Discovering What Faculty REALLY Need to Know about Teaching Online
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Discovering What Faculty REALLY Need to Know about Teaching Online

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Presentation made at the 22nd Annual Conference on Distance Teaching & Learning, August 2-4, 2006

Presentation made at the 22nd Annual Conference on Distance Teaching & Learning, August 2-4, 2006

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    Discovering What Faculty REALLY Need to Know about Teaching Online Discovering What Faculty REALLY Need to Know about Teaching Online Document Transcript

    • The Pennsylvania State University Discovering What Faculty REALLY Need to Know about Teaching Online Ann Luck & Carol McQuiggan The Pennsylvania State University 22nd Annual Conference on Distance Teaching & Learning 2 August 2-4, 2006 2 A Little Background… Research Questions Lots of groups and individuals doing faculty Q1: With what aspects of teaching online do faculty development at Penn State, but no coordination need assistance? Faculty development efforts tend to be our “best Q2: What types of professional development guess” experiences are needed by online faculty? Traditionally low participation Q3: What format should these professional development experiences take to best meet faculty More and more “decentralized” distance needs? learning development, but no resources to Q4: What incentive(s) do faculty wish to receive in support return for participating in a professional Want to develop faculty resources that can be development experience that is focused on teaching used by anyone at PSU in multiple ways! online? 22nd Annual Conference on Distance Teaching & Learning 22nd Annual Conference on Distance Teaching & Learning 4 August 2-4, 2006 3 August 2-4, 2006 4 The Survey Instrument Target Population Web-based Higher education faculty who have taught at 32 items in 3 parts: least one completely online course at PSU 1. Online teaching experience(s) 260 World Campus faculty 2. Professional development experience(s) 237 Usable e-mail addresses 3. Demographics 68 Surveys returned 28 multiple-choice type questions; 4 open- Response rate of 28.7% ended Sample closely reflects population 22nd Annual Conference on Distance Teaching & Learning 5 22nd Annual Conference on Distance Teaching & Learning 6 August 2-4, 2006 5 August 2-4, 2006 6 1
    • What Made Online Teaching Who are our online faculty? Experience Positive? 16 15 Teaching at college level more than 5 years (n=53; 78%) 14 12 10 Rank of Asst. Prof. or lower 36-55 years old 10 (n=34; 51.5%) (n=44; 64.7%) 8 7 7 6 5 Not on tenure track (n=39; 58%) 4 3 Full-time or already tenured (n=26; 39%) (n=54; 80.6%) 2 0 Have taught more than one s rt ce n ty Male es .. io o ri. ien ili en course online (n=42; 61.8%) pp ct ib (n=43; 64%) te v a r Su ex ac cti pe er Fl t r Ex fe In ha Ef Experience was somewhat positive or very positive c nt (n=40; 81.6%) Note: Survey respondents (19) who taught 5 or more online courses not included in this data de u St 22nd Annual Conference on Distance Teaching & Learning 7 22nd Annual Conference on Distance Teaching & Learning 8 August 2-4, 2006 7 August 2-4, 2006 8 What Made Online Teaching What Made Online Teaching Experience Positive? Experience Positive? Student characteristics (15) Experience (10) Enthusiastic, motivated, attentive, returning “The new experience of learning how to teach adult students, working professionals, material using on-line media.” approached their studies more seriously “Ability to experience a new teaching approach.” “Primarily the fact that the students tended to be “returning” adult students who were very Flexibility (7) interested and motivated to succeed in the “I personally enjoy the flexibility that teaching course (unlike the “college age” student who online provides for my schedule” commonly does as little as possible to get as “ability to have students complete individual high a grade as possible).” activities at personal rate but still have team and team activities completed weekly” 22nd Annual Conference on Distance Teaching & Learning 9 22nd Annual Conference on Distance Teaching & Learning 10 August 2-4, 2006 9 August 2-4, 2006 10 What Made Online Teaching What Made Online Teaching Experience Positive? Experience Negative? Interaction (7) 18 16 16 “I enjoy the high-level of quality personal 14 interaction that I’m able to have with my 12 students.” 10 8 Effectiveness of learning activities (5) 6 5 5 “I was impressed with how well the online 4 projects and discussion worked. . .” 2 0 Support (3) rt gy F F2 “Excellent support from World Campus o lo pp no of Su Designers and support staff.” ch ck Te La Note: Survey respondents (19) who taught 5 or more online courses not included in this data 22nd Annual Conference on Distance Teaching & Learning 11 22nd Annual Conference on Distance Teaching & Learning 12 August 2-4, 2006 11 August 2-4, 2006 12 2
    • What Made Online Teaching What Made Online Teaching Experience Negative? Experience Negative? Lack of F2F (16) Support (5) “I felt disconnected from the students – I had “World Campus aspects – registration problems, no way to respond to nonverbal cues that ordering wrong books, links not working – were indicate their interest and motivation (or lack laughably bad.” of).” “Conflicting policies, lack of university support, “Lack of face-to-face time and interaction limits and inconsistent application of standards has the rapport building that is an important made all of my negative experiences ‘top down’ element of effective teaching/learning.” – i.e. management related” “I’m trying to remain upbeat with this Technology (5) response. I think moving from “live” “Occasional administrative/software/hardware performance to complete on-line format is a inadequacies along with the randomness of difficult transition.” “when” were the negatives.” 22nd Annual Conference on Distance Teaching & Learning 13 22nd Annual Conference on Distance Teaching & Learning 14 August 2-4, 2006 13 August 2-4, 2006 14 Assistance/Resources to Develop & Assistance/Resources to Develop & Teach Future Online Course Teach Future Online Course Technical advice, assistance & support (20) Instructional designer advice & assistance (15) “I would want excellent, on-call technical support” “An instructional designer to discuss implication “Technical advice and assistance for transitioning and strategies at each step of the course course content from written word to graphical or development process.” flash-based presentation” “I want to understand the parameters of the “Graphics/multimedia assistance.” design so that I will know how to include “Specific resources for “special” needs (multi- interaction between students and the instructor.” media, copyright research/clearance, short term “Instructional designer support that would allow assistance in writing code or solving specific me to put multiple interactive exercises and technical problems, etc).” problems in my course.” 22nd Annual Conference on Distance Teaching & Learning 15 22nd Annual Conference on Distance Teaching & Learning 16 August 2-4, 2006 15 August 2-4, 2006 16 Assistance/Resources to Develop & Advice for Colleague Teaching Online Teach Future Online Course for First Time – Preparation Colleagues (7) Things you need to do BEFORE teaching online “A community of people teaching the Course & teaching preparation (19) same/related course.” Observe an online course/be an online student (11) “More colleagues in my department who are Work with an instructional designer (9) also teaching online. “ Talk to colleagues (9) Tool improvements (7) Learn ANGEL (6) “More technical options to have homework Locate technical assistance (3) done and graded on-line.” Gain access to resources (3) “An expert system that helps structure basic Consider it a work-in-progress (2) online instructional methods based on the Use what you learn to improve your resident instruction teaching goals and objectives of the course.” (1) 22nd Annual Conference on Distance Teaching & Learning 17 22nd Annual Conference on Distance Teaching & Learning 18 August 2-4, 2006 17 August 2-4, 2006 18 3
    • Advice for Colleague Teaching Online Advice for Colleague Teaching Online for First Time – Preparation for First Time – Preparation Course & teaching preparation (19) Course & teaching preparation (19) “Know your subject! Know where you're going “Do not see online learning as a direct transfer with the course. In other words have your of what is done in a face-to-face learning course objectives written and in your memory.” situation to an electronic context. Online “Get organized. Prepare lesson and course learning necessitates a "re-thinking" of the objectives. Prepare content to meet those best means of presenting content and building objectives. Prepare assessment tools (variety of a successful learning environment. Get different tools) to see that objectives being met.” background into the "best practices" and “Carefully consider your expectations regarding approach of the most successful online students' interaction and assignments. What do courses that are similar to the course you you need from them in order to feel like you are have in mind.” effectively teaching them?” 22nd Annual Conference on Distance Teaching & Learning 19 22nd Annual Conference on Distance Teaching & Learning 20 August 2-4, 2006 19 August 2-4, 2006 20 Advice for Colleague Teaching Online Advice for Colleague Teaching Online for First Time - Teaching for First Time - Teaching Things to do while teaching the course Establish a presence (7) Establish a presence (7) “I'd tell my colleague to make customer Give prompt, effective feedback (7) service a priority during the course's offering. Provide detail and clarity (6) High quality interaction and "being there" for the students is the best way to combat the Set expectations (4) commonly held misconceptions that on-line Provide interaction (4) education is impersonal and that on-line Play a facilitative role (3) instructors are "unplugged" from their Be flexible (2) students.” 22nd Annual Conference on Distance Teaching & Learning 21 22nd Annual Conference on Distance Teaching & Learning 22 August 2-4, 2006 21 August 2-4, 2006 22 Advice for Colleague Teaching Online Advice for Colleague Teaching Online for First Time - Teaching for First Time – Time Give prompt, effective feedback (7) “Expect for teaching online to take a lot more “I have scripted general feedback to weekly time than teaching face-to-face, and budget lessons. I use that primarily and add personal time accordingly.” comments on top of that when I correspond “Be prepared to devote a lot of time at the with each individual student.” "front end." Careful and thoughtful Provide detail and clarity (6) development requires time, thought, a “Assume nothing - spell every activity out in as consideration of all options that are available, much detail as possible. Explain your grading and an open mind.” scheme. Provide assessment rubrics.” “Make sure you have time for students almost 24 hours.” 22nd Annual Conference on Distance Teaching & Learning 23 22nd Annual Conference on Distance Teaching & Learning 24 August 2-4, 2006 23 August 2-4, 2006 24 4
    • Helpful Aspects of Professional Type, length, and when? Development Events Sharing experiences (11) Self-paced/self-directed materials Length “Hearing about the experience of other online Series of short sessions Full day instructors is very helpful.” Summer session Self-paced “Interaction between course development teams in other colleges and universities are far Type Half day and away the most beneficial professional Informal face-to-face When events. The shared insights of those who Informal online actually develop and offer courses are terribly Fall semester important.” Formal face-to-face Spring semester Formal online Break before Summer 22nd Annual Conference on Distance Teaching & Learning 25 22nd Annual Conference on Distance Teaching & Learning 26 August 2-4, 2006 25 August 2-4, 2006 26 Course Design & Development Course Delivery Topics of Interest Topics of Interest 38 32 40 35 35 30 27 24 24 23 22 30 25 24 24 23 23 20 25 21 21 21 20 20 19 15 20 18 10 15 5 10 0 5 d ns . . ps sc ck nf oa io co di hi ba 0 kl ct ns or e ed eb ra lin io w ls . h. s ns te ics s s Fe s s ts T ht w es ia ip ip on re te at PP ec g m ig io in er br cl cl tu si gr e in el ru yr .t at ru at ec o to eo at ro b e ng st op op im R ag di we m at tp g tl in o vid lit au an C pr in di si se ap an lit en t. ci ng op ap Au m ea g g g ur Ad ci Fa ud in in ni in M el ss co ng Fa at at ig at cr ev st se re re si es re ng D In ss As o C C C D ho ti se er C As v 22nd Annual Conference on Distance Teaching & Learning 27 22nd Annual Conference on Distance Teaching & Learning 28 on August 2-4, 2006 27 August 2-4, 2006 28 C Administrative Issues of Interest Barriers to Participation 25 22 50 42 20 40 15 30 10 9 8 20 13 10 9 10 5 0 0 T e e ... ar P& tiv Making Overview of Overview of c aw n rti n ce pa courses World Campus World Campus o ot in iti N to gn of available Student Help Desk e co ck tim re La Services d of ite ck m 71% 29% 25.8% La Li 22nd Annual Conference on Distance Teaching & Learning 29 22nd Annual Conference on Distance Teaching & Learning 30 August 2-4, 2006 29 August 2-4, 2006 30 5
    • Q1: With what aspects of teaching Primary Incentive for Participation online do faculty need assistance? 14 Course Design and Development 12 12 Choosing appropriate technologies to enhance my 10 9 online course 8 7 Converting course materials for online use 6 6 6 Creating video clips 4 Determining ways to assess student progress in an 2 online course 0 Adapting traditional lecture material to an online g l environment T e e cia in at P& on ch n ic N na tif on a Creating audio clips te er Fi iti C ce n og an Designing and developing attractive Web sites ec st R si As 22nd Annual Conference on Distance Teaching & Learning 31 22nd Annual Conference on Distance Teaching & Learning 32 August 2-4, 2006 31 August 2-4, 2006 32 Q1: With what aspects of teaching Q1: With what aspects of teaching online do faculty need assistance? online do faculty need assistance? Course Delivery Access to instructional designers and Facilitating online discussion forums (e.g., colleagues who have experience teaching threaded message boards) online Building and enhancing professor/student Technical advice & assistance relationships in the online classroom Facilitating Web conferencing sessions (using Design assistance & resources tools like ElluminateLive, Centra Symposium, Give/share/discuss real-life WebEx, or Horizon Wimba) examples/experiences Increasing interactions in an online course (e.g., student-to-student, faculty-to-students) Managing my online teaching workload 22nd Annual Conference on Distance Teaching & Learning 33 22nd Annual Conference on Distance Teaching & Learning 34 August 2-4, 2006 33 August 2-4, 2006 34 Q2: What types of professional development Q3: What format should these professional development experiences take to best meet faculty experiences are needed by online faculty? needs? Self-paced/self-directed materials: Web-based Series of short (less than 1 day) resources, video tapes/DVDs, CDs, handouts, etc. sessions/workshops conducted over several Informal face-to-face events: presentations, brown weeks bag meetings, etc. Full day Informal online events: Web-based presentations, chat sessions, etc. Self-paced program (i.e., completed at one’s Formal face-to-face events: a regularly scheduled own time/pace) = 11 (20.4%) course or set of training modules Half day Formal online events: Web-based, regularly In Summer, Fall, or Spring semester, or break scheduled course or set of training modules before Summer semester 22nd Annual Conference on Distance Teaching & Learning 35 22nd Annual Conference on Distance Teaching & Learning 36 August 2-4, 2006 35 August 2-4, 2006 36 6
    • Q4: What incentive(s) do faculty wish to receive in return for participating in a professional development Next Steps… experience? Recognition toward promotion/tenure (n=12; Presentations to various stakeholders 23.5%) Publish article Financial incentive (n=9; 17.6%) Form campus-based faculty learning Assistance teaching online course (n=7; 13.7%) communities? Receipt of a University-sponsored certificate Develop learning objects for a central “pot” of resources? of achievement in online teaching (n=6; 11.8%) Connect campus faculty learning Release time (n=6; 11.8%) communities? None (n=6; 11.8%) Develop a mentoring program? Who will do what? Funding? 22nd Annual Conference on Distance Teaching & Learning 37 22nd Annual Conference on Distance Teaching & Learning 38 August 2-4, 2006 37 August 2-4, 2006 38 Discussion What might be the best model for faculty development to meet diverse needs? How does this meet with your own experiences? What resources already exist that we can all draw from? 22nd Annual Conference on Distance Teaching & Learning 39 August 2-4, 2006 39 7