.When you insert a USB into the Mac, to eject the USB you drag it to the trashicon in the dock (usually on the right hand side). You can customise the dock bygoing to system applications and then to the dock where you can change the sizeof the icons and what icons to put on there.
  • 3. How to open LogicOpening logic is a simple process and it starts off by clicking on the Logic icon onthe dock or if it isn’t there then you can search for it in the search box at the topright of the screen. Then after you have opened it you go to the top of your screenand click File – New.Then Logic will bring you up a screen that says ‘New…’ There you click Explore –Empty Project. After you have selected Empty Project, you then have to selectwhich track type you would like. For Microphones you would select Audio, forMIDI keyboard you would select software instrument and for external instrumentssuch as guitars you would select External MIDI. After that is made you are readyto start recording.
  • 4. How to save a logic fileWhen saving a Logic file you will firstly need to go to ‘File’ and then ‘Save A CopyAs’. If you want to save your Logic file with all it’s sounds for all the channels thenyou will need to select the ‘save a copy as’ button because if you just click the‘Save’ or ‘Save As’ button then it will only save the MIDI events or regiontemplates rather than the actual data sounds.Once you have the export window open, you can rename the file that you aregoing to save and customize the instruments and sample that you want to exportwith your track.
  • 5. A MIDI studio set upThe MIDI studio set up that I have been using to make my remake is like thediagram above. It includes a Line 6 MIDI keyboard interface, a Apple mini mac,two Fostex active speakers, Apple keyboard and mouse and a computer screen.The two blue lines on the diagram represent the two speaker cables that go fromthe MIDI keyboard to the speakers. These two cables are ¼ inch jack cables.The three red lines on the diagram represent the three USB cables that go fromthe MIDI keyboard to the mini mac, from the keyboard to the mini mac and fromthe mouse to the mini mac. These USB cables are 2.0 cables.The green line on the diagram represents the display screen cable that goes fromthe display screen to an adaptor which then goes in via USB 2.0 into the minimac.
  • 6. Arrange PageThe arrange page is where you can cut, paste, delete and edit all of yourrecordings. On the arrange page, when recording you will see a region start toform and that region is your recording. The arrange page is where you will beable to see what you have recorded and then you can re-arrange thoserecordings into the pattern that you need. MIDI EventsA MIDI event is shown on Logic as a small black line on a region or as a longmulticoloured line on the piano roll. A MIDI event is the note that has been playedon a MIDI keyboard or that has been drawn in using the pencil tool. When youclick on a MIDI region it will bring up the piano roll with your MIDI events on it.Here you can use the tools to copy, paste, delete or change the velocity of a MIDIevent.
  • 7. Selecting different instrumentsOn logics there are many different sounds that you can select for your MIDIkeyboard and they are all found on the selected tracks media library. To select aninstrument for your track you firstly select the track. You then click on media –library. On the screen you we then see different folder where you can select whatinstrument you would like for your MIDI keyboard. Toolbox and ToolsOn Logic there are many tools that you can use to edit your recordings. One ofthe ways that you can get to these tools in the toolbox drop down lists is to pressthe ESC button on the top left hand corner of your keyboard. This will then bringdown the tools from your mouse pointer. Another way is by going to the top righthand corner by the Media button and click the first pointer button. This will bringdown the same tools list. If you are using two different tools a lot in your editingyou can click the second mouse pointer and choose the second tool that you usea lot. When you hold the command button down the mouse pointer will thenchange from the first tool to the second tool you chose.
  • 8. Transport barThe transport bar is located at the bottom of your Logic screen. The transport barhas the following main function buttons and displays: • Volume adjustment slider. • Metronome. • CPU display. • Input and Output display. • Time signature. • Tempo display. • Display on where the play head is. • Play and pause buttons. How to record instrumentsOn Logic there are a couple of ways to create a new track. The first way is to clickthe + button near the top left of the screen. This will then bring up the new trackswindow and you can then select which track you would like. The second way is toclick the track button near the top left of the screen and then select ‘New….’. Thiswill then bring down the same new tracks window.There are three different options you can select when creating a new track andthese are Audio, Software Instrument and External MIDI track.
  • 9. When you want to record an instrument on a track, you have to press the Rbutton. When you press the record button it will turn red and then you will be ableto hear your MIDI keyboard sound or your other instrument.If you want to record another part of a song but you want to keep the samesounds that you have had on a previous track you can click the duplicate trackbutton. First you will need to select the track that you want to duplicate and thenyou can either click the track button near the top left of the screen and then selectthe New with duplicate setting button or you can select the duplicate button nearthe top left of the screen next to the new track button.
  • 10. Audio Frequency and Our SpectrumAudio frequency is the range of signals that are audible to the human ear and thebrain. The average human range is in the region of 20 hertz and 20,000 hertz.One hertz is one complete waveform:The audio frequency is measured on a spectrum and the spectrum goes from alow A to a high C for musical instruments. An oscillator can produce much higheror lower frequencies but they can be very damaging to human ears.Generally frequencies below 20 Hz are felt rather than heard if the amplitude ofthe vibration is high enough. Also generally if you are a very young personfrequencies above 20,000 Hz may be heard but those high frequencies areknown to cause hearing loss.
  • 11. Compression and RarefactionWhen compression and rarefaction occurs , the air particles are pushed together(compression) and then the air particles are given space to expand (rarefaction).This compression and expansion of air particles causes a wave effect and thiswave effect is what lets the sound travel from the source to the receptor.The compression and rarefaction process is shown by sound waves such as theone above. The compression is shown by a peak in the wave and the rarefactionis shown by a drop in the wave. With higher frequencies the compression andrarefaction process will happen a lot faster however with the lower frequenciesthe process will happen a lot slower.
  • 12. The Speed of SoundThe speed of sound is the name given for the distance that is travelled by asound wave though something during a specific period of time. There are twomain types of sound waves and these are compression-type (lognitudinal waves)and tranverse waves. The longitudinal wave is the only type of wave that cantravel through liquids and gases.The wave works similarly to the compression and rarefaction of sound waves.The air particles are compressed together and then space out causing a waveeffect that mimics the compression and rarefaction process. The tranverse waveis diferent and it only travels through solids. The wave is a moving wave thatmoves in the direction of the energy transfer.From the diagram above you will see that the speed of sound increases when thefrequency increases. This is because the compression and rarefaction processincreases in both, the speed of sound and the frequency, at nearly the same rateand therefore they both increase.
  • 13. EnvelopesEnvelope is a name given to the attack, decay, sustain and release (ADSR) of asound. An example of this is when a snare drum on a drum kit is hit, there is anoticable ADSR pattern in the waveform of that drum. The attack part of thewaveform is the transition between the sound before the waveform and thebeginning of the waveform itself. The decay part of the waveform is whathappens after the initial hit/attack because the sound then decays to a sustainedlevel which is a steady sound before it releases and dies out (the release time).
  • 14. Complex WaveformsA complex waveform are made up of two or more different sound waves. You canfind these complex waveforms when recording multiple voices, two or moreinstruments or drum kits.Above you can see the Gary Numan are friend’s electric track in Logic on thesample editor. You can see that it is shown as a stereo complex waveform. Thisis because there are multiple voices and instruments that have been recorded inthat track and therefore all of the waveforms have been put together which hascreated a complex waveform. On Logic the complex waveforms are shown asthis.
  • 15. HarmonicsA Harmonic is a wave that vibrates in sucha away that it looks like a waveform. Avibrating string is a useful example of harmonics. The first harmonic vibrates thestring from the beginning and the end of the string as shown in the diagram. Toget the next harmonic, it is doubled to produce four points of vibration and twowaveforms. The higher you go in the harmonics scale, the harmonics keepdoubling and producing twice the amount of waveforms and points of vibrationthat they did in the previous waveform.As seen in the second diagram, if the first harmonic is 200 hertz, the secondharmonic would be 400 hertz as it doubles everytime. These harmonics can thenbe formed to make a composite waveform as shown in the second diagram. Acomposite waveform is simply a waveform that has been put together by otherwaveforms.
  • 16. Sound waves explainedA sound wave is a type of wave caused by the vibration of something through air,solids or liquids. When an object, such as a drum is hit, the suface of it vibratesand it sends a series of waves through the air, liquid or solid to a receptor such asa human and the brain interpretes the waves as a sound. The human will be ableto hear between 20 hertz and 20,000 hertz which means that sounds below orabove that range cannot be heard by may be felt just as vibrations.As explaied in the ‘speed of sound’ section, there are two main types of soundwaves and they are longitudinal and transverse. The longitudinal waves usecompression and rarefaction to form the soundwave. In the diagram above itshows the compression and rarefaction process which is what happens in alongitudinal wave. The transverse wave on the other hand moves in a wave-likepattern away from the point of origin. It mimics the actions of dropping a rock intothe water and the outward ripple effect that happens in result of that.There are a few ways to describe a sound wave and one of those is thefrequency of a sound wave. This is the number of complete cycles within a settime and this is shown as hertz (Hz) . The higher the number of cycles the higherpitch the sound will be.Another way to describe a sound wave is by the wavelength. The wavelength of asoundwave is the distance it takes for a complete cycle to be completed. Acomplete cycle is from one point of a sound wave to the exact same point but onthe next wave. The shorter the wavelength this higher pitched the sound will bebecause it travels faster and therefore the longer the wavelength the lowerpitched it will be because the sound travels slower.
  • 17. Different ways to input MIDI data On Logic there are two different ways to input MIDI data. One of these is to use the pencil tool in the tool box drop down list. There are several ways to get the tool list and they are explained in the Toolbox and tools section. Once you get the pencil tool selected you can then go on the piano roll for that MIDI region and then simply draw in the MIDI event that you would like.The other way of inputting MIDI data is to play it on the MIDI keyboard. Once youhave selected a track and you have recorded MIDI events, you will then be ableto edit the events in the piano roll or edit the region in arrange page.
  • 18. How to copy, paste and erase eventsTo copy a event you will first need toselect the event that you want to copy onpiano roll. Then you should right click themouse and select ‘Copy’.After you have copied the event, you will then needto right click and select ‘Paste at original position’.This will then paste that event over the top of the originalevent. Now u need to drag the copied event to the placewhere you want it to be placed.Another way of copying and pasting an event is by dragingthe event that you want to copy to the place that you want itand hold ‘alt’ down on the keyboard before you let go of themouse.To erase an event you need to first select theevent that you want to erase on the piano roll.Then you press the backspace button on thekeyboard.This will then delete/erase the event. If you haveaccidently erased an event, you need to press thecommand button ‘cmd’ and the ‘Z’ button on yourkeyboard and it will undo the erasing of the event.
  • 19. Zooming in and out On Logic you can zoom in and out on your regions on the arrange page by using the sliders at the bottom right of the arrange page.The bottom slider will make the regions on thearrange page more elongated if you slide it to theright. This can help with editing as it helps you seeindividual events or parts of the wave form if it is anaudio track.However if you slide the slider to the left it will makethe regions on the arrange page become morecompressed. This can help with seeing how manyregions you have recorded by fitting it all into onescreen shot. The second slider on the right-hand side above the bottom one will make the regions and the channels become larger if you slide it down. This can also help with editing as it helps you see the indivdual MIDI events or the waveforms. However if you slide the slider upwards then it will make the regions become thinner/smaller. This can help if you need to see how many tracks/channels you have on your arrange page and therefore by making them smaller or thinner you will be able fit them all on the screen at once.
  • 20. Using loop when recording When you want to record a particular part of a song then a helpful tool is to loop it so you can record that part without having the rest of the song after or before.To loop a particular part of a song then all you need todo is click on the ruler at the top and drag from the leftlocator (left green arrowhead) from the beginging of thepart you want to loop, to the end of where you want toloop. You will then have two green locators and a greenrectangular box. This means that it is now looped and toturn the loop off, all you need to do is click on the greenbox and it will then turn transparent. How to set tempoThe tempo of your song can be found on thetransport bar. To change the tempo on thetransport bar you need to click on the ‘93’ andthen either drag it up to make the tempo fasteror drag it down to slow the tempo down. Another way to change the tempo is on the tempo listing that is found under ‘Lists’ next to ‘Media’. Here you can see the tempo of the whole song or you can change the tempo for different parts of the song and they will all be listed here. To set a different tempo for a particular part of a song you need to click ‘create’. This will then set a new tempo from where your playhead is.
  • 21. How to add effects To add effects to a channel/track you will need to look at the inspector bar on the left-hand side of your screen. Here you have the channel strip for your selected channel and the channel strip for the output master. If you wanted to add an effect to a channel you will need to click on one of the insterts on the left-channel. Here you will then be able to select which effect you would like on that channel.In the example, tape delay was added toa MIDI channel. After the effect has beenchosen you will then get up a window forthat effect. Here you can customize theeffect.
  • 22. How to mixThere are a couple of ways to mix on Logic. One of these ways is with the on-screen mixer. This is located at the bottom of the page on the editor buttons.Here you are able to get the right mix for your track using the individual channelmixers and the overall master and output mixer. You are also able to mix on the inspector channel mixer. Here you can change the level of the channel and the output. You can also add effects, pan and EQ both the selected channel mixer and then output mixer. When playing your track, if you have a red box at the top of one of the channels then that means that it is too loud on that channel and this can cause distortion on the overall mix. If this is the case then you should drag the volume slider down til the red box goes at the top of the channel.
  • 23. How to find the sounds There are a few ways to find the sounds on Logic. If you are wanting to find a sound for your MIDI keyboard then click on Media and then on Library. Here you will find a number of sounds for your MIDI keyboard.Once you have chosen your sound for your MIDI keyboardyou can affect that sound on the inspector mixer. Here youcan add extra effects to that channel and to the outputmixer. You can also EQ both the channel mixer and theoutput mixer. If you wanted to use loops in your track then you can go to Mixer and then select the Loops tab. Here there are a number of loops that involve different instruments such as drums, vocals, cinematic effects and guitars in different genres like jazz, acoustic and rock. All you need to do is select the loop you want and double click it and it will appear in the arrange page.
  • 24. Muting and SoloingMuting a channel is very useful when recording and editing as it will allow you tohear the mix without that certain channel in it. To mute a channel you can click onthe ‘M’ button on the channel name. Once you click it, it will appear blue and thismeans that the channel is now muted.Another way to mute a region is to click on the region that you want to mute orhighlight the regions you want to mute and then press the ‘M’ key on yourkeyboard. This will then turn those selected regions grey and this means thatthey are now muted. To un-mute them you just press the ‘M’ key again and theywill turn back to the original colour again.Soloing a channel is also another useful tool when recording and editing as it willallow you to hear just that channel (or others if you ave them on solo aswell). Tosolo a channel you need to click on the ‘S’ button next to the mute button on thechannel name. Once you click it, it will appear yellow and this means that thechannel is now on solo.
  • 25. Quantizing and AutomationQuantizing MIDI events is a important tool that will keep all your MIDI eventssounding in-time with each other. Before you quantize you will see that your MIDIevents are not exactly on the line of the ruler. When you quantize you will firstlyneed to highlight all of the MIDI events in that piano roll. After you have highlighted all of the events, you will then need to click on the button that will say ‘off 3840’ and this will bring down the drop down list that gives you different options to quantize the events to. Usually you would select 1/16 so that every event is quantized to the closest point on the ruler.You will then need to click the ‘Q’ button next to the button list that will now say‘1/16 – Note’. This will now quantize all the selected events to 1/16.
  • 26. Techniques on finding the right noteAfter recording a sequence of MIDI events and you find that one of those eventsdoesn’t sound right in the sequence and you want to find which note will soundright for it then there are a number of ways that you can do it.One way of finding the right note is by clicking on the note that doesn’t soundright. Then if you loop that section of the track you will then be able to keep tryingto find the right note.One method is by playing it on the MIDI keyboard that you have just played theregion on or you can drag that event up and down while the section is still on loopuntil you find the right note that that event should be on.
  • 27. Using panning Panning is used on analog and digital mixers whether it be on a console or on a on-screen mixer. When you pan a channel or sound you are choosing which speaker or speakers it will be coming out of. To pan on logic, you use the circular dial on the selected channel if you want to pan that or on the Output channel if you want to pan that.If you want the channel sound to go out of the left speaker thenyou will drag the dial round to the left until you find thepercentage of the sound that you want to be sent to thatspeaker.If you want the channel sound to go to the right speaker thenyou will need to drag the dial round to the right until you find thepercentage of the sound that you want to be send to thatspeaker.
  • 28. Using buses Using buses is a useful tool in analogy mixing and digital mixing whether it be on a console mixer or a on-screen mixer. Busing is where the selected channel is sent to a special AUX channel that is created when a new bus is created before going to the output/master channel. The bus creates a reverb sound on the channel that has been sent there. You can also add different effects on that bus if you wish to do so. To send a channel on a bus you will first need to go onto the inspector mixer and click on one of the insert buttons above the I/O button. Now you can click on ‘Bus’ and select which bus you would like to send that channel on. There will be a dial next to the ‘Bus 1’ button and now you can drag the dial round until you get to the amount of that channel that you want to send to ‘Bus 1’. If you now select the channel mixer that will now say ‘Aux 1’ and you click on the ‘insert’ button you can select which effect you would like to put on that bus. As putting a channel on a bus will add reverb, I selected reverb as a effect.You will now be able to control how muchreverb there will be on that bus channelwith the on-screen reverb mixer.
  • 29. BouncingBouncing is when you turn your finished track into a stereocompressed file.To bounce a track on Logic you first need to go to ‘File’ at the top ofyour screen and select ‘Bounce…’ When you have the bouncing screen open you should first rename your file. After you have renamed your file, you can then choose where you want your file to be bounced. When you have chose where you want to save the bounced file, you then need to select which format you would like the file to be bounced in.
  • 30. When you are bouncing a track you need to select a start and end time. This will let Logic know when you want the bouncing to start on the track and when you want the track to stop being bounced. You can find the timings by loopking at the transport bar with the top numbers being where the playhead is in the track.After you have selected the start and endtimings then you can click the ‘Bounce’ button atthe bottom of that window.This screen will then showwhich will show you how farthe bouncing process is.
  • 31. The Ear and it’s functionsThe ear has many functions and along with the brain, it is the main part of thebody that helps us hear sounds. The ear has three parts and they are the Pinna,the Auditory canal and the Tympanum. The pinna is the cartilage and it’s functionis to direct the sound waves into the auditory canal. The Auditory canal is anarrow canal that is lined with small hairs and wax and it collect and concentratesthe sound waves that have been sent in there by the pinna. The Tympanum (orthe eardrum) is the part of the ear that separates the outer ear from the middle ofthe ear. The sound waves hit the eardrum and that produces short sharpvibrations and then they are transferred to the inner ear.The middle of the ear consists of the tympanic cavity, ossicles and the eustachiantube. The tympanic cavity is the air-filled space in the eardrum and it is separatedfrom the inner ear by two membranes that are called the round window and theoval window. The ossicles are the small bones in the typmanic cavity and theyare joined to each other but can move. The eustachian tube is the small canalthat connects the cavity to the throat and it maintains the air pressure in thecavity.The inner ear consits of the vestibule, cochlea and the semicircular canals. Thereare three semicircular canals that are all next to each other and each bit of canalbegins with a enlarged part which is called the ampulla and this is very sensitve.The vestibule is a canal nerve that lead to another cavity further in the ear. Thecochlea is a spiral cavity in the ear that produces nerve vibrations when itrecieves the sound vibrations from the eardrum.
  • 32. Dangers and the preventions of loud noisesLoud noises can be very dangerous for your ears and if you are in a very loudenviroment such as a music band member, then you can lose your hearing whichis a permanent disability. For a sound to be classed as a loud or dangeroussound, it has to be over 85 decibels SPL (sound pressure level). If you areprolonged to this sort of level of noise then you can end up with Noise-InducedHearing Loss or NIHL. There are a number of ways to prevent loud noises andsome of them are:To turn your music down if you are listening to a musicdevice at a high level. If you are someone at a event where there will be loud noises then you should wear ear protection such as foam ear plugs. These will muffle the loud noise to a level where it isn’t dangerous for your ears.If you are a drummer in a band it would be a good ideato wear ear protection such as over-ear drummerheadphones. These will protect your ears by muffling theloud noises and allow you to still hear the instrumentsbut not at a harmful level.
  • 33. Hearing stereo with two earsThere are two types of sound and they are mono and stereo sound. Mono is justone sound wave and it is sent to the speakers as just one signal. However stereosound is two separate signals sent to the left and right speaker and it is madefrom two sound waves. In the studio you would usually pan some channels to theleft speaker, some to the right speaker and some to the centre so they play out ofboth speakers. The proper way for your studio to be set up is the triangle. This isso that the speakers are at 60 degrees to your head. This is so that you get equalamounts of the stereo sound that is getting sent from both speakers. PsychoacousticsPsychoacoustics is name given to the study of the way sound is percieved and itis the study of the way humans respond to sound like vocals and music. Withpsychoacoustics you are able to do auditory masking. This is where sound canbe masked by other sounds. An exampe of this is if you are walking down a streetand you are in a conversation with someone and then there is a lound policesiren noise near you, then that conversation will be nearly impossible to hear asyour brain and ears will take the masked sound (the siren) as the primary soundand the weaker sound (the conversation) will become masked and inaudible.In music, you can apply psycoacoustics in many situations. An example is if youare a musician and you want to mask an unwanted frequency such as a highfrequency in a female voice then you can mask that frequency. This will thenenhance the other frequencies.
  • 34. Evaluation of the rework processThe rework of Gary Numan’s 80’s hit song Are friend’s electric was a challengingtask to complete. This was because there were instruments used in the originaltrack that were very hard to get right on the Logic MIDI keyboard sounds. Anotherreason why the rework was challenging was because we had to work all of thepiano parts and synthesiser parts just using the MIDI keyboard and our ears. Thiswas quite difficult as some of the synthesiser parts were not very loud andtherefore it was quite hard to work them out.If I was to do this project again then one of the things I would do different wouldbe to have the piano and synthesiser parts worked out before I started theproject. If I had worked the parts out before I started the project, it would havesaved me time during the project. Bibliography • Wikipedia • Google images • Dangerous decibels • Wiki answers

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