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Everyone’s expertise in terminology work: top or bottom?

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Everyone’s expertise in terminology work: top or bottom?
Henrik Nilsson - Terminologicentrum TNC
VII EAFT Terminology Summit. Barcelona, 27-28 november 2014

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Everyone’s expertise in terminology work: top or bottom?

  1. 1. Västra vägen 7 B 169 61 Solna Telefon: 08-446 66 00 Telefax: 08-446 66 29 Webbplats: www.tnc.se E-post: tnc@tnc.se © Terminologicentrum TNC Everyone’s expertise in terminology work: top or bottom? Henrik Nilsson Terminologicentrum TNC VII EAFT Summit 28 November 2014
  2. 2. Västra vägen 7 B 169 61 Solna Telefon: 08-446 66 00 Telefax: 08-446 66 29 Webbplats: www.tnc.se E-post: tnc@tnc.se © Terminologicentrum TNC · Terminology work = by and for whom? · Top(-down) or bottom(-up)? · pros and cons · terminology comprehension surveys · the role of usage · trust!? Outline
  3. 3. Västra vägen 7 B 169 61 Solna Telefon: 08-446 66 00 Telefax: 08-446 66 29 Webbplats: www.tnc.se E-post: tnc@tnc.se © Terminologicentrum TNC • REHVA HVAC Dictionary in printed form (1982) • 9 languages (incl. Swedish), ca 4 000 terms • more REHVA member organizations → working group for digitalization of the dictionary • basic list (12 000 English terms) → other languages • various methodologies in various countries • working groups, students, ”translation sprints” for volunteers • Sweden: EMTF, add 8 000 Swedish equivalents • senior council on volunteer basis etc. → • no budget! → • translation ”contest” among members • 2 years to add Swedish terms • final correction by project manager Example: HVAC/REHVA [Signhild Gelin, EMTF]
  4. 4. Västra vägen 7 B 169 61 Solna Telefon: 08-446 66 00 Telefax: 08-446 66 29 Webbplats: www.tnc.se E-post: tnc@tnc.se © Terminologicentrum TNC
  5. 5. Västra vägen 7 B 169 61 Solna Telefon: 08-446 66 00 Telefax: 08-446 66 29 Webbplats: www.tnc.se E-post: tnc@tnc.se © Terminologicentrum TNC Number of terms to translate Terms being translated Translated terms Number of registered translators
  6. 6. Västra vägen 7 B 169 61 Solna Telefon: 08-446 66 00 Telefax: 08-446 66 29 Webbplats: www.tnc.se E-post: tnc@tnc.se © Terminologicentrum TNC
  7. 7. Västra vägen 7 B 169 61 Solna Telefon: 08-446 66 00 Telefax: 08-446 66 29 Webbplats: www.tnc.se E-post: tnc@tnc.se © Terminologicentrum TNC My page My 10 latest translations
  8. 8. Västra vägen 7 B 169 61 Solna Telefon: 08-446 66 00 Telefax: 08-446 66 29 Webbplats: www.tnc.se E-post: tnc@tnc.se © Terminologicentrum TNC demand ventilation (the ~) behovsventilation ( ~er) demand controlled ventilation (the ~) begära kontrollerad ventilation (~er) energy recovery ventilation system (the ~) Värmeåtervinnande ventilationssystem ( ~er) exhaust ventilation installation package (the ~) Avlufts installation ( ~er) Results
  9. 9. Västra vägen 7 B 169 61 Solna Telefon: 08-446 66 00 Telefax: 08-446 66 29 Webbplats: www.tnc.se E-post: tnc@tnc.se © Terminologicentrum TNC • prescriptive terminology work • terminology projects initiated by domain experts (through organizations) → glossaries etc. • early ”computerization” • consensus aim through ”rundfrågor” (organized formal reference rounds) etc. • answered by: engineers, domain institutions etc. TNC – traditional (old-fashioned?) • joint groups for terminology – usage taken into (some) consideration • national termbank (Rikstermbanken) • not much user adaptation • little (relevant) feedback
  10. 10. Västra vägen 7 B 169 61 Solna Telefon: 08-446 66 00 Telefax: 08-446 66 29 Webbplats: www.tnc.se E-post: tnc@tnc.se © Terminologicentrum TNC social media meeting place on the Internet where the contents are created by the users and the purpose of which is to create, maintain and develop contacts and relations through exchange of information [E-delegationen, 2011]+ Note: On the one hand, the form ”sociala medier” can be used when you want to speak about two or more (countable) social media, i.e. meeting places such as blogs […], microblogs (Twitter), chats […], discussion fora, social networks (Facebook, LinkedIn), user generated file sharing fora (Youtube, Flickr), web sites with jointly produced content (Wikipedia). Example: "TNC runs two social media: a blog on TNC’s web site and a page on Facebook.” On the other hand, the form ”sociala medier” can be used in a wider, collective meaning. In that case, it represents a communication environment based on interactivity and user orientation. In this more unprecise use of the expression ”sociala medier” activites auch as • maintaining contacts in Facebook by sharing personal information to ther users • creating and reading posts in e.g. blogs or chats • development of open source software • e-trade between consumers (e.g. auction sites such as Ebay and Tradera) • interactive and user-oriented evalutation and comparison of quality and price for services and products (e.g. web sites such as Pricerunner and Prisjakt) • online games with several pariticpants. Example: "TNC uses the social media to ask for opinitions in terminological matters." [Joint group for Swedish computer terminology, 2012]
  11. 11. Västra vägen 7 B 169 61 Solna Telefon: 08-446 66 00 Telefax: 08-446 66 29 Webbplats: www.tnc.se E-post: tnc@tnc.se © Terminologicentrum TNC • prescriptive terminology work • terminology projects initiated by domain experts (through organizations) → glossaries etc. • early ”computerization” • consensus aim through ”rundfrågor” (organized formal reference rounds) etc. • answered by: engineers, domain institutions etc. TNC – traditional (old-fashioned?) • joint groups for terminology – usage taken into (some) consideration • national termbank (Rikstermbanken) • not much user adaptation • little (relevant) feedback • today: (social media)?
  12. 12. Västra vägen 7 B 169 61 Solna Telefon: 08-446 66 00 Telefax: 08-446 66 29 Webbplats: www.tnc.se E-post: tnc@tnc.se © Terminologicentrum TNC Terminology work – by whom? • SME (subject matter expert) • terminologist-generalists • SME-terminologists (terminologist with domain competence • translators • interpreters • concept modellers • knowledge managers • … → [Karsch, 2014] • training terminologists (more) in subject matters • training of subject matter experts in terminology • both (in parallel)?
  13. 13. Västra vägen 7 B 169 61 Solna Telefon: 08-446 66 00 Telefax: 08-446 66 29 Webbplats: www.tnc.se E-post: tnc@tnc.se © Terminologicentrum TNC • promote the introduction of methods of cooperation that take into account the lessons of what has already been achieved and of existing initiatives and projects • foster initiatives to raise the awareness of industry and public authorities as regards participation in terminology work Brussels declaration
  14. 14. Västra vägen 7 B 169 61 Solna Telefon: 08-446 66 00 Telefax: 08-446 66 29 Webbplats: www.tnc.se E-post: tnc@tnc.se © Terminologicentrum TNC • all terminology-related measures must be economically motivated • before any work is started, needs should be demonstrated and prioritized • choice of terms and definitions should, as far as possible, be managed by those technical instances who have the need and the knowledge • existing terminology, internal and external, shall naturally be used, but methods to make it known and accessible need to be improved Terminology work in organizations [LME, 1980]
  15. 15. Västra vägen 7 B 169 61 Solna Telefon: 08-446 66 00 Telefax: 08-446 66 29 Webbplats: www.tnc.se E-post: tnc@tnc.se © Terminologicentrum TNC Types of sources The main types of documentation to be considered include: a) authoritative documents (laws, regulations, standards) b) documents generally recognized by the scientific community (textbooks, scientific dissertations, scientific periodicals) c) current but not necessarily generally recognized material (pamphlets, directions for use, parts lists, resports, etc.) d) human sources (the members of the working group and other experts) [ISO 10241]
  16. 16. Västra vägen 7 B 169 61 Solna Telefon: 08-446 66 00 Telefax: 08-446 66 29 Webbplats: www.tnc.se E-post: tnc@tnc.se © Terminologicentrum TNC Top … experts (crowd)
  17. 17. Västra vägen 7 B 169 61 Solna Telefon: 08-446 66 00 Telefax: 08-446 66 29 Webbplats: www.tnc.se E-post: tnc@tnc.se © Terminologicentrum TNC Aspects to consider descriptive – prescriptive systematic – ad hoc surface – depth LGP – LSP scattered – focused
  18. 18. Västra vägen 7 B 169 61 Solna Telefon: 08-446 66 00 Telefax: 08-446 66 29 Webbplats: www.tnc.se E-post: tnc@tnc.se © Terminologicentrum TNC Top … experts crowd + needed to identify problem + expert competence includes knowledge of subject field terminology + guarantee of terminology usage (with broad participation) + terminology = well-adapted to target group (= experts, not always crowd) + for specialized areas which normally don’t affect the general public + better overview of domain → easier to create concept systems etc.
  19. 19. Västra vägen 7 B 169 61 Solna Telefon: 08-446 66 00 Telefax: 08-446 66 29 Webbplats: www.tnc.se E-post: tnc@tnc.se © Terminologicentrum TNC withinaparticulardomain across domains Horizontal terminology work
  20. 20. Västra vägen 7 B 169 61 Solna Telefon: 08-446 66 00 Telefax: 08-446 66 29 Webbplats: www.tnc.se E-post: tnc@tnc.se © Terminologicentrum TNC Top … experts crowd + needed to identify problem + expert competence includes knowledge of subject field terminology + guarantee of terminology usage (with broad participation) + terminology = well-adapted to target group (= experts, not always crowd) + for specialized areas which normally don’t affect the general public + better overview of domain → easier to create concept systems etc. − no guarantee that experts understand terminological method (”wrong” experts) − not enough concept orientation
  21. 21. Västra vägen 7 B 169 61 Solna Telefon: 08-446 66 00 Telefax: 08-446 66 29 Webbplats: www.tnc.se E-post: tnc@tnc.se © Terminologicentrum TNC Expert participation … Language committee of the Swedish society of medicine • experts from every speciality of medicine • meetings and e-mail discussions • one (SME-)terminologist • one general language planner
  22. 22. Västra vägen 7 B 169 61 Solna Telefon: 08-446 66 00 Telefax: 08-446 66 29 Webbplats: www.tnc.se E-post: tnc@tnc.se © Terminologicentrum TNC Question: We keep discussing which of the terms ”nackstelhet” (ruchal rigidity) and ”nackstyvhet” (neck rigidity) best describe a symptom of meningitis. Are they synonyms or is there a difference as to degree? Answer: a lot of discussion … • Terminologist: there seems to be a difference although usage varies • Neurologist: there is a difference … • Other experts: they are used as synonyms, such general words should not be narrowed in scope, and not used with patients, etc. ”This discussion is taking too long. […] I don’t think this is primarily a terminological question and I don’t think it should be sent on to other experts in the group since […]
  23. 23. Västra vägen 7 B 169 61 Solna Telefon: 08-446 66 00 Telefax: 08-446 66 29 Webbplats: www.tnc.se E-post: tnc@tnc.se © Terminologicentrum TNC Expert participation = no guarantee • no guarantee that the work is concept-oriented just because experts participate → • terminology training needed • terminologist – not only language specialist …
  24. 24. Västra vägen 7 B 169 61 Solna Telefon: 08-446 66 00 Telefax: 08-446 66 29 Webbplats: www.tnc.se E-post: tnc@tnc.se © Terminologicentrum TNC − no guarantee that experts understand terminological method (”wrong” experts) − not enough concept orientation − risk of non-consensus (in normative work) − risk of own interest, variation for career purposes − not enough coverage (not all experts participate) − limited resources and efforts, vulnerability − too much experts? − reputation on the line … Top … + needed o identify proiblem + expert competence includes knowledge of subject field terminology + guarantee of terminology usage (with broad participation) + terminology = well-adapted to target group (= experts, not always crowd) + for specialized areas which normally don’t affect the general public + better overview of domain → easier to create concept systems etc. experts crowd
  25. 25. Västra vägen 7 B 169 61 Solna Telefon: 08-446 66 00 Telefax: 08-446 66 29 Webbplats: www.tnc.se E-post: tnc@tnc.se © Terminologicentrum TNC Critics “Crowdsourcing killed indie rock … ‘cause crowds have terrible taste.” [Weingarten in Keats, 2011] “government needs smart-sourcing, not crowdsourcing.” [Peterson in Keats, 2011] “Collectively based lexicography is often regarded with scepticism by professional lexicographers since anyone can contribute anything and there’s no possibility to keep the quality level of the contributions under control. This way of working has even been described as a potential danger to all serious lexicography since these dictionaries risk disturbing the trust in the two qualities that users generally associate with professionally produced dictionaries: quality and reliability.” [Doherty in Svensén, 2004]
  26. 26. Västra vägen 7 B 169 61 Solna Telefon: 08-446 66 00 Telefax: 08-446 66 29 Webbplats: www.tnc.se E-post: tnc@tnc.se © Terminologicentrum TNC … or bottom? − too many, irrelevant comments − limited understanding of terminological method and concept analysis − loss of intension depth (determinologization) − not enough concept orientation (unsuitable starting point) − no overview of domain − ”fake” representativity − threatens language professions (everyone’s = expert)?? experts crowd
  27. 27. Västra vägen 7 B 169 61 Solna Telefon: 08-446 66 00 Telefax: 08-446 66 29 Webbplats: www.tnc.se E-post: tnc@tnc.se © Terminologicentrum TNC [letter to TNC, January 2013] Example: power of usage ”In an article about the new design of driving licences, the expression ”datamatrix” is used. It is new to me and I though it was another word for QR code. But when I asked the responsible authority they said that it’s not the case, although they look similar. Datamatrix is the word used and also the one used in th IT business. Should I write datamatrix or is there a better Swedish word? A Swedish spelling?
  28. 28. Västra vägen 7 B 169 61 Solna Telefon: 08-446 66 00 Telefax: 08-446 66 29 Webbplats: www.tnc.se E-post: tnc@tnc.se © Terminologicentrum TNC bar code → pattern code (graphic code) barcode (’one dimensional pattern code’) square code, (dot code) (’two dimensional pattern code’) code datamatrix code EAN-code QR-code [number of dimensions] [representational form] alfanumeric code
  29. 29. Västra vägen 7 B 169 61 Solna Telefon: 08-446 66 00 Telefax: 08-446 66 29 Webbplats: www.tnc.se E-post: tnc@tnc.se © Terminologicentrum TNC … or bottom? + joint effort, more resources, quicker, cheaper + suitable for descriptive work (and possibly for term creation, QA) experts crowd − too many, irrelevant comments − limited understanding of terminological method and concept analysis − loss of intension depth (determinologization) − not enough concept orientation (unsuitable starting point) − no overview of domain − ”fake” representativity
  30. 30. Västra vägen 7 B 169 61 Solna Telefon: 08-446 66 00 Telefax: 08-446 66 29 Webbplats: www.tnc.se E-post: tnc@tnc.se © Terminologicentrum TNC “The advantage of crowdsourcing approaches against the expert-based approaches is [a] much greater scale of discovered semantics. First, the quantity of potential lay (non-expert) contributors is larger (even when they are used redundantly). On the other hand, experts are sometimes unavailable. Second, lay contributors are much cheaper or even free” [Šimko & Beliková, 2014]
  31. 31. Västra vägen 7 B 169 61 Solna Telefon: 08-446 66 00 Telefax: 08-446 66 29 Webbplats: www.tnc.se E-post: tnc@tnc.se © Terminologicentrum TNC 9 stages 1. Objectives and planning 2. Term collection 3. Concept-based structuring 4. Linguistic assessment and revision 5. Creation of new terms 6. Terminology administration 7. Terminology provision and distribution 8. Terminology maintenance 9. Control of terminology usage terminology management [Drewer in Großjean, 2009] systematic research, documentation, storage and distribution of concepts along with the terms that denote those concepts [TerminOrgs, 2012]
  32. 32. Västra vägen 7 B 169 61 Solna Telefon: 08-446 66 00 Telefax: 08-446 66 29 Webbplats: www.tnc.se E-post: tnc@tnc.se © Terminologicentrum TNC • prescriptive terminology work • terminology projects initiated by domain experts (through organizations) → glossaries etc. • early ”computerization” • consensus aim through ”rundfrågor” (organized formal reference rounds) etc. • answered by: engineers, domain institutions etc. TNC – traditional (old-fashioned?) • joint groups for terminology – usage taken into (some) consideration • national termbank (Rikstermbanken) • not much user adaptation • little (relevant) feedback • today: (social media) • Swedish term for ”crowdsourcing”: tänktalko, gräsrotsinitiativ?
  33. 33. Västra vägen 7 B 169 61 Solna Telefon: 08-446 66 00 Telefax: 08-446 66 29 Webbplats: www.tnc.se E-post: tnc@tnc.se © Terminologicentrum TNC ”Crowdsourcing” in Swedish? ”The Swedish Language Council discussed it last year and received many suggestions. Unfortunately it went the way it often goes: some suggestions were so witty that you had to read the footnote to get the point. Someone suggested ”tänktalko”, which is understandable if you know Finnish and know that talko mans ”joint volunteer work”. Other suggestions were ”samtänk”, ”folkentreprenad”, ”samentreprenad”, ”svärmarbete”, ”tankeverkstad”, ”grupparbete”, ”allemansdelegering”, ”tillsamrande”. Some of those suggesting have not done their homework. Crowdsourcing is not group work. Those who contribute work separately. Often they don’t even know that the others exist. But it is good that the suggestions are not direct translations.” [Lotsson, Computer Sweden, 2012]
  34. 34. Västra vägen 7 B 169 61 Solna Telefon: 08-446 66 00 Telefax: 08-446 66 29 Webbplats: www.tnc.se E-post: tnc@tnc.se © Terminologicentrum TNC ”Crowdsourcing” in Swedish? (cont.)
  35. 35. Västra vägen 7 B 169 61 Solna Telefon: 08-446 66 00 Telefax: 08-446 66 29 Webbplats: www.tnc.se E-post: tnc@tnc.se © Terminologicentrum TNC Factors affecting choice • How established is the expression in common usage? • How accepted is the expression among the language users? • How accepteed is the expression among ”standardising” authorities? • How well does the expression fit the language system? • How well does the expression fit into the tradition of written language? • How well does the expression work in various communicative contexts?
  36. 36. Västra vägen 7 B 169 61 Solna Telefon: 08-446 66 00 Telefax: 08-446 66 29 Webbplats: www.tnc.se E-post: tnc@tnc.se © Terminologicentrum TNC Relationship usage–norms • Norms always need to be based on actucal usage. • ”Usage” means the ”qualified” and ”professional” usage. • The more established a usage is, the stronger reasons are needed to go against in.
  37. 37. Västra vägen 7 B 169 61 Solna Telefon: 08-446 66 00 Telefax: 08-446 66 29 Webbplats: www.tnc.se E-post: tnc@tnc.se © Terminologicentrum TNC … or bottom? + joint effort, more resources, quicker, cheaper + suitable for descriptive work (and possibly for term creation, QA) + better chance of implementation of created terms experts crowd
  38. 38. Västra vägen 7 B 169 61 Solna Telefon: 08-446 66 00 Telefax: 08-446 66 29 Webbplats: www.tnc.se E-post: tnc@tnc.se © Terminologicentrum TNC ”very specific” terms terms shared between neighbouring domains ”general” terms peptid prokaryot DNA provrör kvorumreglering dragskåp pipett roll metod ansvar general language words skåp flaskabunsenbrännare handske låda dropphybridisering kaotropt salt
  39. 39. Västra vägen 7 B 169 61 Solna Telefon: 08-446 66 00 Telefax: 08-446 66 29 Webbplats: www.tnc.se E-post: tnc@tnc.se © Terminologicentrum TNC© Terminologicentrum TNC In reality ...
  40. 40. Västra vägen 7 B 169 61 Solna Telefon: 08-446 66 00 Telefax: 08-446 66 29 Webbplats: www.tnc.se E-post: tnc@tnc.se © Terminologicentrum TNC Agreement principle? “If the crowdsourced semantics originates from the human work, then what differences [does] it have to expert approaches […]? The answer is the different quality assurance mechanisms. While manual approaches rely on the expertise of the individual, the crowd-based approaches [follows] the agreement principle: if many, even uninitiated people independetly express the same fact, it is probably a truth (e.g., the same photo gets decorated with the same tag from multiple users).” [Šimko & Beliková, 2014] in terminology work!?
  41. 41. Västra vägen 7 B 169 61 Solna Telefon: 08-446 66 00 Telefax: 08-446 66 29 Webbplats: www.tnc.se E-post: tnc@tnc.se © Terminologicentrum TNC Investigation of term comprehension among the general public: • Survey at web site www.bolagsverket.se autumn 2008 • Four separate surveys, ca 500 answers to each • 40 terms were tested • The respondents were to – estimate if they understood the term used in a sentence (e.g. ”She is a limited partner.”) – explain the term using their own words Swedish Companies Registration Office: survey
  42. 42. Västra vägen 7 B 169 61 Solna Telefon: 08-446 66 00 Telefax: 08-446 66 29 Webbplats: www.tnc.se E-post: tnc@tnc.se © Terminologicentrum TNC • switch certain terms for ”clearer” ones • simplify forms and other documents • use terms more consistently • give more examples in connection to difficult words • explain difficult words consistently in all texts • include glossaries in brochure Consequences
  43. 43. Västra vägen 7 B 169 61 Solna Telefon: 08-446 66 00 Telefax: 08-446 66 29 Webbplats: www.tnc.se E-post: tnc@tnc.se © Terminologicentrum TNC … or bottom? + joint effort, more resources, quicker, cheaper + suitable for descriptive work (and possibly for term creation, QA) + better chance of implementation of created terms + can possible generate new, creative ideas + no responsibility, i.e. nothing to lose + democratic (?) experts crowd − too many, irrelevant comments − limited understanding of terminological method and concept analysis − loss of intension depth (determinologization) − not enough concept orientation (unsuitable starting point) − no overview of domain − ”fake” representativity
  44. 44. Västra vägen 7 B 169 61 Solna Telefon: 08-446 66 00 Telefax: 08-446 66 29 Webbplats: www.tnc.se E-post: tnc@tnc.se © Terminologicentrum TNC Everyone’s = expert? expert a person who, through knowledge or experience, has competence to give an opinion in the fields about which he/she is consulted [ISO 13302:2003] • undermine professionalization of language professions? (cf. human translator – machine translation + post-editing) • user adaptation – user education [cf. Antti K] • different typer of crowd … → nichesourcing crowdsourcing where complex tasks are distributed amongst a small crowd of amateur experts ... rather than the “faceless” crowd” [de Boer et al., 2012]
  45. 45. Västra vägen 7 B 169 61 Solna Telefon: 08-446 66 00 Telefax: 08-446 66 29 Webbplats: www.tnc.se E-post: tnc@tnc.se © Terminologicentrum TNC ”Dovey (2009) writes about the roll of trust in open innovation. It is described as the single biggest resource in creating a social environment where ideas are generated voluntarily, are evaluated honestly and chosen before they, through co-operation, are transformed into value- creating products and services. […] All innovation work depends on trust, from the generation of ideas, sharing of ideas, development of ideas and co-operation for the realization of the ideas.” ”trust the network – it probably knows more than you do.” … or ??? [Eriksson, 2010]
  46. 46. Västra vägen 7 B 169 61 Solna Telefon: 08-446 66 00 Telefax: 08-446 66 29 Webbplats: www.tnc.se E-post: tnc@tnc.se © Terminologicentrum TNC • ”expectancy held by an individual or group that the word, promise, verbal or written statement of another individual or group can be relied on” • ”mutual confidence that no party to an exchange will exploit another’s vulnerabilities” applicable also on man–machine relationships, e.g. man → web site “degree to which a user or other stakeholder has confidence that a product or system will behave as intended” on-line trust attitude of confident expectation in an on-line situation of risk that one’s vulnerabilities will not be exploited trust [Corritore et al, 2003] [Corritore et al, 2003] [ISO/IEC 25010]
  47. 47. Västra vägen 7 B 169 61 Solna Telefon: 08-446 66 00 Telefax: 08-446 66 29 Webbplats: www.tnc.se E-post: tnc@tnc.se © Terminologicentrum TNC 1. Objectives and planning • trust from: • management • financial department • pr department • it department • colleagues • trust in • other (external) parties • chosen way of working together • (through) trust in: • described processes & routines (standards) • roles and responsibilities (other organizations) Trust ↔ terminology management
  48. 48. Västra vägen 7 B 169 61 Solna Telefon: 08-446 66 00 Telefax: 08-446 66 29 Webbplats: www.tnc.se E-post: tnc@tnc.se © Terminologicentrum TNC 1. Networking Organizations have a networking relationship when they exchange information in order to help each organization do a better job. 2. Coordination Organizations have a coordinating relationship when they modify their activities so that together, they provide better services to their constituents. 3. Cooperation When organizations cooperate, they not only share information and make adjustments in their services – they share resources to help each other do a better job. 4. Collaboration In a collaborative relationship, organizations help each other expand or enhance their capacities to do their jobs. Types of ”togetherness”
  49. 49. Västra vägen 7 B 169 61 Solna Telefon: 08-446 66 00 Telefax: 08-446 66 29 Webbplats: www.tnc.se E-post: tnc@tnc.se © Terminologicentrum TNC
  50. 50. Västra vägen 7 B 169 61 Solna Telefon: 08-446 66 00 Telefax: 08-446 66 29 Webbplats: www.tnc.se E-post: tnc@tnc.se © Terminologicentrum TNC 2. Term collection • Trust in resources (internal & external) → assessment of sources (ISO 23185, 10241, etc.) 3. Concept-based structuring • Trust between project members, consultants, experts • Trust in method (ISO 704, etc.) and consensus (example: ”dictator definitions”) 4. Linguistic assessment and revision • Trust in linguist/terminologist 5. Creation of new terms • Trust between colleagues (experts – terminologists) • Trust in consultants • Trust in the crowd? Trust ↔ terminology management (cont.)
  51. 51. Västra vägen 7 B 169 61 Solna Telefon: 08-446 66 00 Telefax: 08-446 66 29 Webbplats: www.tnc.se E-post: tnc@tnc.se © Terminologicentrum TNC 6. Terminology administration • Trust in tool (TMS) • Trust in standards 7. Terminology provision and distribution • Trust from clients in result and its presentation (glossaries), medium (web site, term bank etc.) • Trust in clients (that they can use the service correctly etc.) 8. Terminology maintenance • Trust in tool • Trust in colleagues (feedback, additions & corrections) Trust ↔ terminology management (cont.)
  52. 52. Västra vägen 7 B 169 61 Solna Telefon: 08-446 66 00 Telefax: 08-446 66 29 Webbplats: www.tnc.se E-post: tnc@tnc.se © Terminologicentrum TNC Trust cues [Corritore et al, 2002] • interface design • no typos etc. • overall look of web site • ease of searching • information quality • information appropriateness • information usefulness • •
  53. 53. Västra vägen 7 B 169 61 Solna Telefon: 08-446 66 00 Telefax: 08-446 66 29 Webbplats: www.tnc.se E-post: tnc@tnc.se © Terminologicentrum TNC ”Placing greater trust in users than earlier seems to be a widely accepted point of view” [Tavast, 2008] ”Allowing different views for different users is important in order to win over your users.” [ISO/CD 26162:2009]
  54. 54. Västra vägen 7 B 169 61 Solna Telefon: 08-446 66 00 Telefax: 08-446 66 29 Webbplats: www.tnc.se E-post: tnc@tnc.se © Terminologicentrum TNC Obstacles to trust · resource-related: time, money · technical: no hits, poor interfaces · content-related: poor contents, obsolete contents · organizational: unclear processes, roles and resposibilites · psychological: uninvolvement, ”I know better”, everyone = expert, I don’t need it; hierarchies · awareness-related: not enough description of background and methodology → uncertainty among users · information-related: poorly marketed, non-existent or poor information · legal: hierarchies · competing tools/terminology: why change? ·
  55. 55. Västra vägen 7 B 169 61 Solna Telefon: 08-446 66 00 Telefax: 08-446 66 29 Webbplats: www.tnc.se E-post: tnc@tnc.se © Terminologicentrum TNC Motivation, incentives [Frantz, 2010] Motives • acknowledgment • prices, rewards • self-marketing • learning Incentives • instructions, briefs etc. affect motivation and participation • platform, tools
  56. 56. Västra vägen 7 B 169 61 Solna Telefon: 08-446 66 00 Telefax: 08-446 66 29 Webbplats: www.tnc.se E-post: tnc@tnc.se © Terminologicentrum TNC “There’s no obvious balance to be found between professional integrity and freelance opportunity […] or between expert judgment and majority opinion […] However, these dilemmas can inform each other, and because they’re so different the issues at stake become more explicit when considered together. Embodied in the collective discussion is the wisdom of crowdsourcing.” [Keats, 2011]
  57. 57. Västra vägen 7 B 169 61 Solna Telefon: 08-446 66 00 Telefax: 08-446 66 29 Webbplats: www.tnc.se E-post: tnc@tnc.se © Terminologicentrum TNC TNC Västra vägen 7 B, Terrassen 169 61 Solna Tfn: 08-446 66 00 Fax: 08-446 66 29 www.tnc.se henrik.nilsson@tnc.se

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