Learning Event No. 9, Session 2: Holmer. ARDD2012 Rio.
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Learning Event No. 9, Session 2: Holmer. ARDD2012 Rio.

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Presentation by Dr Robert Holmer, AVRDC The World Vegetable Centre, at the 2012 Agriculture and Rural Development Day (ARDD) in Rio de Janiero, Learning Event No. 9, Session 2: "Vegetable gardens a......

Presentation by Dr Robert Holmer, AVRDC The World Vegetable Centre, at the 2012 Agriculture and Rural Development Day (ARDD) in Rio de Janiero, Learning Event No. 9, Session 2: "Vegetable gardens a nexus for agriculture, nutrition and health". http://www.agricultureday.org

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  • Overweight children have a strongly increased risk of being overweight as adults (Power & Parsons 2000).
  • Bundy et al. (2006) encourage school-based approaches for health and nutrition programs because (1) promoting good health and nutrition before and during school age is essential to effective growth and development; (2) the preexisting infrastructure of the educational system can often offer a more cost-effective route for delivery of simple health interventions and health promotion than can the health system; (3) good health and nutrition are prerequisites for effective learning and (4) the provision of quality schools, textbooks, and teachers can result in effective education only if the child is present, ready, and able to learn
  • Overweight children have a strongly increased risk of being overweight as adults (Power & Parsons 2000).
  • Overweight children have a strongly increased risk of being overweight as adults (Power & Parsons 2000).

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  • 1. The World Vegetable Centervegetables + development Vegetable gardens: A nexus for agriculture, nutrition & health Robert J. Holmer Regional Director AVRDC – The World Vegetable Center in East and Southeast Asia Learning event 9: From field to fork to field: nutritious food and nutrient recycling to enhance health, wealth and resilience1/ www.avrdc.org
  • 2. The World Vegetable Center Imbalanced Food Systems vegetables + development “Double burden of disease”For example in thePhilippines:26 % of children 27 % of adultsunderweight overweight orSource: FNRI 2008 obese 2/ www.avrdc.org
  • 3. The World Vegetable Center vegetables + development National vegetable availability vs. health/nutrition status: Health status indicator: Nutrition status indicator: Children under 5 mortality rate Children under 5 underweight 300 60 Children < 5 mortality rate (1/1000) 250 50 Children < 5 underweight (%) 200 40 Lao PDR Cambodia Maldives 150 30 Korea PDR Cambodia Viet Nam 100 20 Tajikistan Tajikistan Lao PDR United Arab Emirates Vietnam Korea PDR Saudi Arabia 50 10 0 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 Vegetable availability (g/person/day) Vegetable availability (g/person/day) Veg availability Countries Mortality rate (1/1000) Underweight (%) (g/ person/day)Source: FAOSTAT (2010), WHO (2010) Cambodia 85 93 36 Lao PDR 397 75 37 Viet Nam 230 30 20 3/ www.avrdc.org
  • 4. The World Vegetable Center Relationship between malnutrition and infection vegetables + developmentSource: Brown (2003) 4/ www.avrdc.org
  • 5. The World Vegetable Center Malnutrition and the link to sanitation vegetables + development • Effects of malnutrition – mortality, impairment of cognitive development and educational performance - can cost up to 9% of a country’s Gross Domestic Product. • Health impacts can be prevented by reducing environmental health risks (e.g. improved sanitation, water and hygiene) and improved nutrition • Multiplier effect: for every death prevented from an environmental health intervention, additional deaths from other diseases are averted (Mills- Reincke phenomenon)Source: World Bank (2008) 5/ www.avrdc.org
  • 6. The World Vegetable Center Food and Nutrition Security vegetables + development • Nutrition security: – “secure access to appropriately nutritious food coupled with a sanitary environment, adequate health services and care, to ensure a healthy and active life for all household members”Source: DFID (2009) 6/ www.avrdc.org
  • 7. The World Vegetable CenterWhy vegetables? vegetables + development• High value crops• Relatively easy to grow in different environments• Provide employment, especially for women and other vulnerable groups• Generate income• Provide micronutrients, vitamins, dietary fiber, phytochemicals and protein• Contribute to balanced diets Vegetables 3-5 servings a day 1 serving = 80g 240 – 400g a day7/ www.avrdc.org
  • 8. The World Vegetable CenterWhy home gardens?vegetables + development8/ www.avrdc.org
  • 9. The World Vegetable CenterAnything new?vegetables + development Berlin, 19469/ www.avrdc.org
  • 10. The World Vegetable CenterAllotment Gardens Philippines vegetables + development ... preparing the land 10 / www.avrdc.org
  • 11. The World Vegetable CenterAsset-Based Community Development (ABCD) vegetables + development Jeannette M.E. Tramhel. 2010. Using Participatory Urban Design to "Close the Nutrient Loop" in the Philippines. Urban Agriculture Magazine 23 - Urban nutrient management, 30-31. 11 / www.avrdc.org
  • 12. The World Vegetable CenterProductive Sanitation vegetables + development FOOD FOOD Closing the loop between sanitation and agriculture NUTRIENTS NUTRIENTS Pathogen destruction 12 / www.avrdc.org
  • 13. The World Vegetable CenterProductive Sanitation vegetables + developmentEstimated annual excretion of nutrients per person (500 l ofurine and 50 kg of faeces)*: Nitrogen Phosphorous Potassium (kg/capita) (kg/capita) (kg/capita) Urine 2.3 – 4.0 0.3 – 0.4 0.9 - 1.1 Faeces 0.3 – 0.6 0.1 – 0.2 0.3 - 0.4 Total 2.6 – 4.6 0.4 – 0.6 1.2 – 1.5 * flushed away with about 10,000 liters of water as medium of transportation 13 / www.avrdc.org
  • 14. The World Vegetable CenterProductive Sanitation vegetables + development Monetary equivalents (PhP/capita and year) of annual excretion of nutrients: per person: Amount Cost Subtotal (kg/year) (PhP/kg) (PhP/year) Complete (14-14-14) 6.53 35.60 232.47 Urea (46-0-0) 3.65 33.20 121.18 MoP (0-0-60) 0.96 38.00 36.48 Total 390.13 Multiplied by 90 million Filipinos: 35.1 Billion Pesos (580 Mio Euro) worth of fertilizer equivalents go down the drain every year polluting water bodies. 14 / www.avrdc.org
  • 15. The World Vegetable CenterEcological Sanitation vegetables + development How a “waterless” urine diversion dehydration toilet works 15 / www.avrdc.org
  • 16. The World Vegetable CenterProductive Sanitation vegetables + development How a “waterless” urine diversion dehydration toilet works 16 / www.avrdc.org
  • 17. The World Vegetable CenterProductive Sanitation vegetables + development Primary treatment (storage) 6 months 1 month How a “waterless” urine diversion dehydration toilet works 17 / www.avrdc.org
  • 18. The World Vegetable CenterProductive Sanitation vegetables + development Diluting urine with water Side dress application Preplant application of composted faeces Reuse of ecosan products 18 / www.avrdc.org
  • 19. The World Vegetable CenterEcological Sanitation vegetables + development Secondary treatment (aerobic & vermicomposting) How a “waterless” urine diversion dehydration toilet works 19 / www.avrdc.org
  • 20. The World Vegetable CenterProductive Sanitation vegetables + development • International guidelines are FOOD available, but: • Lack of R&D investment to develop local protocols that best suit the agronomic requirements of the crops grown as well as the specific socioeconomic, cultural, and environmental realities NUTRIENTS of many NUTRIENTS countries developing • “Nexus”: another catchphrase or real commitment? 20 / www.avrdc.org
  • 21. The World Vegetable CenterPotential of School Gardensvegetables + development • A school usually is the center of each community Healthy diets begin with knowledge • A place where programs on good health practices can be taught and implemented to achieve behavioral changes at home.21 / www.avrdc.org
  • 22. The World Vegetable CenterAdvantages of school-based programs vegetables + development• Promoting good health and nutrition before and during school age is essential to effective growth and development Good health and nutrition are prerequisites for effective learning• The pre-existing infrastructure of the educational system offers a cost- effective route for delivery of simple health interventions22 / www.avrdc.org
  • 23. The World Vegetable CenterPhilippine “Vegetable Gardens in Schools” Program vegetables + development• Establishment of vegetable gardens in all 42,076 public primary and secondary schools of the countryEarlier successful lessons of vegetable gardeninghave to be re-learned by a new generation• To be complemented by home & community gardens23 / www.avrdc.org
  • 24. The World Vegetable CenterStrategies for successful implementation vegetables + development• Successful school garden programs cannot be created in isolation, but have to be linked with education and environmental interventions• Communication and synergy between the health, agriculture and education sectors is indispensable24 / www.avrdc.org
  • 25. The World Vegetable CenterPromotion of vegetables… vegetables + development …. sanitation, and healthy lifestyles25 / www.avrdc.org
  • 26. The World Vegetable Center vegetables + development AVRDC - The World Vegetable Center Prosperity for the Poor and Health for All26 / www.avrdc.org www.avrdc.org