Sound Effects and Meaning Reading Poetry – Part I
Rhyme Rhyme – the repetition of the sound of a stressed vowel and any sounds that follow it within a word (nail and whale, material and cereal, icicle and bicycle) We looked! Then we saw him Step in on the mat! We looked! And we saw him! The Cat in the Hat!
Rhyme Scheme A regular pattern of rhyme in a poem (usually end rhyme) Letters of the alphabet are used to represent new sounds The Germ A mighty creature is the germ, A Though smaller than the pachyderm. AHis customary dwelling place BIs deep within the human race. BHis childish pride he often pleases CBy giving people strange diseases. CDo you, my poppet, feel infirm? AYou probably contain a germ. AOgden Nash
from Annabel Lee It was many and many a year ago, In a kingdom by the sea, That a maiden there lived whom you may know By the name of Annabel Lee; And this maiden she lived with no other thought Than to love and be loved by me. -Edgar Allan Poe A B A B C B
Approximate Rhyme Also called half rhymes, off rhymes, slant rhymes, near rhymes, imperfect rhymes Some sounds are repeated, but the words are not exact echoes. hollowand mellow moonand morn
End Rhyme A word at the end of one line rhymes with a word at the end of another line Whose woods these are I think I know.His house is in the village, though;He will not see me stopping hereTo watch his woods fill up with snow.
Internal Rhyme A word inside a line rhymes with another word on the same line The Boa Constrictor Song I'm being swallered by a Boa Constrictor a Boa Constrictor, a Boa Constrictor I'm being swallered by a Boa Constrictor and I don't - like snakes - one bit! Oh no, he swallered my toe. Oh gee, he swallered my knee. Oh fiddle, he swallered my middle. Oh what a pest, he swallered my chest. Oh heck, he swallered my neck. Oh, dread, he swallered my - (BURP)
Repetition The repeated use of a word, phrase, stanza form, or effect in any form of literature. Repetition may bring comfort, suggest order, or add special meaning or emphasis to a piece of literature.
Annabel Lee by Edgar Allan Poe It was many and many a year ago,In a kingdom by the sea,That a maiden there lived whom you may knowBy the name of ANNABEL LEE;And this maiden she lived with no other thoughtThan to love and be loved by me.I was a child and she was a child,In this kingdom by the sea;But we loved with a love that was more than love-I and my Annabel Lee;With a love that the winged seraphs of heavenCoveted her and me.And this was the reason that, long ago,In this kingdom by the sea,A wind blew out of a cloud, chillingMy beautiful Annabel Lee;So that her highborn kinsman cameAnd bore her away from me,To shut her up in a sepulchreIn this kingdom by the sea. The angels, not half so happy in heaven,Went envying her and me-Yes!- that was the reason (as all men know,In this kingdom by the sea)That the wind came out of the cloud by night,Chilling and killing my Annabel Lee.But our love it was stronger by far than the loveOf those who were older than we-Of many far wiser than we-And neither the angels in heaven above,Nor the demons down under the sea,Can ever dissever my soul from the soulOf the beautiful Annabel Lee.For the moon never beams without bringing me dreamsOf the beautiful Annabel Lee;And the stars never rise but I feel the bright eyesOf the beautiful Annabel Lee;And so, all the night-tide, I lie down by the sideOf my darling- my darling- my life and my bride,In the sepulchre there by the sea,In her tomb by the sounding sea.
Kinds of Stanzas Couplet = a two line stanza Triplet (Tercet) = a three line stanza Quatrain = a four line stanza Quintet = a five line stanza Sestet (Sextet) = a six line stanza Septet = a seven line stanza Octave = an eight line stanza
A Red, Red Roseby Robert Burns O, my luv is like a red, red rose, That's newly sprung in June.O my luv is like the melodie, That's sweetly played in tune. As fair art thou, my bonnie lass, So deep in luv am I,And I will luv thee still, my dear, Till a' the seas gang dry. Till a' the seas gang dry, my dear, And the rocks melt wi' the sun!And I will luv thee still, my dear, While the sand o' life shall run. And fare thee well, my only luv, And fare thee well awhile!And I will come again, my luv, Though it were ten thousand mile!
Other Sound Effects in Poetry Onomatopoeia – the use of words to mimic sounds Alliteration – the repetition of the initial consonant sound Consonance – the repetition of consonant sounds in neighboring words. (Not just at the beginning.) Assonance – the repetition of vowel sounds Pop, bang, crash, buzz, oink, moo “The silken sad uncertain rustling of each purple curtain” (The Raven by Edgar Allan Poe) “The silken sad uncertain rustling of each purple curtain” (The Raven by Edgar Allan Poe) “Slow the low gradual moan came in the snowing.”
Metaphors When you read poetry, you will find some metaphors that are direct and some that are implied. Direct metaphors – compare two things by directly stating that one thing is another “All the world’s a stage, And all the men and women merely players.” - William Shakespeare Implied Metaphors – do not give the comparison directly. They use words that suggest the nature of the comparison. “’Hope’ is the thing with feathers – That perches in the soul – And sings the tune without the words – And never stops – at all –” -Emily Dickinson
Extended Metaphors An extended metaphor is a comparison developed over several lines of a poem. The Road Not Taken Two roads diverged in a yellow wood,And sorry I could not travel bothAnd be one traveler, long I stoodAnd looked down one as far as I couldTo where it bent in the undergrowth.Then took the other, as just as fair,And having perhaps the better claim,Because it was grassy and wanted wear;Though as for that the passing thereHad worn them really about the same.And both that morning equally layIn leaves no step had trodden black.Oh, I kept the first for another day!Yet knowing how way leads on to way,I doubted if I should ever come back.I shall be telling this with a sighSomewhere ages and ages hence:Two roads diverged in a wood, and I--I took the one less traveled by,And that has made all the difference. --Robert Frost
Read the Following Poems Robert Frost – “Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening” “Fire and Ice” Emily Dickinson – “’Hope’ is the Thing With Feathers” Rhyme Scheme Type of stanza Repetition, Alliteration, Assonance, etc. Figures of Speech – Similes, Metaphors, Personification, etc. Meaning