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Hydrogen Reliability   Cavern Storage
 

Hydrogen Reliability Cavern Storage

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Presentation from 2009 Heavy Oil Technologies Conference - Calgary, AB, Canada

Presentation from 2009 Heavy Oil Technologies Conference - Calgary, AB, Canada

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    Hydrogen Reliability   Cavern Storage Hydrogen Reliability Cavern Storage Presentation Transcript

    • Hydrogen Reliability Salt Cavern Case Study Oil Sands & Heavy Oil Technologies July 16, 2009 Praxair Canada Inc. – Calgary, Alberta, Canada -1-
    • About Praxair  Largest Industrial Gas Company in North and South America, one of the largest worldwide – 27,000 employees – 2008 sales: $10.8 Billion USD – Global Fortune 300 company listed on NYSE (PX) – Holds almost 3,000 patents  Praxair's primary products are: – atmospheric gases (oxygen, nitrogen, argon and rare gases) – process & specialty gases (carbon dioxide, helium, hydrogen, semiconductor process gases, acetylene) Praxair Canada Inc. – Calgary, Alberta, Canada www.praxair.com -2-
    • Presentation Overview  Gulf Coast hydrogen infrastructure – 310 mile pipeline  Praxair H2 storage cavern – Overview – Benefits  Alberta Cavern Development – Heartland hydrogen demand – Cavern Potential – Cavern supply model – Integration to existing Praxair network Praxair Canada Inc. – Calgary, Alberta, Canada -3-
    • Gulf Coast Hydrogen Infrastructure HYDROGEN SOURCES CAVERN STORAGE Cavern and Pipeline system connected to 11 out of 14 refineries Cavern and Pipeline system connected to 11 out of 14 refineries Praxair Canada Inc. – Calgary, Alberta, Canada -4-
    • Praxair’s H2 Cavern Overview Design Basis Storage Capacity 2.5 Billion CF H2 to Customers Working Capacity 1.4 Billion CF Max Storage Pressure 2200 psig H2 from PX H2 from PX Working Pressure 800 - 2200 psig Fill Rate ~ 75 MMCFD Withdrawal Rate pressure dependent Cap Rock Commissioned Q4 2007  Cavern Consists of: – Injection compressor with ancillary equipment – Hydrogen product dryer H2 Salt Storage – Associated metering and Dome control equipment Praxair Canada Inc. – Calgary, Alberta, Canada -5-
    • Cavern Commercialization Goals  Safe injection / withdrawal of hydrogen  “Real-time” operation – add value for supply-system optimization and peak demand  Establish operational procedures – informed, timely decision making around sales, withdrawals and injections  Key value creation streams: – Reliability sales (sales within firm volume) – Operational and sourcing optimization – Spot sales (sales outside of firm volume) Added flexibility for both Praxair and refiners! Praxair Canada Inc. – Calgary, Alberta, Canada -6-
    • Cavern Support Infrastructure More than just a hole in the ground… Praxair Canada Inc. – Calgary, Alberta, Canada -7-
    • Cavern Benefits  Instant Sales Capability – Planned customer turnaround Excess Supply – FILL Cavern – Unplanned customer outage MMSCFD – 3rd party supply interruptions  Superior System Reliability – Praxair facility turnaround – Praxair equipment outages Peak Demand - WITHDRAW – Feedstock / Utility interruptions Time  Operational Considerations – Enable steady state operations – Provide low demand “sink” – Improved pipeline operability Praxair Canada Inc. – Calgary, Alberta, Canada -8-
    • Example: Customer Backup Daily Purchase LPG Light Naphtha X mmscfd H2 Fm FCC Cavern Supply 50 mmscfd H2 Alky LPG Alkylate Naphtha E Gasoline blend G UTA Reformer O Kero HDS Kero/Jet Crude Unit Diesel Diesel Crude HDS G.O. PP HT FCC Gasoline Lubes Vacuum unit unit Coker unit Coke Cavern Supply Can Help Avoid Cutback of Profitable Units Cavern Supply Can Help Avoid Cutback of Profitable Units Praxair Canada Inc. – Calgary, Alberta, Canada -9-
    • Cavern Benefit Examples  Praxair H2 Product Availability – 11 Praxair sources on the network – Backup supply mitigates risk of H2 production unit outage  Hydrogen back up on instantaneous basis – Unexpected outages at customer sites – On purpose H2 production units / byproduct sources / third party  Operational Flexibility – Startup / shutdown of world scale SMRs can be avoided – Coverage of SMR type demand for short 24 hour type periods without calling on an SMR for start up » Example: waiting for demand of large user to stabilize before cycling a world scale reformer for start up – Sink for excess H2 Praxair Canada Inc. – Calgary, Alberta, Canada -10-
    • Praxair H2 System Availability US Gulf Coast Pipeline (BAPOC) 2005-present 100.00% 99.00% 98.00% 97.00% 96.00% 95.00% 94.00% 93.00% 92.00% 91.00% 90.00% 89.00% 88.00% 87.00% Cavern Hurricanes 86.00% Hurricane Rita Commercialized Ike and Gustav 85.00% 5 5 6 6 7 7 8 8 9 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 /2 /2 /2 /2 /2 /2 /2 /2 /2 1/1 7/1 1/1 7/1 1/1 7/1 1/1 7/1 1/1 Cavern provides ability to ramp up production units Praxair Canada Inc. – Calgary, Alberta, Canada -11-
    • What About Alberta? CP RAIL NORTHERN LIGHTS - TOTAL CP RAIL CP RAIL AGRIUM CP  Dynamic H2 Market RAIL SUNCOR FORT HILLS (PETRO CANADA) NORTH WEST UPGRADING IMPERIAL PIPELINE DEGUSSA STATOIL TEXACO HYDRO – Existing large demand KINDER ACCESS PIPELINE MORGAN BA ENBRIDGE ENERGY CP PROVIDENT RAIL – Need for reliable supply ENERGY SUNWEST SHELL ENERGY CN SCOTFORD RAIL ATCO STATOIL – New upgrading / refining STURGEON COUNTY HYDRO SUNCOR GULF TRANS CHEM. projects proposed CANADA CN Drawing not to scale AUX SABLE TOTAL RAIL STRATHCONA COUNTY – representation only GEMINI  Existing Infrastructure KEYERA FORT DOW EXISTING SASKATCHEWAN AGRIUM PRAXAIR H2 – Salt Cavern storage of SHERRITT PIPELINE hydrocarbons 21 KM ALCAN EDMONTON – Multiple Praxair facilities PETRO Praxair Infrastructure: – Praxair H2 Pipeline GIBSON ENERGY KINDER CANADA ASU Complex MORGAN PEMBINA IMPERIAL OIL PIPELINES ENBRIDGE PIPELINES CO2 / Dry Ice Facility PDI Cylinder Depot Similar to US Gulf Coast Hydrogen Pipeline PDI Praxair Canada Inc. – Calgary, Alberta, Canada -12- ALBERTA ENVIRO Nitrogen Pipeline FUELS
    • H2 Demand – Industrial Heartland & Edmonton Area 2 H2 Demand Profile 2,160 2,025 1,890 1,755 1,620 Proposed Projects 1,485 MMSCFD 1,350 (new project demand) 1,215 1,080 945 810 675 540 Existing Hydrogen Demand 405 270 135 - 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 200 201 201 201 201 201 201 201 201 201 201 202 Figures above based on existing demand and Project Applications Petrochemical volumes not included in above Praxair Canada Inc. – Calgary, Alberta, Canada -13-
    • Ideal Upgrader / Refinery Operation Flow Unit #2 Hydrogen Production Unit #1 Upgrader / Refinery Production Time  By-product Hydrogen (non-SMR) is reliability-challenged and base assumption in creation of reliability model  Reliability model developed to assess impact of different modes of operation on the facility when operating ‘non-ideally’ Ideal but unrealistic Praxair Canada Inc. – Calgary, Alberta, Canada -14-
    • Reliability Model N+1 Gasifier Reliability Incl. Switching Losses Input Data Only Into Cells Highlighted in Yellow!! 74% 66% 55% 0% Vol (MMscfd) Working Cavern Reliability 1 Reliability 2 Reliability 3 Reliability 4 Days Train 1 Train 2 Train 3 Train 4 Total Sales Storage Vol 90.0% 90.0% 90.0% 80.0% Reliability 1 60 60 0 120.0 116 4 323 9 8 7 8 Shutdowns/year 2 60 60 0 120.0 116 4 327 40.6 45.6 52.1 45.6 Cycle length 3 60 60 0 120.0 116 4 331 36.0 41.0 46.0 36.0 Days On-Line 4 60 60 0 120.0 116 4 336 4.0 4.0 6.0 9.0 Days Off-line 5 60 60 0 120.0 116 4 340 360 360 364 360 6 60 60 0 120.0 116 4 344 Train 1 Train 2 Train 3 Train 4 7 60 60 0 120.0 116 4 349 90% 90% 90% 80% Reliability (%) 8 60 60 0 120.0 116 4 353 9 8 7 8 Shutdowns per year 9 60 60 0 120.0 116 4 357 0 0 0 0 Initial Delay (Days) 10 60 60 0 120.0 116 4 362 60 60 60 60 Capacity (MMscfd) 11 60 60 0 120.0 116 4 366 12 60 60 0 120.0 116 4 370 Initial Cavern Volume (MMscf) No. of Trains Longest Run length Delay Gasifier 1 Start 13 60 60 0 120.0 116 4 375 318 3 46.0 No 14 60 60 0 120.0 116 4 379 Insert Yes or No to stagger start-up of Gasifier 1 15 60 60 0 120.0 116 4 383 Avg Daily Sales 16 60 60 0 120.0 116 4 388 115.7 MMscfd Spare Operation 17 60 60 0 120.0 116 4 392 Yes Switch H2 Loss (% of 2nd Day Upgrader Impact (% Insert Yes or No to allow 18 60 60 0 120.0 116 4 396 Simulation Length gasifier output) of 1st day) 4th Train Standby Option 19 60 60 0 120.0 116 4 401 2920 Days 50 0 20 60 60 0 120.0 116 4 405 2920 Maximum (increments of 10) (increments of 10) 21 60 60 0 120.0 116 4 409 Cavern Max Vol 666 1st Yr Availability 22 60 60 0 120.0 116 4 413 Cavern Min Vol 293 97.0% 23 60 60 0 120.0 116 4 418 Working Vol 373 2nd Yr Availability 24 60 60 0 120.0 116 4 422 Cavern Size 666 96.3% 25 60 60 0 120.0 116 4 426 Max Cavern Inflow 4 Cavern - 2.5 bscf size 8 Yr Availability Avg 26 60 60 0 120.0 116 4 431 Max Cavern Outflow (116) 96.4% 27 60 60 0 120.0 116 4 435 28 60 60 0 120.0 116 4 439 Multi-Train Gasifier Volumes 29 60 60 0 120.0 116 4 444 150.0 Vol MMSCFD 30 60 60 0 120.0 116 4 448 100.0 31 60 60 0 120.0 116 4 452 32 60 60 0 120.0 116 4 457 50.0 33 60 60 0 120.0 116 4 461 34 60 60 0 120.0 116 4 465 0.0 35 60 60 0 120.0 116 4 470 1 31 61 91 121 151 181 211 241 271 301 331 361 36 60 60 0 120.0 116 4 474 Days 37 0 60 60 90.0 116 -26 448 1890 60 60 0 120.0 116 4 453 1891 60 60 0 120.0 116 4 458 1892 0 60 60 90.0 116 -26 432 1893 0 0 60 30.0 116 -86 346 • •time-series probability model time-series probability model 2917 60 0 60 120.0 116 4 335 2918 60 0 60 120.0 116 4 340 2919 2920 60 0 0 60 60 60 120.0 90.0 116 116 4 -26 344 318 • •scenario analysis scenario analysis Praxair Canada Inc. – Calgary, Alberta, Canada -15-
    • Facility Lags Hydrogen Praxair Canada Inc. – Calgary, Alberta, Canada -16-
    • Hydrogen Backup Flow H2 from Unit #2 Hydrogen Network Supply Unit #1 Cavern / Pipeline Supply Production Levels Upgrader / Refinery Maintained Production Time  Cavern/pipeline backup adds flexibility, smoothes H2 supply – self supporting – store hydrogen during periods of max production – allows capture of hydrogen during periods of surplus – allows for import of 3rd party hydrogen (and sale of surplus H2) Cavern / pipeline integration maximizes reliability Praxair Canada Inc. – Calgary, Alberta, Canada -17-
    • Upgrading Impact – Gasifier Example 300.0 H2 Supply U p g r a d in g ( b b l/d a y ) Vol MMSCFD 200.0 100.0 0.0 1 31 61 91 121151181211241271301331361391421451481511541571601631661691721 100,000 Upgrader Throughput Days 80,000 60,000 40,000 No Cavern Support 20,000 Cavern Supported - 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 Time (Days) Days 6% loss in capacity without cavern backup 6% loss in capacity without cavern backup 2% loss in capacity if self-supported via cavern 2% loss in capacity if self-supported via cavern 0% loss in capacity with 3rd party back-up plus cavern 0% loss in capacity with 3rd party back-up plus cavern Praxair Canada Inc. – Calgary, Alberta, Canada -18-
    • Alberta Cavern Development  Pre-feasibility completed – Desktop study – Preliminary location identified – Working with ATCO Energy Solutions on Cavern development CAVERN – Non-invasive testing performed SITE  Lead-time ~3 yrs for 1st cavern – Additional year for 2nd cavern  Financial options – Tolling fee / Dedicated volume – Joint venture Complements Praxair’s existing network Praxair Canada Inc. – Calgary, Alberta, Canada -19-
    • Praxair - Oilsands Capabilities Mine // SAGD Mine SAGD Upgrading // Refining Upgrading Refining Reliability Reliability H2 Steam H2 Cavern H2 Cavern H2 Gasifier Gasifier SMR SMR H2 Pipeline H2 Pipeline Photo: http://news.bbc.co.uk O2 Energy Studies Energy Studies CO2 Utility Nitrogen // Utility Nitrogen CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 EOR // Oxygen Oxygen ASU ASU EOR Capture Compression Capture Compression Sequestration Sequestration Vessel & Vessel & Pipeline Purging Pipeline Purging Cylinders Cylinders ASU - Oxyfuel ASU - Oxyfuel Purging, Cylinders, N2, O2… Purging, Cylinders, N2, O2… Upstream, downstream and in between… Praxair Canada Inc. – Calgary,is your full service Industrial Gas Supplier! Praxair Alberta, Canada -20-
    • Praxair Alberta Value Proposition - Air Separation Unit - Bulk Industrial Gases - CO2 Capture and Compression - Cylinders, Welding Supplies Jim McKay & Related Equipment Oilsands Business Development - Energy Studies Calgary, Alberta - High Performance Coatings - Hydrogen Supply (O) 403-385-2348 - Leak Detection - Oxyfuel Burners (C) 403-462-5768 - Sulphur Recovery Unit Oxygen - Vessel and Pipeline Purging Services jim_s_mckay@praxair.com Praxair Canada Inc. – Calgary, Alberta, Canada -21-