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Wind energy 2 Wind energy 2 Document Transcript

  • Wind Energy Wind power is the conversion of wind energy into a useful form of energy, such as using wind turbines to make electrical power, windmills for mechanical power, windpumps for water pumping or drainage, or sails to propel ships. Large wind farms consist of hundreds of individual wind turbines which are connected to the electric power transmission network. For new constructions, onshore wind is an inexpensive source of electricity, competitive with or in many places cheaper than fossil fuel plants.Small onshore wind farms provide electricity to isolated locations. Utility companies increasingly buy surplus electricity produced by small domestic wind turbines.Offshore wind is steadier and stronger than on land, and offshore farms have less visual impact, but construction and maintenance costs are considerably higher.Wind power, as an alternative to fossil fuels, is plentiful, renewable, widely distributed, clean, produces no greenhouse gas emissions during operation and uses little land. Wind power is very consistent from year to year but has significant variation over shorter time scales. As the proportion of windpower in a region increases, a need to upgrade the grid, and a lowered ability to supplant conventional production can occur. Power management techniques such as having excess capacity storage, geographically distributed turbines, dispatchable backing sources, storage such as pumped-storage hydroelectricity, exporting and importing power to neighboring areas or reducing demand when wind production is low, can greatly mitigate these problems. In addition, weather forecasting permits the electricity network to be readied for the predictable variations in production that occur.[ How it work • Wind turbines collects kinetic energy from the wind from blades similar to planes . • The wind glides over the blades and creates lift and turns the blades.
  • • The blades are connected to a rotating shaft that is connected to an electric generator that makes electricity. Wind turbines operate on a simple principle: • The energy in the wind turns the propeller-like blades around a rotor. The pitch of the blades makes optimum use of the wind direction. • The rotor is connected to the main drive shaft, which spins a generator to create electricity. • Wind turbines are mounted on a tower to capture the most energy. At 30 metres or more above ground, they can take advantage of faster and less turbulent wind. • Wind turbines can be used to produce electricity for a single home or building, or they can be connected to an electricity grid for more widespread electricity distribution. Economics • Determining Factors • Wind Speed • Turbine design and construction • Rated capacity of the turbine • Exact Location • Improvements in turbine design • Capital Economic Advantages • Greater fuel diversity • No delay in construction • Low maintenance costs • Reliable and durable equipment • Additional income to land owners • More jobs per unit energy produced • No hidden costs
  • Wind Turbine Description • Components  Rotor  Gearbox  Tower  Foundation  Controls  Generator • Types  Horizontal axis  Most common  Controls or design turn rotor into wind  Vertical axis  Less common
  • Wind Resource • High average wind speeds are essential  4 m/s annual average is minimum  People tend to overestimate the wind  Wind speed tends to increase with height • Good resource  Coastal areas  Crests of long slopes  Passes  Open terrain  Valleys that channel winds • Typically windier in  Winter than summer  Day than night  1 MW Turbine Power Curve 0 200 400 600 800 1,000 1,200 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 Wind speed (m/s) Power(kW)
  • Wind energy system costs • Windfarms  $1,500/kW installed  O&M: $0.01/kWh  Selling price: $0.04-$0.10/kWh • Single turbines & isolated-grid  Higher costs (more project specific)  Feasibility study, development & engineering represent a higher portion of costs • Expect one major component replacement of 20 to 25% of initial costs  Rotor blades or gearbox 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% Balance of plant Turbines Engineering Development Feasibility Study Portion of Installed Costs
  • Market Strategy Vision : -Make wind the worlds biggest green energy source. Offer to Market : - We offer long term presence and an organization with employees having excellent experience, extensive network , significant technical insight and market knowledge. Investigation Geographical of Istanbul Istanbul is located in northwestern Turkey within the Marmara Region on a total area of 5,343 square kilometers.The Bosphorus, which connects the Sea of Marmara to the Black Sea, divides the city into a European, Thracian side—comprising the historic and economic centers—and an Asian, Anatolian side. The city is further divided by the Golden Horn, a natural harbor bounding the peninsula where the former Byzantium and Constantinople were founded. The confluence of the Sea of Marmara, the Bosphorus, and the Golden Horn at the heart of present-day Istanbul has deterred attacking forces for thousands of years and still remains a prominent feature of the city's landscape. Following the model of Rome, the historic peninsula is said to be characterized by seven hills, each topped by imperial mosques. The easternmost of these hills is the site of Topkapı Palace on the Sarayburnu.Rising from the opposite side of the Golden Horn is another, conical hill, where the modern Beyoğlu district is situated. Because of the topography, buildings in Beyoğlu were once constructed with the help of terraced retaining walls, and roads were laid out in the form of steps.
  • This place is my company area which is shown with red frame. The place 11000 m2 area . Üsküdar on the Asian side exhibits similarly hilly characteristics, with the terrain gradually extending down to the Bosphorus coast, but the landscape in Şemsipaşa and Ayazma is more abrupt, akin to a promontory. The highest point in Istanbul is Çamlıca Hill, with an altitude of 288 meters. The northern half of Istanbul has a higher mean elevation compared to the south coast, with locations surpassing 200 meters (660 ft), and some coasts with steep cliffs resembling fjords, especially around the northern end of the Bosporus, where it opens up to the Black Sea. Istanbul is situated near the North Anatolian Fault, close to the boundary between the African and Eurasian Plates. This fault zone, which runs from northern Anatolia to the Sea of Marmara, has been responsible for several deadly earthquakes throughout the city's history. Among the most devastating of these seismic events was the 1509 earthquake, which caused a tsunami that broke over the walls of the city and killed more than 10,000 people. More recently, in 1999, an earthquake with its epicenter in nearby İzmit left 18,000 people dead, including 1,000 people in Istanbul's suburbs. The people of Istanbul remain concerned that an even more catastrophic seismic event may be in the city's near future, as thousands of structures recently built to accommodate Istanbul's rapidly increasing population may not have been constructed properly. Seismologists say the risk of a 7.6-magnitude or greater earthquake striking Istanbul by 2030 is more than 60 percent.
  • W/m2 Wind Speed (m/s)
  • Climate According to the Köppen–Geiger classification system, Istanbul has a borderline Mediterranean climate (Csa), humid subtropical climate (Cfa) and oceanic climate (Cfb), due to its location on a transitional climatic zone. Since precipitation in summer months, ranges from 20-65 mm, depending on location, the city cannot be classified as solely Mediterranean or humid subtropical. Due to its size, diverse topography, maritime location and most importantly having a coastline to two different bodies of water to the north and south, Istanbul exhibits microclimates. Northern half of the city, as well as the Bosporus coastline, express characteristics of a borderline oceanic and humid subtropical climate, because of humidity from the Black Sea and the relatively high concentration of vegetation. The climate in the populated areas of the city in the south, located on the Sea of Marmara, is warmer, drier and less affected by humidity. There is a significant difference between annual mean temperatures between the north and south coasts as well, Bahçeköy 12.8 °C (55.0 °F), Kartal 15.03 °C (59.05 °F).Parts of the province, that are away from both seas exhibit considerable continental influences, with much more pronounced night-day and summer-winter temperature differences. At times there can be as much as 12–15 °C (54–59 °F) difference of temperature at a given time between locations, as well as precipitation, cloud cover and fog. In winter some regions of the province average at or below freezing at night. Indeed, one of the most salient characteristics of the climate in parts of Istanbul is its persistently high humidity, which reaches 80 percent most mornings. Because of these conditions, fog is very common, although more so in northern parts of the city and away from the city center. Notably dense fog events that disrupt transportation in the region, including on the Bosphorus, are perennial occurrences during the autumn and winter months, when the humidity remains high into the afternoon.The humid conditions and the fog tend to dissipate by midday during the summer months, but the lingering humidity still has the effect of exacerbating the moderately high summer temperatures. During these summer months, high temperatures average around 29 °C (84 °F) and rainfall is uncommon; there are only about fifteen days with measurable precipitation between June and August. Nevertheless, despite the low precipitation, the summer months also have the highest concentration of thunderstorms. Winter is colder in Istanbul than in most other cities around the Mediterranean Basin, with low temperatures averaging 3–4 °C (37–39 °F). Lake-effect snow from the Black Sea is common, although difficult to forecast, with the potential to be heavy and—as with the fog—disruptive to the city's infrastructure. Spring and autumn are mild, but often wet and unpredictable; chilly winds from the northwest and warm gusts from the south—sometimes in the same day—tend to cause fluctuations in temperature. Overall, Istanbul has an annual average of 115 days with significant precipitation,
  • which amounts to 852 millimeters (33.5 in) per year.The highest and lowest temperatures ever recorded in the city are 40.5 °C (105 °F) and −16.1 °C (3 °F), respectively. The highest amount of rainfall recorded in a single day is 227 millimeters (8.9 in), whereas the highest recorded snow cover is 80 centimeters. Transportation The Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge is one of two suspension bridges on the Bosphorus. Istanbul's primary motorways are the O-1, O-2, O-3, and O-4. The O-1 forms the city's inner ring road, traversing the Bosphorus Bridge, and the O-2 is the city's outer ring road, crossing the Fatih Sultan Mehmet (Second Bosphorus) Bridge. The O-2 continues west to Edirne and the O-4 continues east to Ankara are coterminous with European route E80 (the Trans European Motorway) between Portugal and the Turkish–Iranian border. The two Bosphorus Bridges currently form the only fixed links between the Asian and European sides of Turkey, together carrying 400,000 vehicles each day. The dual-deck, 14.6-kilometer (9.1 mi)Eurasia Tunnel is currently under construction beneath the Bosphorus, between Fatih and Kadıköy. The Third Bosphorus Bridge, first considered in the 1990s, may also finally be coming to fruition, as the project was officially launched in 2012. Both projects may be completed as early as 2015. İstiklal Avenue along a steep 573-meter (1,880 ft) track, while a more modern funicular between Taksim Square and Kabataş began running in 2006. The Istanbul Metrocomprises three disconnected lines with several other lines and extensions under construction or proposed. The two sides of Istanbul's metro will ultimately be connected under the Bosphorus when the Marmaray tunnel, the first rail connection of any kind between Thrace and Anatolia, is completed in 2015. Upon its completion, rail use in the city is expected to increase to 28 percent (from just 4 percent), behind only Tokyo and New York City. Until then, buses provide transportation within and between the two halves of the city, accommodating 2.2 million passenger-trips each day.]The Metrobus, a form of bus rapid transit, traverses the Bosphorus Bridge, with dedicated lanes leading to its termini. İDO (Istanbul Seabuses) runs a combination of all-passenger ferries and car-and-passenger ferries to ports on both sides of the Bosphorus, as far north as the Black Sea. With additional destinations around the Sea of Marmara, İDO runs the largest municipal ferry operation in the world. The city's main cruise ship terminal is the Port of Istanbul in Karaköy, with a capacity of 10,000 passengers per
  • hour. While most visitors enter Istanbul by air, about half a million foreign tourists enter the city by sea each year. Atatürk International Airport, which handled 37.4 million passengers in 2011, is the city's primary airport. International rail service from Istanbul launched in 1889, with a line between Bucharest and Istanbul's Sirkeci Terminal, which ultimately became famous as the eastern terminus of the Orient Express from Paris. Regular service to Bucharest and Thessaloniki continued until the early 2010s, when the former was interrupted for Marmaray construction and the latter was halted due to economic woes in Greece. After Istanbul's Haydarpaşa Terminal opened in 1908, it served as the western terminus of the Baghdad Railway and an extension of the Hejaz Railway; today, neither service is offered directly from Istanbul. Service to Ankara and other points across Turkey is normally offered by Turkish State Railways, but construction of Marmaray and the Istanbul-Ankara high-speed line forced the station to close in 2012. New stations to replace both the Haydarpaşa and Sirkeci terminals, and connect the city's disjointed railway networks, are expected to open upon completion of the Marmaray project; until then, Istanbul is left without intercity rail service. Private bus companies instead operate routes along—and well beyond—those offered by the rail network. Istanbul's main bus station is the largest in Europe, with a daily capacity of 15,000 buses and 600,000 passengers, serving destinations as far as Frankfurt. Istanbul has two international airports, the larger of which is Atatürk International. Atatürk, located 24 kilometers (15 mi) west of the city center, handled 37.4 million passengers in 2011, making it the eighth-busiest airport in Europe and the thirtieth-busiest in the world. Sabiha Gökçen International Airport, 45 kilometers (28 mi) southeast of the city center, opened in 2001 to relieve Atatürk International. Dominated by low-cost carriers, Istanbul's second airport has rapidly become popular among travelers, especially since inaugurating a new international terminal in 2009; the airport handled 12.7 million passengers in 2011, when Airports Council International named it the world's fastest growing airport. A third airport has been proposed for the Black Sea coast.
  • Competitor Sanko Energy Mission Realization of production process and continuation of life in modern conditions and increase of welfare level depends on the energy while we are entering into the 21st century. Sustainable development concept gained importance within the last 20 years. Sustainable development requires utilization of the resources with high efficiency in environment-friendly manner. In this context; our mission is to be one of the leading energy companies that effectively utilize domestic and renewable resources by respecting environment. Transforming advanced technology and knowledge into efficiency, open for innovations and developments, institutionalized and strong from all angles, making maximum contribution to the national economy without neglecting international quality standarts. Vision Our vision is to be a reputable leading company that takes a guiding role in the world of today's standards by utilizing energy resources within the country in the most efficient way and also by using international co-operation opportunities. About Sanko Holding, which started in 1997 with a group of companies for its energy producing energy investments in the energy sector has taken the first steps. In 2006, renewable energy sources that have collected under the “Sanko Energy”, the energy investment of billions of dollars of actual and planned major investor in Turkey's energy market. Sanko Energy, Wholesale License obtained in 2007, and natural and legal persons covered by the eligible consumer has started to provide electrical energy. As soon as one of the industry's leading companies across many industries Sanko Energy's portfolio is Turkey's largest industrial and commercial companies. Sanko energy, using renewable resources and clean energy-producing investments are concentrated entirely. Wind Power Plant (WPP) and Hydroelectric Power Plants (HPP), as well as the addition of power plants using geothermal and other alternative sources of investment continues. Company Profile Sanko energy, at a time when Turkey energy bridge position, particularly within the boundaries of the country's current energy resources in the most efficient and the most effective use opportunities for international cooperation in assessing respected leader in the field, the company aims to become a world-class leading and directing.
  • Enter the 21st century realization of the production process, the contemporary conditions of life depends on the energy level rise sustainability and prosperity. The concept of sustainable development has gained importance in the last 20 years. Sustainable development requires the evaluation of high efficiency of resources in a format compatible with the environment. Accordingly, Sanko Energy, the international quality standards, without compromising the effective use of local and renewable resources, environmentally friendly, high-tech and knowledge into productivity, innovation and developments in the clear, strong, institutionalized, and each country's economy, contributing to the high level of energy the company strives to be. Electricity Generation Sanko Energy, electricity, adequate, high-quality, continuous, cost-effective and environmentally sound way to consumers, competitive environment, a financially strong, stable and transparent electricity market and the creation of an independent regulation and supervision aimed at ensuring that the market 4628 in accordance with the Electricity Market Law No, establish a production facility of electricity, rent, commissioning, operating, speed, to produce electrical energy produced energy market, established for this purpose and was established in order to participate in the companies to be established. Sanko Energy, in the performance of these activities, our country's energy resources in the most efficient and most effective way is to use the target. Still, Hydroelectric and Wind Energy Sanko energy within the firms operating in the fields of advanced technology and knowledge to use in the best way by providing maximum contribution to the country's economy in the future, the country's current other geothermal, coal, etc., increasing the production of resources and power to benefit from the maximum, the country's economy to increase the contribution of aims. Renewable Energy Renewable energy is derived from natural sources and energy resource depletion rate can renew itself more quickly. The most important renewable energy sources, solar, wind, flowing water, and geothermal energy. Increasing the share of renewable energy in total energy consumption of carbon dioxide emissions, hazardous waste, and reduced dependence on foreign sources, and shall contribute positively to the country's economy and employment. Sanko energy, water and wind energy producing wasted wind blow, prevents flow of water are wasted. Provides added value produced by environmentally friendly energy economy of our country. Sanko Energy, owned by 4 hydropower and wind power plants in 1-hour full production capacity of 512 MW from renewable sources, 1.7 billion kWh of clean energy per year, producing 3.3 million acts as the tree.
  • Çatalca Wind Power Plant Power: 60 MW The annual production: 185 million kWh The amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere oscillate: 120.000 ton Number of trees we helped: 370.000 trees How much do wind turbines cost? Wind turbines come in many shapes and sizes, but here is a general guideline on how much they cost: Total costs for installing a commercial-scale wind turbine will vary significantly depending on the number of turbines ordered, cost of financing, when the turbine purchase agreement was executed, construction contracts, the location of the project, and other factors. Cost components for wind projects include things other than the turbines, such as wind resource assessment and site analysis expenses; construction expenses; permitting and interconnection studies; utility system upgrades, transformers, protection and metering equipment; insurance; operations, warranty, maintenance, and repair; legal and consultation fees. Other factors that will impact your project economics include taxes and incentives. The costs for a utility scale wind turbine in 2012 range from about $1.3 million to $2.2 million per MW of nameplate capacity installed. This cost has come down dramatically from what it was just a few years ago. Most of the commercial-scale turbines installed today are 2 MW in size and cost roughly $3-$4 million installed. Wind turbines have significant economies of scale. Smaller farm or residential scale turbines cost less overall, but are more expensive per kilowatt of energy producing capacity. Wind turbines under 100 kilowatts cost roughly $3,000 to $8,000 per kilowatt of capacity. A 10 kilowatt machine (the size needed to power a large home) might have an installed cost of $50,000-$80,000 (or more) depending on the tower type, height, and the cost of installation. Oftentimes there are tax and other incentives that can dramatically reduce the cost of a wind project.
  • Future
  • 1MW RES THE İNİTİAL İNVESTMENT COST OF ABOUT : 1.200.000TL 2013 years the capital needed 13,43 billion TL 2023 years the capital needed 24,00 billion TL 1MW RES turbine cost approximately for installation: 800000 TL 2013 years price to be paid to the turbines for target 8,95 billion TL 2023 years price to be paid to the turbines for target 16,00 billion TL 1MW RES the cost of turbine towers : 210400 TL 2013 years target the cost of turbine towers : 2,35 billion TL 2023 years target the cost of turbine towers : 4.20billionTL
  • FOR ALL YEAR X12=21.373.200 TL EMPLOYEES AND WORKERS SALARY SHİFT Executive director 1.781.100 TLTOTALLY= Executive assistant Coordinator for data entry 3 Person project managers Project coordinator Public relations and events manager Finance manager Controller Accounts payable Accounts receivable Grants manager Development manager Construction Engineers 2 Person Civil Engineers 3 mechanical engineers 2 person Electrical Engineers 500tl X 1 500tl Development director 1.500 TL X1 1.500 TL 100.000 TL X2 400.000 TL 100.000 TL X2 600.000 TL 100.000 TL X2 400.000 TL 100.000 TL X2 200.000 TL 50.000 TL X1 50.000 TL 30.000 TL X1 30.000 TL 20.000 TL X1 20.000 TL 20.000 TL X1 20.000 TL 20.000 TL X1 20.000 TL 10.000 TL X1 10.000 TL 600 TL X1 600 TL 1.500 TL X1 1.500 TL 12.000 TL 5.000 TL X1 5.000 TL X1 10.000 TL 2.000 TL X2 10.000 TL