FOREWORDAll too soon the 22nd version of the Mole Conference Series “Mole XXII” has come to pass. Like mostorganic systems...
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSThe successes achieved at this years Mole Conference, Mole XXII, was as a result of team efforts madepossi...
Table of ContentTITLE PAGE ..................................................................................................
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONSAfDB -      African Development BankAVRL -      Aqua Vitens Rand LimitedCEOs -      Chief Executive O...
EXECUTIVE SUMMARYThe Mole XXII Conference was held from 9th to 13th August at Busua in the Western Region. It wasorganized...
MOLE XXII CONFERENCE COMMUNIQUÉTheme: Towards Decentralized WASH Services Delivery: Challenges and Lessons"Busua Beach Res...
9. A well constituted WASH sector team/platform should be established to develop a strategy to engage theMinistry of Finan...
INTRODUCTIONBrief Background of the Mole Conference SeriesA group of non-state actors in the Water and Sanitation Sector i...
·Scaling up Sanitation and Hygiene- The CLTS factor·Innovations/new initiativesEach theme would be dealt by an expert grou...
OPENING CEREMONYChairmans Opening RemarksThe opening ceremony was chaired by the Omanhene of Lower Dixcove Traditional Are...
environmental menace. This is in spite of the fact that there exist a number of very good policies,regulations, bye-laws a...
planning and management tools and creation of awareness to make local government prioritizesanitation. He said Plan was re...
Challenges and LessonsDr. Osei Wusu enumerated a number of challenges and lessons associated with decentralization andWASH...
1999 National Sanitation Policy had been reviewed and launched in December 2010, while the Ministry ofLocal Government and...
SUMMARY OF PAPER PRESENTATIONSGovernance, Accountability and Aid/Development Effectiveness in the WASH SectorThese session...
delivery models. She went on to outline the building blocks for a sustainable sector, including effectivepolicies and stra...
understood as policies and practices by development actors that deepen the impact of aid anddevelopment cooperation on the...
collaborate with DAs and usually bypass them in their dealings and he believed that some donors arebehind those actions.Mr...
presentations were made to share experiences documented from some existing management models inGhana and elsewhere.Small T...
When Mr. Phillip Amanor of CWSA suggested that it was better to select the best model to scale up, Mr.Tuffuor said effecti...
Implications of Mining on Water Resources in the Western Region – Mawuli Lumor (WRC)Mr. Lumors presentation highlighted cl...
Scaling up Sanitation and HygieneThis session was dedicated mainly to CLTS presentations and lengthy discussions on the ap...
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  1. 1. FOREWORDAll too soon the 22nd version of the Mole Conference Series “Mole XXII” has come to pass. Like mostorganic systems, Mole is conceived, implemented and ends temporarily where all participants depart fortheir various destinations. The follow-up work involves accounting for resources utilized, preparation anddistribution of reports and communiqué and the implementation of the Communiqué by the variousstakeholders. What we cannot take away from the conference is the seriousness with which business wasconducted and the fun, camaraderie and networking it generated as the days rolled by.This years conference was significant in two dimensions; it is the first time in 22 years that the Mole Serieshas been held in the Western Region and secondly, at the time that commercial quantities of oil have beenfound in this Region. The theme and sub-themes of the Conference were therefore appropriate for theenvironment within which it was held.The conference had about 30 presentations and seven panel discussions including views from theCommunity Level – the WATSAN Committees. The new approach to facilitate the conference exhibitionwas highly appreciated.The theme was as relevant as the issues which were raised and discussed during the Conference. Theseissues are not ends in themselves but have created space for further work including advocacy whichshould be underpinned by evidence-based research. For instance, the implications of mining (arsenic inwater) on water resources in relation to peoples health and livelihoods need further in-depth studiesinvolving Ministries of Health, Water Resources, Works and Housing/Water Resources Commission andEnvironmental Protection Agency. It is now known that the Oil RevenueManagement Act has some flexibility with respect to allocating resources for essential social serviceswhich include water, sanitation and hygiene services. Sector players have to develop strategies to ensureWASH Services get a fair share of the resources. What is the preparedness and capacities of the districtswithin the catchment area of the oil found to take advantage of the opportunities provided by the oil as wellas to deal with the risks associated with exploration?As we read this report we have to ask ourselves one question which is “what can I do to ensure that ourunfortunate brothers and sisters, who through no fault of theirs do not have access to improved WASHServices, will have access to them.” WASH Services are human rights issues and by excluding somepeople means abusing their rights. How many of them know Busua Beach Resort? It is not only importantbut critical as well to ensure that at least YOU make a contribution towards the realization of ONE of thepoints in the Communiqué so that in our next meeting, we will not only ask CONIWAS Secretariat whathappened to the Communiqué but OURSELVES what did we do to make the Communiqué a reality. Thisis the kind of reflection I would like all of us to make when reading this report.I look forward to meeting you again next yearMrs. Victoria DaakuChairperson - CONIWAS ii
  2. 2. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSThe successes achieved at this years Mole Conference, Mole XXII, was as a result of team efforts madepossible by individuals and organisations that were associated with the design and implementation of theConference. The Executive Committee of CONIWAS and the Mole XXII Planning Committee would like toexpress their appreciation to these individuals and organisations for successfully executing their roles. To bemore specific the Executive Committee would like to express its profound appreciation to the PlanningCommittee chaired by Abu Wumbei of RCN/IRC. Members of the Committee included Mrs Cecilia Mensah(ProNet Accra), Mrs. Mariam Don-Chebe (RUWIDE), Mr.John B Yorke(Fountain Life Care), Benjamin Lartey(CONIWAS Secretariat/GLONEHDO), and Kwesi Crampah (ACDEP). The Committee also would like tothank Mr. Yaw Owusu-Sekyere of Conservation Foundation, who together with Mr. Yorke constituted theLocal Organizing Committee and undertook all the leg-work in the Western Region.To the dignitaries and invited guests who honoured the initiation to grace the occasion, CONIWAS wouldforever be grateful for your support. In particular the Ministers of Water Resources, Works and Housing, -Honourable Alban Bagbin, Local Government and Rural Development,- Honourable Samuel OfosuAmpofo, Deputy Minister, Western Region – Honourable Emelia Arthur, the Omanhene of Lower DixcoveTraditional Area, Nana Kwesi Agyeman and Nana Ndede Wusu.For WaterAid, Plan Ghana, UNICEF, Community Water and Sanitation Agency, Ministries of WaterResources, Works and Housing and Local Government, Water Resources Commission, Ghana WaterCompany Limited who inspired the conference with their solidarity messages, we say thank you very much.The role of Chief Executive Officers/Directors of the various organisations and agencies are also highlyappreciated. In particular Dr. Esther Offei Aboagye of ILGS, Clement Bogase (CWSA), Naa DemedemeLenason (EHSD/MLGRD), Dr. Alhassan Somani (Water Directorate/MWRWH), Mr. Benjamin Ampomah(WRC), Mr. Kwaku Botwe (GWCL) and Mr. Othniel Habila (UNICEF).The soul of the conference was the various presentations made by the experts. This provided the platformfor all the discussions. The Planning Committee of Mole XXII would like to express its profound gratitude toall the resource persons who made presentations at the Conference. Dr. David Osei Wusu of ILGS whodelivered the Keynote Address deserves special thanks. The Committee further expresses its appreciationto Patrick Apoya and Martin Judas Bangbie Dery who facilitated the conference to its successful conclusion.Mr. Apoya worked with the Planning Committee to develop the Background Paper and the sub-themes. Wethank you both.For the participants, the Planning Committee owes you a debt of gratitude for the role you played during theconference. Your patience, level of participation and your ability to endure long sessions exceeded theexpectations of the Planning Committee. We thank you for sharing your knowledge and experiences with theSector through the Mole Conference.Whilst the presentations were the soul of the conference, finances sought to provide the lifeline to everyaspect of the conference. Indeed, the Planning Committee would like to express its thanks to allorganisations and individuals who provided financial and material resources to make the conference asuccess. Some of these are WaterAid, DANIDA, CIDA, UNICEF, RCN, MWRWH/WD, CWSA, Plan Ghana,Relief International, GWCL, The World Bank and PolytankFor our team of Rapporteurs/Communication team who worked tirelessly to make sure that dailyproceedings were not only captured but also made available to participant the following day, the Committeesays Ayekoo. The team ensured that the Mole Conference website was regularly updated. Members in theteam included Janet Lamisi Dabire (Tripple–S/CWSA), Sandra Cletcher-king (WaterAid), Abu Wumbei, IdaColeman, (RCN); Emmanuel Adisenu (ProNet Accra). We are reading this report because of the efforts ofthese people. However, the Committee wants express its gratitude to Emmanuel Addai (WSMP) for pullingtogether all the information which constitutes this report.For the Staff of CONIWAS Secretariat in Accra, who also doubled as Conference Secretariat Staff, thePlanning Committee says well done. You served as the hub of conference but your patience and person-relation skills were all what the conference needed to achieve success and you exhibited these qualitiesbeyond expectations. These included Aku Sika Afeku, Gloria Annan, Douglas Adjei, Basilia Nanbigne,Cecilia Mensah,John Yorke, Benjamin Lartey, and O.Y. Owusu-Sekyere. The Committee also would like tothank Conservation Foundation for seconding two of its staff – Welheimina Owusu and Mavis Dzadey tosupport the Secretariat.Last but not the least the Planning Committee would like thank the Management and Staff of Busua BeachResort for their wonderful services and support and ensuring that the Conference was a successFront Cover photo credits: Oyvind Hagen StatoilHydro, Water Resources Commission,ProNet North, CONIWAS iii
  3. 3. Table of ContentTITLE PAGE ........................................................................................................................................... IFORWARD.............................................................................................................................................. IIACKNOWLEDGMENT .......................................................................................................................... IIITABLE OF CONTENT ...........................................................................................................................IVLIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ....................................................................................................................VEXECUTIVE SUMMARY ........................................................................................................................6MOLE XXII CONFERENCE COMMUNIQUÉ ....................................................................................7 - 8INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................................................9BRIEF BACKGROUND OF THE MOLE CONFERENCE SERIES .........................................................9BACKGROUND OF MOLE XXII .............................................................................................................9CONFERENCE OBJECTIVES ...............................................................................................................9SCOPE OF THE CONFERENCE ................................................................................................... 9 - 10CONFERENCE APPROACH ................................................................................................................11OPENING CEREMONY ........................................................................................................................12CHAIRMANS OPENING REMARKS ...................................................................................................12WELCOME ADDRESS BY THE DEPUTY WESTERN REGIONAL MINISTER ...................................12WELCOME STATEMENT BY CONIWAS..............................................................................................12GOODWILL MESSAGES .....................................................................................................................13THEME ADDRESS ...............................................................................................................................14KEYNOTE ADDRESS AND LAUNCH OF MOLE CONFERENCE WEBSITE ......................................15WASH SECTOR OVERVIEW ...............................................................................................................15GUINEA WORM ERADICATION IN GHANA ........................................................................................16SUMMARY OF PAPER PRESENTATIONS ..........................................................................................17GOVERNANCE, ACCOUNTABILITY AND AID/DEVELOPMENT EFFECTIVENESS IN THE WASHSECTOR ........................................................................................................................................17 - 19DEALING WITH LONG TERM FINANCING FOR WASH ............................................................ 20 - 21NATURAL RESOURCE (OIL, GAS, MINING) EXPLORATION AND IMPLICATIONS ON WASH.. 22-23SCALING UP SANITATION AND HYGIENE ...............................................................................24 - 26NEW INITIATIVES.................................................................................................................................27SWA: A GLOBAL FRAMEWORK FOR ACTION – OPPORTUNITIES FOR CIVIL SOCIETYENGAGEMENT ....................................................................................................................................27THE GHANA (SWA) COMPACT ...........................................................................................................27THE SECTOR WIDE APPROACH (SWAP) AND THE STRATEGIC SECTOR DEVELOPMENT PLAN(SSDP) ..................................................................................................................................................27THE MDG ACCELERATION FRAMEWORK (MAF): GHANA COUNTRY ACTION PLAN ONSANITATION .........................................................................................................................................28CWSA WATER SAFETY FRAMEWORK ..............................................................................................28SECTOR LEARNING.............................................................................................................................28IRC INTERNATIONAL WATER AND SANITATION CENTRE ..............................................................28WATER, SANITATION AND HYGIENE TECHNOLOGIES (WASHTECH) PROJECT .........................29SUSTAINABLE WATER SERVICES DELIVERY IN RURAL AREAS (SWSD) .....................................29GHANA WATER, SANITATION AND HYGIENE (G-WASH) PROJECT ..............................................29SCIENTISTS NETWORKED FOR OUTCOMES FROM WATER AND SANITATION (SNOWS) .........29AFRICAN WOMEN LEADERSHIP IN WASH (WATERAID).................................................................29AWARDS FOR CONTRIBUTION TO MOLE SERIES ..........................................................................30CLOSING CEREMONY ........................................................................................................................30ANNEX 1 ...................................................................................................................................... 31 - 33ANNEX 2 ...................................................................................................................................... 34 - 41MOLE XXII IN PICTURES ........................................................................................................... 42 - 46 iv
  4. 4. LIST OF ABBREVIATIONSAfDB - African Development BankAVRL - Aqua Vitens Rand LimitedCEOs - Chief Executive OfficersCIDA - Canadian International Development AgencyCLTS - Community-led Total SanitationCONIWAS - Coalition of NGOs in Water and SanitationCSO - Civil Society OrganizationCWSA - Community Water and Sanitation AgencyDA - District AssemblyDANIDA - Danish International Development AgencyDfID - (UK) Department for International DevelopmentDPs - Development PartnersEHSD - Environmental Health and Sanitation DirectorateEPA - Environmental Protection AgencyESA - External Support AgencyEU - European UnionGDP - Gross Domestic ProductGH¢ - Ghana CediGoG - Government of GhanaGSS - Ghana Statistical ServiceGTZ - German Technical CooperationGWCL - Ghana Water Company LimitedGWF - Ghana Water ForumGWJN - Ghana Watsan Journalists NetworkGWSC - Ghana Water and Sewerage CorporationHSD - Hydrological Services DepartmentIWSPMF- Improvement of Water Sector Performance Management Framework (Project)JMP - WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring ProgrammeJTC /IWRM Joint Technical Committee for Integrated Water Resources ManagementLA - Learning AllianceLI - legislative InstrumentM&E - Monitoring and EvaluationMDG - Millennium Development GoalMLGRD- Ministry of Local Government and Rural DevelopmentMMDA - Metropolitan/Municipal/District AssemblyMWRWH Ministry of Water Resources, Works and HousingNCWSP - National Community Water and Sanitation ProgrammeNESSAP - National Environmental Sanitation Strategy and Action PlanNGO - Non Governmental OrganizationNLLAP - National Level Learning Alliance PlatformPURC - Public Utility Regulatory CommissionRCN - Resource Centre NetworkRWSP - Rural Water and Sanitation ProjectSHEP - School Hygiene Education ProgrammeSIP - Sector Investment PlanSWAp - Sectorwide ApproachTPP - Tripartite PartnershipUNICEF United Nations Childrens FundVBA - Volta Basin AuthorityVIP - Ventilated Improved Pit (latrine)WASH - Water, Sanitation and HygieneWATSAN Water and SanitationWHO - World Health OrganizationWRC - Water Resources CommissionWSDBs - Water and Sanitation Development BoardsWSMP - Water and Sanitation Monitoring PlatformWVI - World Vision International v
  5. 5. EXECUTIVE SUMMARYThe Mole XXII Conference was held from 9th to 13th August at Busua in the Western Region. It wasorganized by the Coalition of NGOs in Water and Sanitation (CONIWAS) with support from WaterAid,DANIDA, CIDA, UNICEF, RCN, MWRWH/WD, CWSA, Plan Ghana, Relief International and Polytank.The opening ceremony was performed by the Omanhene of Lower Dixcove Traditional Area, Nana KwesiAgyeman and the Deputy Western Regional Minister, Ms. Emelia Arthur.Theme for this years conference was “Towards Decentralized WASH Services Delivery: Challenges andLessons.” The main objective of the conference was to take stock, share experiences, challenges,lessons and the way forward on the effort towards decentralized water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH)services delivery. More specifically the conference:·Discussed the sustainability of WASH Services with respect to water supply in general and small townwater supply in particular;·Identified and discussed the implications of oil, gas and the mining industry to the WASH resources,particularly in the Western Region; and·Discussed mechanisms for scaling up the Community-led Total Sanitation (CLTS) approach.Presentations and discussions centred on· Governance, Accountability and Aid/Development Effectiveness in the WASH sector;· Dealing with long term financing for small town systems;· Oil, Gas, Mining and its implications in the WASH sector;· Scaling up Sanitation and Hygiene.· Innovations and New Initiatives in the WASH SectorThere was also an exhibition session throughout the conference, where innovations and knowledgemanagement materials were displayed for participants to appreciate what experiences and lessons, aswell as new technologies are available to the WASH sector.In conclusion, Mole XXII the following recommendations among several others:·The oil, gas and mining industry possess tremendous economic benefits to the country. However, theirnegative effects on water resources and other water infrastructure, especially in areas where they areexplored are overwhelming. In this regard, the conference called for review of some of the mining laws tominimize their impacts on water and other resources and also do better environmental impactassessments. The conference proposed the setting up of a team of experts to constantly engagegovernment and parliament on WASH sector financing.·Since water and sanitation have been declared part of essential services, the sector should be listedamong the top four priority areas for investments from the oil revenue as a source of sustainable fundingfor the sector. Part of these allocations from the oil revenue could be used to support District Assemblies toin turn support communities manage WASH services to promote sustainability.·With proof of Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) as a potential to propel Ghana to attain its MDGtarget on sanitation faster, there should be conscious efforts by MMDAs to incorporate CLTS as well asDistrict CLTS Implementation Roadmaps in their various District Environmental Sanitation Strategy andAction Plans (DESSAPs) as a matter of urgency.In the end the conference was described as very successful in terms of participation and organization, andvery relevant in the terms the theme and the focus. Nana Ndede Wusu, on behalf of the Omanhene ofAhanta, congratulated the organizers of the conference and the participants and expressed hope that thecore issues discussed would be taken forward. The Vice Chairman of CONIWAS also thankedparticipants for their support and hoped that the decisions taken would be acted upon. 6
  6. 6. MOLE XXII CONFERENCE COMMUNIQUÉTheme: Towards Decentralized WASH Services Delivery: Challenges and Lessons"Busua Beach Resort, Busua – Western Region, Ghana9th – 13th August 2011PREAMBLEWe the participants of Mole XXII Conference,·Recognizing the key role of decentralized institutions in the management of water resources, WASHservice delivery and sustainability of WASH facilities;·Recognizing Governance, Aid/Development Effectiveness and Accountability as critical in ensuringeffective and sustainable WASH services for all;·Concerned about finding sustainable financing for the WASH Sector;·Concerned about the effects of mining, oil and gas exploration on WASH; and·Determined to support the scaling up of CLTS in Ghana as a viable sanitation promotion approach,Do hereby agree to the conclusions of the Conference and issue this Communiqué as follows:Governance, Accountability and Aid/Development Effectiveness - Actions1. Ghana has the relevant structures to ensure good governance, accountability and aid effectiveness inthe WASH sector. The Government, Development Partners and CSOs should work together, develop thenecessary systems and checks and balances, to ensure that all laid down principles, procedures,regulations and laws are complied with to the letter.Responsibility: Government, DPs, CSOs, Media2. A systematic process of gathering information on NGO/CSO contribution to the WASH Sector, includingfacility delivery, innovations and financing should be put in place and periodically collated and madeavailable for capture in the Annual Sector Performance Report.Responsibility: CONIWAS3. The NGO fraternity should deepen their partnership with relevant local stakeholders to ensure thatdecentralized and mandated institutions that are responsible for WASH service delivery take charge oftheir obligations.Responsibility: CONIWAS4. Current efforts at establishing sector information systems should take into consideration the inadequateinformation and data on what happens at the decentralized level, which sets new challenges foraddressing corruption and improving transparency and accountability in the WASH sector.Responsibility: Water Directorate, EHSD, CWSA, CONIWAS5. The Sector Strategic Development Plan (SSDP) is the hub of the success of the Sector Wide Approach.All stakeholders, including NGOs and Development Partners, should show commitment to supporting andcomplying with the principles contained in the plan.Responsibility: Water Directorate, EHSD6. A communiqué monitoring team should be set up to develop a monitoring plan with time-boundindicators to track progress of Mole Conference outcomes with the responsibility to report back atsubsequent conferences.Responsibility: CONIWASDealing with Long-term Financing for WASH - Actions7. While we recognize the renewed commitments in the Sanitation and Water for All (SWA) Compact, wealso wish to draw government attention to the fact that the 2011 commitments were not fully met.Government and partners should fulfill the agreed commitment fully in subsequent budgets.Responsibility: Water Directorate, EHSD, CONIWAS, MoFEP8. Direct support cost and capital maintenance expenditure are essential elements for sustainable smalltown water supply delivery. Led by the Government with effective support from all partners, a mechanismshould be established for direct support for Metropolitan, Municipal and District Assemblies (MMDAs) tomanage small town systems beyond the project phase.Responsibility: Water Directorate, CWSA, MMDAs 7
  7. 7. 9. A well constituted WASH sector team/platform should be established to develop a strategy to engage theMinistry of Finance and Economic Planning (MoFEP) to periodically discuss WASH financing andbudgetary gaps. The Team shall also have additional responsibility of exploring other innovative long-termfinancing options for WASH.Responsibility: Water Directorate, EHSD, CONIWAS10. Attempts by CWSA to develop a framework, based on water quality, sustainability and functionalityindicators, to undertake national sustainability audit and functionality mapping exercise on existingsystems should be encouraged and supported.Responsibility: Water Directorate, EHSD, CONIWAS, CWSA11. To respect individuals right to safe drinking water, any institution providing drinking water is required toensure that Ghanas water safety standards are met. In this respect, efforts should be made for aninnovative and sustainable funding mechanism for CWSAs Water Safety Framework.Responsibility: MWRWH, MLGRD, CWSA, MMDAs,12. All WASH interventions should recognize the central role of communities in sustainable WASH servicedelivery and allocate adequate resources for community mobilization and capacity building.Responsibility: CWSA, CONIWAS, ILGS, MMDAs13. To increase the chances of long-term funding and sustainability of rural and small town WASHservices, current sector efforts at highlighting and promoting the District Ownership and Management(DOM) component of the Community Ownership and Management (COM) concept must be intensifiedand accelerated.Responsibility: CWSA, MMDAsMining, Oil and Gas exploration and implications in the WASH Sector -Actions14. There is evidence that the mining and oil industry has brought more pressure on the quality of waterresources and WASH service delivery through pollution and migration. There should therefore beintensified advocacy to ensure that WASH is considered among the top four priorities for petroleum (andmining) revenue investments to mitigate the impact.Responsibility: Water Directorate, EHSD, CONIWAS, WRC, EPA15. With the increase in migration and tourist attractions to some MMDAs in the Western Region as a resultof the oil find, Government should improve the human and logistical capacities of the affected MMDAs inthe region to respond to the expected pressure on WASH infrastructure and services.Responsibility: Water Directorate, EHSD, CONIWAS, MMDAsScaling up Sanitation and Hygiene - Actions16. With Ghanas sanitation coverage of 13% as our national shame, and with proof of Community LedTotal Sanitation (CLTS) as a potential to propel Ghana to attain its MDG target on sanitation faster, thereshould be conscious efforts by MMDAs to incorporate CLTS as well as District CLTS ImplementationRoadmaps in their various District Environmental Sanitation Strategy and Action Plans (DESSAPs) as amatter of urgency.Responsibility: MLGRD/EHSD/MMDAs17. To facilitate the scaling up of CLTS at the local level, government should immediately establishRegional Inter Agency Coordinating Committees on Sanitation (RICCs) and District Inter AgencyCoordinating Committees on Sanitation (DICCs) in all Regions and Districts by Regional EnvironmentalHealth Units and Regional Water and Sanitation Teams (RWSTs). There should also be intensiveorientation for District Environmental Health Officers on the CLTS approach.Responsibility: MLGRD/EHSD/MMDAs 8
  8. 8. INTRODUCTIONBrief Background of the Mole Conference SeriesA group of non-state actors in the Water and Sanitation Sector in Ghana organized a national conferencein the Mole National Park in 1989 to deliberate on various policy issues affecting the sector and to buildcapacity of local actors, basically NGOs, in experience sharing and articulation of emerging issues forgovernment and broader stakeholder attention. Following the successful outcomes from this maidenconference, it was agreed by stakeholders to maintain the tradition of organising such a conferenceannually.Duly as agreed, the conference has been organized annually since 1989 by the NGOs and has served asa useful and, until the introduction of the Ghana Water Forum, the largest WASH Sector forum for reviews,learning and advocacy.Participation in the Mole Conference has involved civil society actors, development partners, internationalactors, government, academia and private practitioners. The Mole Series has contributed tremendouslyto sector policy initiation and formulation, sector profile raising, sector coordination and sector learning.Currently, the conference is convened by the Coalition of NGOs in Water and Sanitation (CONIWAS),which is an offshoot of the Mole Series. The name Mole Conference was derived from the name of thevenue for the first of the series in 1989 – the Mole National Park.Background of Mole XXIIThe central tenet of the National Community Water and Sanitation Programme is to ensure sustainablemanagement of WASH services provision to communities with minimal external support after the facilitieshave been provided. This is to be achieved by a well crafted national strategy, which ensures:·Community management of services, implying ownership and control, as a central element of thestrategy;·A central role by District Assemblies in supporting community management·A key role by Government in promoting service provision;·A role for the formal and informal private sector in provision of goods and services;·Ensuring equity and widespread coverage through targeted subsidies supporting basic service levels;·A demand-driven programme, with self-selection and clear commitment by communities to enhancesustainability, and·A special focus on women, as both the users of water as well as planners, operators and managers ofcommunity level systems.Among others, the strategy is expected to ensure that communities own and manage the water systemsthrough established structures to provide all year round potable water from the facility. Communityownership in turn was to be secured through the demand driven approach, which ensures that beneficiarycommunities commit themselves to the full ownership and management of facilities and assuresustainability of delivered facilities. This approach is in line with the decentralization policy of Ghana whichmakes the District Assemblies the responsible agents for local development. Mole principally examinedhow the expected goals of sustainable decentralized WASH services delivery were being met.Conference ObjectivesThe key objectives of the conference was to take stock, share experiences, challenges, lessons and theway forward on the effort towards decentralized water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) services delivery.The specific objectives of the workshop were to:1. Discuss the sustainability of WASH Services with respect to small town water supply2.To identify and discuss the implications of Oil and Gas industry to the WASH resources in WesternRegion3.To gain consensus on mechanisms for expanding CLTS and in a way which enable people move up thesanitation ladderScope of the ConferenceThe conference covered five sub themes, namely:·Governance, Accountability and Aid Effectiveness in the WASH sector·Dealing with long term financing for small town systems·Oil and Gas and its implications in the WASH sector 9
  9. 9. ·Scaling up Sanitation and Hygiene- The CLTS factor·Innovations/new initiativesEach theme would be dealt by an expert group of presenters and discussants, either in parallel or plenary.An overview of each sub theme is presented below:Governance, Accountability and Aid Effectiveness in the WASH sectorThe Paris Declaration on Aid-Effectiveness, the Accra Agenda for Action and the European Union Code ofConduct all commit Development Partners to improve Aid Effectiveness. Poor governance has beenblamed for most of the crisis in WASH today, especially with regard to effective local governmentleadership, transparent and accountable conduct of service providers, be they public, private or not-for-profit. As one of the pillars of the Paris Declaration, government-led processes should be drivingdevelopment processes, based on a single national plan to which all and donors are expected to align theirprogrammes and activities. Ghana has taken giant strides to harmonize procedures and programmesamongst the myriad of players in the WASH sector. A Sector Wide Approach (SWAp) is underway, so is aSector Strategic Development Plan (SSDP). This conference examined how these initiatives would inpractice help to:·Bridge the gap between international declarations and practical implementation of those declarations.·Improve efficiency and effectiveness of service delivery·Increase community participation in decision making at all levels·Strengthen sector governance,·Improve transparency and accountability of duty bearers to communitiesDealing with Long-term Financing for Small Town SystemsSmall towns systems have been successful to some degree in meeting operation and maintenance costswith minimal external support. What is clear is that no system has yet been able to demonstrate that it iscapable of meeting the replacement costs of the system effectively when the system outlives its currentlifespan. Inadequate savings, inflation, depreciation of the cedi and political interference combine tofurther complicate this problem. For the goal of meeting all costs including future replacement costs to bemet, small towns need to seek money market solutions for tailored made financial products, or to plug untoexisting ones. They also need innovative risk protection mechanisms to insulate them from catastrophicevents that result in huge financial outlays for repairs. This could be anything from orthodox insurance, to acustom designed mutual insurance mechanism that builds on the strengths of these water systems. Therewere discussions during the conference as an attempt to find and suggest solutions for the overallfinancing and sustainability of small town water systems.Oil and Gas and its implications in the WASH sectorThe emergence of the oil and gas industry in Ghana has ramifying implications for the WASH sector inGhana. The Western Region, which is home to the oil discovery, is already experiencing a boom intourism. The number of visitors trooping to the region, and seeking permanent or temporary stay is on theincrease. With a high price tag on housing, less wealthy people will have to give way to wealthier visitorswho are able to pay a better price for the choicest apartments in the choicest parts of the cities. This meansthe poor would gradually be displaced to the peri-urban areas, or those sections of the city with no or lessreliable services. The demand for WASH services would outstrip the capacity of the already overstretchedmunicipal or district authorities. The consequences could be dire for local government authorities, citizensand central government. The conference facilitated a serious reflection on the situation and proposedmeasures as to how districts in the affected districts region could better prepare against an imminentWASH crisis.Scaling up Sanitation and Hygiene- The CLTS factorCLTS is the new song in the sector. Whilst some countries that chose this path have every reason tocelebrate their success, other countries that chose the same path are less able to do so. For instance, inNigeria, sector players have recently expressed concerns that communities that have attained ODFstatus hardly show any sign that they would move up the sanitation ladder. The conference reviewed howfar Ghana is progressing with the CLTS agenda, and whether there are any early signs of ultimatesuccess.Innovations/New InitiativesSince Mole XXI, there has been new developments in the WASH Sector of which Sector practitioners andStakeholders may not be aware and have not been able to contribute or share their experiences on. 10
  10. 10. OPENING CEREMONYChairmans Opening RemarksThe opening ceremony was chaired by the Omanhene of Lower Dixcove Traditional Area, Nana KwesiAgyeman. In his brief address, the Omanhene said nothing in this world can be successful without waterand therefore underscored the need to preserve it and ensure everyone has access to potable water. Heexpressed gratitude to the organizers for choosing his traditional area as the preferred venue for such aconference. He welcomed all participants to the Lower Dixcove Traditional Area and expressed a wish forfruitful deliberations during the conference. He offered to provide any necessary support upon requestfrom the conference organizers.Welcome Address by the Deputy Western Regional MinisterThe Deputy Western Regional Minister, Hon Emelia Arthur, in her welcome address, acknowledged therole that Mole Series has played in shaping WASH sector policy and commended civil society for initiatingand sustaining such platform.On sanitation, the Deputy Regional Minister said we are all aware that poor sanitation is affecting societyin so many negative ways and is undesirable since it is avoidable. She called for identification,documentation and scaling up of best practices. She also added her voice to the call for inter agencycoordination for effective WASH service delivery.On decentralization, the Deputy Minister said because there are challenges in the process including weakcapacity of DAs, WASH services have not been the best at the local level. She expressed hope that theconference would come out with suggestions for a better way forward. These suggestions could includeinnovative ways of improving the capacities of Unit Committees to support the management of WASHfacilities.She pledged the support of the Western Regional Coordinating Council for innovative WASHinterventions and officially welcomed participants to the Region.Welcome Statement by CONIWASVice Chairman of CONIWAS, Farouk Braimah, in a welcome address, briefed participants on follow-upefforts on the 2010 Mole Conference recommendations on climate change. He said follow up activitiesincluded awareness raising events for its members and the general public on the impacts of climatechange especially on WASH. These Activities, he said, included press briefings, policy dialogues, andparticipation in series of climate change-related workshops aimed at working on a national strategy onclimate change.The Vice Chairman highlighted a number WASH-related issues needing attention. These are as follows:·Though the Western Region is endowed with rich natural resources including mineral deposits andespecially the recent oil find, the nation is yet to fully appreciate the negative consequences of theexploration of these resources on especially WASH services delivery in the Region. These includepollution of water bodies through chemical contamination, deforestation leading to drying of water bodies,silting of river bodies, rapid population growth bringing more pressure on existing WASH facilities, oil spillamong others.·Though commendable the current spate of sector coordination and knowledge management initiativestaking place in the WASH Sector, including the Ghana Water Forum, National Environmental SanitationConference, Learning Alliance Platforms, Policy and strategy reviews/ development among others,CONIWAS was concerned about the apparent multiplicity and duplication of some of theseinitiatives/forums.·In spite of the active role that civil society and NGOs play in the WASH Sector, including reaching thepoorest with services and making their voices heard, as well as contribution to policy formulation andresource mobilization, they have failed to document all such contributions for capture in sector reports toserve as evidence of such contributions. This has therefore created an M&E gap in the sector.·While the WASH sector is about 3% of national budget, those of education and health are about 23% and18% respectively. Meanwhile about 60% of all OPD cases in the country are water, sanitation andhygiene-related. Apart from the inadequacy of allocations to the WASH sector, there is also an issue withreleases of the funds and absorptive capacities of sector agencies to utilize available funds.·As a nation, Ghana has failed to treat its waste to the extent that even human excreta is dischargeduntreated into water bodies including the sea, while waste polythene has also become a serious 12
  11. 11. environmental menace. This is in spite of the fact that there exist a number of very good policies,regulations, bye-laws and strategies for effective sanitation service delivery.·Though the United Nations has affirmed its commitment to the right to water and that water and sanitationare now recognized as human rights, Ghana is yet to create the necessary legislative environment toimplement this right in spite of the fact that several millions of Ghanaians still do not have access to waterand sanitation.With all these challenges, Mr. Braimah said he expected that Mole XXII would provide practical solutionsbased on experiences to enable the country accelerate the provision of WASH services in the country. Hethanked WaterAid, DANIDA, CIDA, IRC/RCN, MWRWH/WD, CWSA, Plan Ghana, Relief Internationaland Polytank for supporting Mole XXII.Goodwill MessagesThere were a number of goodwill messages from some key WASH stakeholders, these include:WaterAidThe WaterAid message was delivered on behalf of the Country Representative by Ibrahim Musah. Shesaid WaterAid was privileged to be part of the Mole Conference and found the theme very appropriate andcrucial. She acknowledged that CONIWAS was once again setting the pace in pushing the frontiers tochallenge DAs and its decentralized departments to support the efforts at sustaining of WASH facilities.She expressed a wish that the conference communiqué would come with its own milestones monitoringindicators.Water Resources Commission (WRC)The WRC message was delivered by Mawuli Lumor. He expressed a strong wish that the conferencewould come to a successful end.Ghana Water Company Limited (GWCL)The GWCL message was delivered by Faustina Berchie. She expressed a wish that discussions wouldcome out with best solutions and answers for the advancement of the WASH sector.Community Water and Sanitation Agency (CWSA)The message from CWSA was delivered by Mike Adjei on behalf of the Chief Executive. He said the CWSAhas supported and participated in all Mole Conferences since the agency was established. This is not onlybecause it is an important event but also because the agency cherishes its partnership with NGOs in thesub sector. He said CWSA has facilitated implementation of decentralized WASH projects for more thanten years in line with governments decentralization policy. He said the agency was prepared to share herexperiences on decentralization at the conference.Development PartnersThe goodwill message from Development Partners (DPs) was delivered by Othniel Habila. He expressedhappiness that the Mole Series had survived for 22 years. He acknowledged that the platform hadprovided a great opportunity for progress in WASH over the years. On behalf of DPs, he congratulatedGhana for eradicating the guinea worm disease. He however outlined a number of issues that neededredress:· Representation of WASH in the MMDAs was still not clear;· Sub national coordination of WASH was weak;· There was need for institutional capacity development from the national to MMDA levels;· Sector funding through decentralized institutions was not adequate;· Access to basic sanitation was poor;· Open defecation was still rife and a lot needed to be done to stop it;· There was need to accelerate the promotion of the rural sanitation model;He said DPs were still committed to supporting the sector especially in confronting urban and peri-urbansanitation challenges, without which, he said, Ghana would hardly meet her MDG targets for sanitation.Plan GhanaPlan Ghanas goodwill message was delivered by Daniel Sarpong on behalf of the Country Director. Hesaid he was optimistic that the forum would deliver the needed messages to accelerate WASHdevelopment in the country. He said the conference was a great opportunity to inject action intodecentralization of water, sanitation and hygiene services delivery in the country. He said Plan wasactively involved in innovative ways to improve sanitation and this included implementation of SaniMartsand CLTS. He said a major challenge was how to ensure that decentralized and mandated institutionstake charge of their obligation. He said the support needed include transfer of resources, building of sound 13
  12. 12. planning and management tools and creation of awareness to make local government prioritizesanitation. He said Plan was ready to work with CONIWAS and partners in meeting some of thesechallenges.Environmental Health and Sanitation Directorate (EHSD)The message from the EHSD was delivered by Naa Demedeme Lenason. He congratulated CONIWASfor their interest in WASH and their consistency with the Mole Conference. He said as Ghana is likely tomeet her MDG targets for water, the same cannot be said of sanitation and this poses a great challenge tothe country. He said in the area of policy and strategy development, there was much progress but whatneeded to be done was translating these into practical actions to yield results. He said he believed that theconference would attempt to address some of the fundamental questions on funding, commitment,priority, coordination, collaboration, political will, and institutional weaknesses.Ministry of Water Resources, Works and Housing (MWRWH)The message from the MWRWH was delivered by Dr. Sumani Alhassan and Mr. Attah Arhin. Theyexpressed appreciation to CONIWAS for sustaining the Mole Series and their role in moving the WASHagenda forward and said they cherished its partnership with the coalition.The successful completion of the National Water Policy, the SWAp process and strategy formulation,according to the officials, enjoyed massive collaboration from CONIWAS. They acknowledged thechallenges that NGOs go through in their routine activities, which include language barrier, culturalsensitivities, resource limitations, and dealing with people. They said it takes love for the work and love forhuman beings, patience and understanding for which they saluted NGOs for their steadfastness. Theyencouraged participants to call on the Ministry for any support whenever necessary.Theme AddressThe theme address for Mole XXII was delivered by Dr. David Osei Wusu of the Institute of LocalGovernment Studies (ILGS). The address covered the concept of decentralization on WASH, challengesand lessons.DecentralizationHe defined decentralization as a process by which a central government formally transfers power toactors and institutions at lower levels in a political/administrative hierarchy. He said it involves transfer ofpower, functions, means and competencies from central government to the sub-national structures. InGhana, he said, Local Government is a creation of law by the Constitution under section 241 (3), the LocalGovernment Act 1993 (Act 462), The National Development Planning (system) Act 1994 (Act 480), LocalGovernment Service Act 2003 (Act 656) and Local Government (Departments of District Assemblies)Commencement Instrument 2009 (LI 1961).He outlines various types of decentralization, which included de-concentration, devolution, delegation,fiscal decentralization, economic decentralization, privatization and public-private partnerships.He said decentralization is supposed to improve delivery of basic services for citizens at the local level,while good governance could also work to improve their ability and capacity to become betteradministration, raise revenue and deliver high quality services. Another expected benefit ofdecentralization is that it can provide a framework for effective local level democracy and robust localgovernance.Dr. Osei Wusu described the structure of the new Local Government System arrangements, functions ofthe District Assembly and the key functionaries and actors in the Local Government environment, as wellas the sources of revenue for local government institutions. He said the policy priorities and themes foraccelerating decentralization and the way forward include political decentralization and legal issues,administrative decentralization, decentralized development planning, spatial planning, environmentalmanagement and natural resource management, local economic development, fiscal decentralization,popular participation and accountability, social agenda, involvement of non-state actors in localgovernance and harmonization of development partner interventions.WASH Sector and DecentralizationDr. Osei Wusu underscored the importance of water and sanitation in human development including foodsecurity, nutrition, energy production, poverty reduction, health and economic growth, as well as theachievement of all other MDGs. He also described the institutional arrangements at the national levelincluding the roles of the main sector, ministries and agencies. He went on to describe the roles ofMMDAs, sub-district institutions, traditional authorities, opinion leaders and communities. 14
  13. 13. Challenges and LessonsDr. Osei Wusu enumerated a number of challenges and lessons associated with decentralization andWASH service delivery. This included the following:· Sustainability of WASH facilities due to several factors including funding. He also cited lack of political willto maintain facilities and said efforts are made mostly after facilities have already broken down.· Capacity gaps of District Water and Sanitation Teams, Water and Sanitation Development Boards (WSB)and Water and Sanitation Committees. He said any time CWSA funding phased out, these sub-districtWASH institutions face funding and other capacity challenges.· Absence of career oriented courses with training institutions is also a shortcoming especially formembers of sub-district WASH-related institutions )they are usually given a few days training on the job byservice providers)· Difficulty by users (especially of small town water systems) to pay user fees. This is a key source ofrevenue to sustain the systems so when users are unable to pay, raising funds to maintain the systemsbecomes difficult.· Since there is poor record keeping practice in most sub-district WASH institutions, accountability is amajor issue.· Selection of members to constitute a WSB or WATSAN Committee is a major challenge especially sinceit is difficult to measure their commitment levels and even the issue of illiteracy in most rural communities.· Other challenges include land acquisition, delays in payment of water bills, illegal connections,urbanization and climate change.SuggestionsDr. Osei Wusu made a couple of suggestions for consideration as Mole XXII sought to find answers tosome of these challenges. He said MMDAs need to have in place dedicated budgets for WASH servicesdelivery. This, according to him, will support communities when they are unable to raise enough funds tomaintain facilities. He also called for continuous training to develop capacities of WASH-relatedinstitutions at the decentralized level.Keynote Address and Launch of Mole Conference Website – Director of WaterThe keynote address was delivered by the Director of Water at the Ministry of Water Resources, Worksand Housing. In the brief address, he recounted the various reforms in the WASH Sector especially since1994 when the NCWSP has been implemented. He identified a number of challenges includinginadequate capacity at the local level to implement programmes. He asked for thorough discussions onthe issue of capacity at the decentralized levels during the conference since, according to him, the MoleConference provided a potential platform to address such issues.The Director used the occasion to launch a new website for the Mole Conference Series –www.moleconference.org. The website would carry more information about the Mole Conference Series,Conference communiqués and reports, as well as live coverage of conference proceedings, pictures andother useful literature.WASH Sector Overview - by Emmanuel Addai (WSMP)Mr. Addais presentation on WASH Sector Overview covered access to water, basic sanitation andhygiene. The presentation also contained highlights on major policy issues, sector coordination, sectormonitoring and evaluation, research and knowledge management and major sector events.On access to water, Mr. Addai said latest data available for 2010 from the agencies indicated 62% for ruraland 63.9% for urban water supply, both having risen from approximately 59% in 2009. He however saidthat for MDG reporting purposes, according to the WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme, Ghanahad achieved 82% national coverage as at 2008, 90% urban and 74% rural, thus putting the country on-track to achieving her MDG target of 78%. On sanitation and, Mr. Addai said there were still no clearindicators but said the on-going work on the sector M&E Plan is expected to resolve that issue. For MDGreporting, he said data from the JMP indicated 12.4% national coverage, meaning the country was stillwide off-track to achieving her target of 54% by 2015.On major policy updates, he said the Management Contract with AVRL had ended and the government didnot extend it. Instead, the government planned on creating a new company, the Ghana Urban WaterLimited, to play an interim role in managing the affairs of urban water supply. On sanitation, he said the 15
  14. 14. 1999 National Sanitation Policy had been reviewed and launched in December 2010, while the Ministry ofLocal Government and Rural Development had adopted the CLTS approach as a rural sanitation model toeradicate open defecation and trigger demand for latrines.On sector coordination, Mr. Addai said the Water Directorate is being restructured to be properlymainstreamed in the Ministry, and a new Director had been recruited to replace the retired Director. Healso said the Bi-monthly Sector Working Group Meetings had always been held to deliberate oncoordination issues, including deliberations on the progress towards the Sector Wide Approach, for whicha code of conduct had been signed between the GoG and DPs, and a series of SWAp-related workshopsthat had been organized.On Sector M&E, he said a number of steps had been taken; these include the preparation of the SectorStrategic Development Plan out of which the M&E plan and framework will be developed, a set ofindicators had been selected for further stakeholder discussions to feed into the M&E Plan, and theproduction of a Sector Performance Report, which started in 2010 for 2009. He however called onNGOs/CSOs to document and provide information on their contribution to facility delivery, sector financingand advocacy.Mr. Addai said on sector knowledge management, there was a monthly National Level Learning Alliancesmeetings that had provided a useful platform for learning and sharing on thematic issues, while a couple ofnew learning oriented projects had also been created, including CREPA and WASHTech.Discussions on Sector OverviewMr John Ndjilo of Global Water Initiative wanted to know the reasons for disparities in coverage data in thepresentation and which type of data would be suitable for planning. Mr. Yaw Asante Sarkodie of the WSMPresponded that the disparities were as a result of differences in methodologies applied in computing them.He explained that two sources of data are used in data generation - provider-based data coming fromservice utilities, also called administrative data. This means as a country, standards have been agreed onwhich are used by provider agencies.The second is User based data. There is no data called JMP data as it comes from the Ghana StatisticalService (GSS) which carries out routine surveys including census to collect data on WASH from theperspective of users. The variances are coming from the description or definitions given to the variousindicators.The sector, according to Mr. Sarkodie, is thinking of working hard to close that gap. One option is to comeup with WASH sector specific surveys. The Ghana Statistical Service is in a good position to do that. Thesecond is to work on common definitions.In terms of national planning, because agencies have specific roles and standards, it is recommended thatdata from sector agencies be used. For MDGs, the JMP has been mandated to track progress and theyhave common parameters which they use. Mr Emmanuel Addai of the WSMP added that when the SSDPis finalized, a sectorwide M&E plan will be developed and it will work towards harmonizing the M&Eindicators.Guinea Worm Eradication in Ghana: Jim Niquette (W.A.T.E.R.)Mr. Jim Niquette reported that there had been zero cases of guinea worm in Ghana since May 2011. Hesaid it took Ghana three and half years to reduce the cases from more than 3,000 to zero and, according tohim, it was a record performance. He attributed the success to active and effective collaboration fromeverybody in the fight.DiscussionMr. Charles Yeboah of Safe Water Network wanted to know what would happen to post eradicationsurveillance and how civil society was being courted to fill in the gap that will arise. In response Mr. Jim saidthe process was to break transmission, which happens 14months after last recorded case followed bythree years with no cases. He said a certification process driven by Ghana Health Service and WHO wouldbe carried out. Ghana Health Service would use the Disease Surveillance Unit to carry out posteradication surveillance. 16
  15. 15. SUMMARY OF PAPER PRESENTATIONSGovernance, Accountability and Aid/Development Effectiveness in the WASH SectorThese sessions provided more understanding for the terms governance, accountability and aideffectiveness. Some of the presentations also highlighted Ghanas progress in ensuring that aid iseffective, accountability is built into practices and sustainability is paramount. A couple of gaps that stillexist in these efforts were highlighted and a number of suggestions offered. One presentation alsoemphasized development effectiveness as the ultimate goal of aid effectiveness.Aid Effectiveness in Drinking Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene – Yaw Sarkodie (WSMP)Mr. Sarkodies presentation covered various contributions by GoG and other donors to the WASH Sector,coverage trends, pillars of Aid Effectiveness, governance and transparency issues. He ended byhighlighting a couple of challenges and made some suggestions for improvement.He drew attention to the fact that compared with the Education and Health Sectors, the WASH sector wasthe least prioritized in terms of funding and said allocations to the sector had been just around 2.5% of totalannual budget. He said contributions from most donor partners have been by way of project delivery, inter-governmental transfers, multi-donor budget support and support for decentralization through localgovernment structures. Main donor partners, according to the presenter, included AfD, AfDB, CIDA,DANIDA, DfID, EU, Dutch Government, KFW, World Bank and UNICEF. The NGO partners includedWaterAid, Plan International, World Vision and several FBOs and CBOs, providing mainly off-budgetsupport.Mr. Sarkodie said donor grants and concessionary funding has been the main driver for rural water supplyand sanitation, while urban water supply represents a mix of commercial credits and grant elements.According to him, the sector has been largely funded through donor funds especially the rural water andsanitation sub-sector. He said while various drivers for water supply are in place and has put the country onthe path to achieving her MDG target, there are several barriers to sanitation improvement.According to Mr. Sarkodie, barriers holding back sector progress include inadequate investment, poortargeting and ineffective investments, inadequate donor alignment and harmonization, lack of capacity toplan, design, implement and monitor, poorly coordinated sector framework, lack of accountability andweak monitoring and evaluation. He said Ghanas assessment indicates positive responses in all the fivemain pillars of Aid Effectiveness – ownership, alignment, harmonization, managing for results, and mutualaccountability - however, there still remain a lot of challenges that must be removed in order to make aidmore effective; these include: delays in finalizing the multi-donor budget support, the Sector StrategicDevelopment Plan to which a sector M&E framework will be aligned, government budget for WASH stillbeing a line item instead of being programmatic, and sector plans not linked to performance monitoringsystem. He also said capacity limitations and absorptive capacities of public sector institutions andMMDAs are also challenging.Mr. Sarkodie suggested that there is need for more political will to prioritize WASH and development ofprudent financial management systems, and continue to forge more and effective partnerships such theSWA.Governance, Accountability and Aid Effectiveness: Towards sustainable rural water services –Vida Duti (Triple-S)The presentation defined the terms governance, accountability and aid effectiveness and explored howthey contribute to sustainability of water services. She said the belief by some donors and NGOs that largeamounts of aid directly invested in projects will result in positive outcomes has not been right as years ofexperience have shown that projects on their own do not result in sustainability of services. She saidexclusive focus on projects do undermine country ownership and capacity building of country structuresand systems. She said this results in a vicious cycle of failures seen in weak policies, poor coordination,poor planning, weak institutions, poor accountability and unsustainable services, when donors try torespond to this state of affairs through project aid, focus on infrastructure rather than services, nonalignment to sector policies. She said where there is no aid effectiveness, there is no focus on enablingsector environment and no attention to sector policies, no coordination and no alignment and this puts thesector back to the same poor state. She said a more effective approach acknowledges the importance ofworking with and through government structures.Ms Duti provided suggestions for maximizing aid effectiveness; these include clear nationally-ledstrategies for service delivery, agreement and implementation of commonly accepted approaches andcountry-specific service delivery models, and clarity for consumers and service providers about service 17
  16. 16. delivery models. She went on to outline the building blocks for a sustainable sector, including effectivepolicies and strategies, effective sector coordination, effective institutional arrangements, adequate sectorfinancings and performance monitoring. Others include effective planning, awareness and skills, culture oflearning and information sharing, harmonization and alignment. She said putting these into practicerequires context specific building blocks.Ms Duti said analyses show that what is required to ensure sustainability is already in place but there are anumber of missing pieces that require attention. These, she said, include: gaps between policy andpractice, weak harmonization, weak service authority capacity, emphasis on construction instead ofservices, and lack of regulatory framework among others. She provided evidence of ongoing efforts to fillthe gaps and provided some steps to address the missing pieces, including sector harmonizationframework such as the SWAp and SSDP, national guidelines and agreed strategic approaches,sustainability and functionality indicators, ongoing dialogue on sector financing, legislation and piloting ofthe District Ownership and Management concept.Findings from a Ghana Integrity Initiative (GII) Research on Governance in the WASH Sector –Vitus Azeem (GII)Mr. Azeem said the research by GII focused on water because it is a basic necessity which, when priced ateconomic rates, the poor turn to low quality sources with a lot of health implications. He said the watersector is also a national policy focus as the GPRS and the other strategic development frameworkshighlight water. He said the research aimed at identifying risks related to lack of transparency and integrityand their potential negative impacts on water supply performance.Findings from the research, according to Mr. Azeem, indicated that measures for ensuring transparency inthe WASH sector are established, including regular reporting systems, regular meetings, regular auditingof accounts, publication and documentation of tendering processes. However, according to him,compliance is weak, giving way for issues of lack of accountability and integrity. He said thoughaccountability efforts have been upwards through routine submission of periodic and completion, as well sfinancial reports as required by law, processes for ensuring downward accountability is very low. He saiduser participation in decision-making is not adequate as most meetings are held without users. On what hereferred to as grand corruption, he provided examples such as:· Single contractor buying and pricing all bidding documents;· Award of a number of contracts to the same contractor under different names;· Procuring entities making payment before due dates;· Advancing funds for mobilization beyond the 15% allowable limit;· Over invoicing and shoddy workMr. Azeem also cited illegal connections, meter tampering, direct payment to meter readers, underreporting of daily sales etc as examples of what he calls petty corruption.The research recommended the need to strengthen anti corruption tools and the capacity of sectoragencies to implement those tools. Donors too are requested to introduce anti corruption clauses in allcooperation agreements also adhere to the highest standards of disclosure and consultation for all waterprojects they support. The report also recommended creation of awareness and systems within publicorganisations so that they can cooperate effectively with civil society to prevent corruption. The reportagain suggested the institutionalization of involvement of civil society at each of the levels of publicprocurement, public access to information on operations of public utility providers should be increased.Governance, Accountability and Development Effectiveness – Zan Akologo (National CatholicSecretariat)Mr. Akologo began his presentation with a couple of quotes including one from the former UN Secretarygeneral, Kofi Annan, “Good governance is perhaps the single most important factor in eradicating povertyand promoting development.” He defined governance as being about processes, as requiring more than afocus on government, as being the nature of relations between state and society, and as being about spacefor interaction for decision making between state and economic and societal actors.Mr. Akologo identified six main principles of governance: participation, fairness, decency, accountability,transparency and efficiency.The presentation tried to draw a dichotomy between Aid Effectiveness andDevelopment Effectiveness: While Aid Effectiveness relates to measures that improve the quality of the aidrelationship, primarily focusing on the terms and conditions of the resource transfer, DevelopmentEffectiveness promotes sustainable change within a framework that addresses the causes and thesymptoms of poverty, inequality and marginalization through the diversity and complementarities ofinstruments, policies and actors. Development effectiveness, in relation to aid, according to Mr. Akologo, is 18
  17. 17. understood as policies and practices by development actors that deepen the impact of aid anddevelopment cooperation on the capacities of poor and marginalized people to realize their rights.Mr. Akologos presentation also stated that an evaluation of the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectivenessindicated some donors have demonstrated less commitment than partner countries to making thechanges needed in their own systems. He said participation and ownership in the international aidimprovement campaign needs to be widened as soon as possible to engage more actors and styles ofcooperation. He said Ghana had made moderate progress in terms of ownership but harmonization insome areas remained slow.He concluded that the task of improving governance in the WASH Sector is linked to improvement ingovernance processes at the national level. He said the onus is on local stakeholders: government,economic and societal actors. He ended by drawing attention to the need for our own effectiveorganisation, accountability and capacity development to become an indispensable interlocutor in thiscause.Discussions on Governance, Accountability and Aid/Development Effectiveness in the WASHSectorIn reaction to whether loans should be separated from grants to ascertain the exact governmentcontribution to sector funding, Mr. Oduro Donkor of ProNet said he was of the view that in whatever form,the question of revenue mobilization from internal sources should be our preoccupation since that wouldprovide the solution to sustainable sector funding. He said grants and loans may not guarantee financialsustainability in the future.With comparatively low budget allocations to the WASH sector, Mr. Samuel Sackitey wanted to knowwhether it was not due to lack of government commitment to the sector given her persistent failure toincrease allocations to WASH. Other participants were of the view that the Education and Health Sectorshave many more staff to cater for as against very few government workers in the WASH sector. But Mr. BenArthur of CONIWAS thought that even if the staff in WASH were few, allocations could still go intoinvestments to accelerate WASH sector growth since the lack of water, sanitation and hygiene wouldmake all investments in education and health wasteful.In reaction to a GII reference to the non-adherence to the 15% advance payment for contractors in theprocurement law, Mr. Phillip Amanor of CWSA said it was better for that part of the law to be reviewed sincemost private sector operators cannot deliver enough, but Mr. Vitus Azeem said that clause is to preventheavy losses should some contractors run away so there is at least a positive side to that law too.On sector funding, Mr. Othniel Habila of UNICEF Ghana suggested that a small team should be formed tofollow pursue funding issues with the appropriate ministries (especially the Ministry of Finance andEconomic Planning). Current, there is no one to follow up at the top with all the calls for increased sectorfunding. It was suggested that Jim of the Carter Centre lead in forming the team.Mr. Charles Nachinab of New Energy wanted to know from whose perspective are we determining if aid iseffective. Who determines the criteria for aid effectiveness? Is there any specific aid case which can beused to cite reasons for aid ineffectiveness? The response was that it was the perspective of all involved.The underlying factor is that all have agreed on common goals and results in WASH, its delivery of servicesto the un-served. We all need to work on making sure our contributions are used effectively be it technicalor financial.A major question emerged during a Panel Discussion on Aid Effectiveness, Good governance andAccountability: “How do governance, accountability and aid effectiveness contribute to sustainability?”Throwing more light on the question, Ms. Vida Duti of Triple-S indicated that some donors believe thatlarge amounts of aid directly invested in projects will result in positive outcomes, but, according to her,projects do not, on their own, contribute to sustainability. She said Ghana had about 70% of what it takes toensure aid effectiveness and how that will lead to sustainability. What remains, according to her, is the willto implement them.Mr. Patrick Moriarty of IRC said NGOs have roles to play in aid effectiveness and the Sector WideApproach. He identified communication and documentation as some of the key roles that NGOs can play.He said aid effectiveness and SWAp should not be seen as government business a responsibility for all.Br. Ben Arthur of CONIWAS also said NGOs need to look back at their models and align them with what willlead to sustainability and aid effectiveness. He said DAs should also be bold to take NGOs on and bringthem in line with District plans.Mr. Evans Atiim of the East Gonja District Assembly (DWST) reiterated that fact that some NGOs do not 19
  18. 18. collaborate with DAs and usually bypass them in their dealings and he believed that some donors arebehind those actions.Mr. Othniel Habila of UNICEF Ghana said that though it is every ones responsibility, the governmentshould be seen as playing a leadership role and show clear ownership in ensuring aid effectiveness andsustainability. He also advised donors to align with government programmes and work themselves out ofbusiness.Mr. Thomas Sayibu Imoro of NewEnergy said that long term support to communities for maintenance mustbe provided. He said DPs would be needed to support such a programme. He advised that SWAp will infact narrow the space of NGOs; they therefore need to re-package their skills.Dealing with Long Term Financing for WASHThis section discussed WASH Sector financing gaps and explored long term financing options for theSector. There were also presentations on lessons and experiences on various small town water supplymanagement models and how effective models could impact on financing small town systems.Findings from GrassRootsAfricas Budget Tracking (2010) by Hawa Nibi Amenga Etego –GrassRootsAfricaThe paper was presented by Mr. Ben Arthur of CONIWAS on behalf of Mrs hawa Nibi Amenga Etego. Thepurpose of the budget tracking, according to Mrs Amenga Etego, was to among others, ascertain theoverall budget allocation to the WASH sector and make a comparison of the WASH sector allocationsagainst those of the Ministries of Education and Health, as well as actual releases against allocations.Findings, according to Mrs Amenga Etego, indicated a reduction in GoG funding particularly forinvestments to the Ministry of Water resources, Works and Housing (MWRWH), while the overall GoGcontribution was just about 13% as against 78% from donors. Whereas GoG allocation was 26% and 11%to the Ministry of Education (MoE) and Ministry of Health (MoH) respectively, allocation to the MWRWHand the Ministry of Local Government and Rural Development (MLGRD) were 2.7% and 3.5%respectively.MWRWH received over 100% (155%) for personal emolument (PE), over 100% (108%) for administration,48% for service and more than double the allocation for investment (207%). CWSA received 57% for P.E,100% for administration, 50% for services and 8.3% for investment. GWCL received more than 100% ofthe allocated budget for investment and service allocation. WRC received more than 100% for P.E, 90% foradministration, 24.9% for service and 21% for investment. EHSD received 51% for P.E, over 307% forAdmin, 46% for service and 85% for investment.The research identified issues with disbursement as the Ministry of Finance blamed the non-release offunds on the low absorptive capacity of the agencies, a blame which the agencies also refuse to take. Thepresentation made suggestions for alternative sector financing including:· Special levy on high water users such as breweries, mining companies solely for water infrastructure· The 20% tax on packaged water should be used exclusively for the expansion of piped waterinfrastructure.· The collection of property tax should be improved and used to support the water and sanitation sector.· One percent tax should be imposed on piped water to be re-invested in water and sanitation.Long Term Financing of Small Towns Water Systems – Alex Obuobisa Darko (WASHCost)Mr. Darko stated in his presentation that current project approaches are not sustainable as systemsfunction and sag in a short time. What is needed, he said, is a Service Delivery Approach, where systemsare constantly upgraded and made functional.He said there life cycle costs to service delivery, including capital Expenditure, Operational and MinorMaintenance Expenditure, Capital Maintenance Expenditure, Expenditure on Direct Support, Expenditureon Indirect Support and Cost of Capital.Mr. Darko said there should be budgets for these life cycle costs to ensure sustainability. He said if we fail toinvest in maintenance and allow systems to break down, the rehabilitation costs are sometimes notdifferent from the original installation cost. He said capital expenditure is one of the critical elements ofsustainability He also called for direct support to MMDAs for capital maintenance to ensure sustainability.Small Town Water Supply Management ModelsManagement of water facilities in small towns are a bit more complicated than rural facilities. A number ofmanagement models are being applied in different parts of the country, most of them dictated by thecontext, the type and size of the technology, the size of the community etc. In this session, two different 20
  19. 19. presentations were made to share experiences documented from some existing management models inGhana and elsewhere.Small Town Water Supply Management Models in Ghana – Benedict Tuffuor (TREND)Mr Tuffuors presentation was based on case studies undertaken on a number of water systems in Ghana.They include the Bekwai, Atebubu, Wassa Akropong, Tumu, Abokobi and Pantang, Asesewa andAsiakwa, Savalugu and the 3 Districts Water Supply System. He defined a small town as follows: “Smalltowns are settlements that are sufficiently large and dense to benefit from the economies of scale offeredby piped systems, but too small and dispersed to be efficiently managed by a conventional urban waterutility. They require formal management arrangements, a legal basis for ownership and management, andthe ability to expand to meet the growing demand for water. Small towns usually have populations between5,000 and 50,000, but can be larger or smaller.”The study identified, at the global level, six different management models: Community management,water board management, municipal management, private management and utility management.In Ghana, the study identified the following as the prevailing models: Direct Water and SanitationDevelopment Board (WSDB) management with Water and Sanitation (Watsan) Committee, direct WSDBmanagement without Watsan, WSDB management with delegated operations (Public-PrivatePartnership), WSDB management with delegated operations in the Three District Water Supply Schemeand direct WSDB management with bulk supply.Mr. Tuffuor said challenges associated with these models include: Low levels of revenue generated forOperation and Maintenance, capital maintenance and system rehabilitation; Lack of sustained technicalsupport to WSDBs, general lack of sustainable management capacity at the local level, lack of visibility ofNGOs in ensuring social accountability, inadequate DA capacity/commitment for Post-constructionactivities, poor adherence to accountability and conflicts between WSDB and DAs/DCEs. He identifiedthree key success factors for any management model; these are (1) technical viability of the waterinfrastructure, (2) financial viability including tariff systems, financial management systems andinvestment, and (3) institutional arrangements: contracts, clear roles and responsibilities, commitmentand capacity of stakeholders.Mr. Tuffuor ended his presentation with a couple of questions for discussion:1. Given the DAs central role in decentralised service delivery, and their generally challenged capacity andorientation (project approach), how do we achieve sustainable service delivery?2. What gap can the NGOs fill to ensure efficient post-construction management for sustainable servicedelivery?3. How do we ensure sustained civil society (WSDBs, Watsans) capacity for sustainable service delivery?4. How do you deal with sustainable tariffs, pro-poor services, sustainable services, weak DA financing?The NORST Project management Models for Small Town Water Systems: by Alex Opare Akunor(NORST/CIDA)Mr. Alex Opare Akunor said the NORST Project was also testing new small town management models in13 districts in the Northern Region with small town water systems. He said the model brings morestakeholders on board the management of small town systems, while care is taken not to throw away theCWSA approaches. He said CIDA, who provides funding, transfers the money to the Bank of Ghana, thenthrough the Treasury, before the funds are transferred to the DAs based on a sound plan andarrangements. He said there are periodic audits of the DAs on how the funds are being utilized. He saidsome of the challenges identified with the model include the slow pace of progress due to the workingprocedures. He also said there challenges with coordination. A major lesson, he said was that DAs havethe ability to manage systems; they only need orientation and the right equipmentDiscussions on Small Town Management ModelsParticipants generally agreed with the fact that lack of support costs hampers sustainability. There werealso suggestions that a lot of work needed to be done on character building, while there was a strong callfor a WASH share in revenues from the oil find.Mr. Othniel Habila highlighted the fact that the sanitation side of WSDBs is weak and most discussionsabout the boards are usually on water. He also wanted to know how CWSA was positioning itself tocoordinate all the rural and small town projects.In response Mr. Tuffuor said it was true that WSDBs talk more about water. However, they had budgets forsanitation too. Mr.Alex..., however, said the NORST Project had a sanitation component, which includedenvironmental sanitation and CLTS. 21
  20. 20. When Mr. Phillip Amanor of CWSA suggested that it was better to select the best model to scale up, Mr.Tuffuor said effectiveness of models depended largely on the context and thus it was difficult to select abest model. He said the problem was not with the type of model but how the rules are adhered to and eachpartner playing the assigned role.Mr. Charles Nachinab of CWSA suggested that as we demand so much efficiency from the WSDBs, weshould ensure that they are given adequate training. He said the norm has been that they are usually giveabout three days training for a job so demanding as managing a water facility for thousands of people.On effectiveness of Water Boards and their accountability issues, Mr. Vitus Azeem of GII said there is theneed for more sharing of information and closer collaboration to avoid duplication of efforts and possibleconflicts. In view of lack of or inadequate transparency and accountability as well as the possiblepoliticization of the Water Board, he said it is important to emphasize the need for independent and neutralmonitoring teams.Natural Resource (Oil, Gas, Mining) Exploration and Implications on WASHThis session reviewed the effects of the exploration of oil, gas and other natural resources on waterresources. Some of the presentations called for reviews of laws, a share of revenue from mining and oil forWASH, better environmental and health impact assessments and more specifically support for the mostaffected MMDAs in the Western Region to contain the increasing pressure on the WASH facilities as aresult of the oil find.Effects of Oil and Gas on the WASH Sector – Steve ManteawDr. Steve Manteaw started his presentation describing the relations between water and oil as symbiotic;water is a key factor in oil extraction, while oil is a key factor in water production. It is therefore rational,according to Dr. Manteaw, not to overlook water in the discussions around oil and gas. He said most oil-richdeveloping countries are poorly ranked using the World Banks composite governance indicators and theTransparency Internationals annual ranking of states by perceptions of corruption. He said impacts of oilon the environment are unavoidable but the challenge is how best to mitigate and manage them. He saidguidelines for Environmental Impact Assessments (EIA) are not fully complied with and this leads to thedesign of inadequate mitigating measures. Dr. Manteaw said even though activities on oil exploration aremainly offshore, it is important to recognize that facilities and installations that will service the productionplatform are located onshore.Dr. Manteaw said oil exploration will attract many people to the Western Region and this will inevitably putpressure on WASH services and facilities and all other amenities. He said discussions around themanagement and use of oil and gas revenue therefore could not be oblivious of the need to provideresources for containing these pressures.In conclusion, he said the over-riding concern in all the discussions in respect of petroleum sector hasbeen how to spread the benefits. Meanwhile the biggest challenge confronting water, hygiene andsanitation services delivery in Ghana is that of finance – infrastructure, personnel, and logistics. The focusof any campaign for universal access to WASH services, according to him, should therefore be primed onleveraging petroleum revenues to bolster the WASH sector.Petroleum Exploitation in Ghana: Water and Sanitation Implications – Bishop Akolgo (Presentedby Maame Yaa Bosomtwe)Bishop Akolgo spoke on the petroleum sector and its environmental challenges and the need for regionalimpact assessment. He said the petroleum industry presents opportunities in generating revenues forfunding public services and local business participation in procurement of goods and services, while thecredit worthiness of the country is boosted to enable the country borrow on the back of oil. For investmentsin the Western Region, He said areas such as support for education, support for water points, payment ofproperty rates and royalties (if onshore), demand for food etc are all opportunities that can arise from the oilexploration. He however identified a number of threats associated with the industry: these includepollution, low capacity to monitor companies, increasing human traffic, low capacity by MMDAs to provideadequate public services including WASH, and security. He called for integrated management planningincluding application of land-use planning principles to planning of offshore areas and management of thewhole ecosystem in areas and not individual species.By way of recommendation, he said the integrated management planning should ensure WASH is part ofthe four priority areas for petroleum revenue investment. He asked for the empowerment of the RegionalCoordinating Councils (RCC) and MMDAs in the region to monitor environmental impact as well aseconomic impacts. He also asked for the empowerment of the RCCs and MMDAs to respond to increasingpressure on services, while encouraging MMDAs to take long-term view of development and how to buildand sustain viable local economies using petroleum activities as catalyst. 22
  21. 21. Implications of Mining on Water Resources in the Western Region – Mawuli Lumor (WRC)Mr. Lumors presentation highlighted climate change and rapid population growth as two of the majorimpacts on water. He said an Assessment on Water Resources by the Environmental Protection Agency(EPA) revealed an increase in temperatures of about 10C over a 30 year period, and reductions in rainfalland runoff in the historical data sets. The climate change scenarios, according to him, also showed areduction in groundwater recharge at a rate of nearly 20% during the same period. On population growth,he said though the national growth rate between 1984 and 2000 was 2.7% while the Western Region grewby 3.2%, with the ore bearing areas (Wassa West) alone growing by 10%.As the mining activities degrade water bodies and forests (which indirectly also affect water resources andthe climate), rapid population growth adds to the challenges as it brings more pressure on the sameresources.Mr. Lumor said impacts of Large Scale Mining (LSM) on water resources include: acid mine drainage,release of metals, cyanide, siltation, tailing dam and impoundment leaks, seepage and breaches, arseniccontamination. He said these impacts depend on the type of rock and ore being mined, the type of miningoperation and the scale of operations, as well as the efficiency and effectiveness of environmentalmanagement systems among others.On impacts of Small Scale Mining (SSM), Mr. Lumor said it leads to increased exposure of ruralcommunities to mercury, dust and vulnerability to the effects of noise. Other impacts of SSM, he said,include: Direct discharge of tailings and effluents into rivers and streams, mercury pollution, deforestation,landscape destruction, among several others.Mr. Lumor suggested a number of measures that can be applied to reduce the impacts; they includeenforceable regulations, site-specific management and regulatory framework, abstraction charges for pitdewatering, and regularization of the activities of SSMs. He concluded that there should be strongcollaboration among the regulatory agencies and simplification of the licensing procedures for SSMs, aswell as adequate financing for capacity building in IWRM at the lowest levels. He also called for speedyadoption of the Buffer Zone Policy to protect water bodies.Implications of Gold Mining in the WASH Sector: A Case Study of Arsenic Pollution in TarkwaNsuaem Municipality and Prestea Huni Valley District – Samuel Obiri (CEIA)Mr. Samuel Obiris presentation identified a number of issues with the Minerals and Mining Law, includingwater right, public access to information, royalties, debt recovery, stability agreement, developmentagreement, general penalty, and access to court among a couple others. He identified many gaps in theexisting law, which according to him, needed a review. These gaps include the following:· No clear protection of forest reserves, cultural and significant sites and installations in the country;· The law is silent on cyanide spillages and chemical pollution of water bodies:·The distance between a settlement or town and an active pit has to be defined legally to avoidmany conflicts. EPA is yet to develop standards on blasting;· Inadequate protection of community properties in the event of mining operationsMr. Obiri said there was widespread perception of the communities in the Obuasi and Tarkwa areas thattheir water resources had been polluted through mining, while the drinking water sources they had beenprovided were also polluted. He said these perceptions had been confirmed by report issued by CHRAJ in2008 that most of the water-borne diseases they suffer are as a result of the bad quality of water supplied tothem after their sources of drinking water have been destroyed.Mr Obiri recommended that there should be a composite law that would define legal requirements fordecommissioning of mines, restoration of land etc. He also recommended that there should be disclosureof information especially on mining effects of communities and the environment. He said the law must beclear on preservation and protection of lands especially agricultural lands, while there is need toincorporate the “Polluter Pays Principle” in the legal framework. He also advocated for what he termed“Free Prior and Informed Consent” by communities for mining and said it should be incorporated in the law.Mr. Obiri also called for similar studies in other parts of the country. He also asked for more Health ImpactAssessments before mining licenses are granted. The EPA, WRC, CHRAJ and the Minerals Commission,according to him, should educate mining communities on the contents of various EIA documents beforepublic hearing on EIA documents submitted by mining companies.Discussions on Natural Resource (oil, gas, mining) Exploration and Implications on WASHThe main outcome of the discussions following the presentations on oil, gas and mining was that WASHshould be counted among the top four priorities for the disbursement of oil revenue. 23
  22. 22. Scaling up Sanitation and HygieneThis session was dedicated mainly to CLTS presentations and lengthy discussions on the approach. Thesession was made up of three main presentations: one from the policy perspective, one from an urbanexperience and the other from a rural experience. Most of the time was, however, devoted to plenarydiscussions, with concrete decisions taken in the end as a way forward. In the end, the government,NGOs, private sector and the media accepted to pursue some specialized roles to support the scale up ofCLTS.Working towards a Sustainable CLTS in Ghana – Kweku Quansah (MLGRD)Mr. Kweku Quansahs presentation focused on why scale up CLTS and the scaling up strategies. He saida recent assessment indicated that CLTS has the potential to create the momentum needed to accelerateand sustain access to improved sanitation in Ghana. He said the effectiveness of CLTS is well appreciatedby many actors at all levels in Ghana. The CLTS, he said, has thus been adopted in the EnvironmentalSanitation Policy (ESP) and the NESSAP as the strategy for delivering sanitation in small towns and ruralcommunities of populations 7500 and below.On the reason for scaling up CLTS, he said of all the MDG targets, sanitation is the most off-track (13%with only four years to reach 54%). Being more specific on economic impacts, he said poor sanitationcosts Ghana about $290 million per year, while about 4.8 million people practice open defecation. Opendefecation, according to him, costs Ghana about $79 million per year. With these and several othernegative effects of poor sanitation and especially open defecation, Ghana had adopted the CLTSapproach as a proven strategy with the potential accelerate access.The Scaling up strategy, according to Mr. Quansah, is hinged on the findings, recommendations andconclusions of the 2009 CLTS Assessment. They include generating national consensus on CLTS,strengthening national co-ordination of CLTS, developing National CLTS strategy, action plan andguidelines (including WASH in Schools), rolling out training of resource persons (critical mass) at national,regional, and district levels, advocating and communicating the CLTS approach at national, regional anddistrict levels. The strategy will also incorporate CLTS into the DESSAPs with plans and budgets andincorporate CLTS into the curriculum for schools of hygiene. Key CLTS monitoring indicators (training,facilitation, behavioural changes, and ODF status) will be developed and research into suitable low-costtechnology options for the various unique conditions will be undertaken, he said.Innovative Approaches to Implementing CLTS in an Urban Setting – Nii Wellington (TREND Group)Mr. Nii Wellington, in his presentation, indicated that though the national evaluation of CLTSrecommended the approach for rural communities because of their homogenous, small, easily mobilizedand governable characteristics, it failed to make similar recommendations for urban areas since theircharacteristics are different and generally complex. He said, the approach may be practicable in urbanareas when standard facilitation processes and implementation tools are modified to suit the urbanenvironment.Mr. Wellington presented lessons from a pilot CLTS attempt in Lekpongunor, a small town in the DangmeWest District, whose population was about 5000, highly littered with very high open defecation rates.Some of the innovative strategies adopted, he said, was to divide the community into smaller segmentsand deal with each separately. He said the group developed a seven-step approach to projectimplementation:1. Sectional Triggering with Town Group leaders as well as opinion leaders. 15 sessions were held in a 3week period2. Triggered leaders commenced defecation area walks with facilitators in all the sessions. These walkswere captured on video and also on still photographs (1 month)3. Town Triggering: Audio-visual productions were shown to Town members in the variousneighbourhoods at nights, normally attracting large crowds4. Special sessions were conducted with the 3 schools. They reviewed existing School Sanitation andHygiene Education plans. Formed and Triggered School Hygiene Clubs using the standard triggeringprocess. Hygiene club members became natural leaders and commenced communal clean-ups andhousehold follow-ups5. Post-triggering follow-ups (currently on-going) is being conducted on house-to-house basis byextension staff, school children and other community natural leaders6. Daily Reminders using the gong-gong at defecation sites (morning and evening)7. On-going advocacy with the district and CWSA to support the Town in terms of committing resourcesand personnel for follow-up - monthly meeting and presentations on existing situation and closecollaboration with CWSA on progress of work. 24

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