EXTENDEDMETAPHORDefinition: A metaphor that continuesover multiple sentences, and that issometimes extended throughout anentire work.
EXAMPLEBut soft! What light through yonder window breaks?It is the East, and Juliet is the sun!Arise, fair sun, and kill the envious moon,Who is already sick and pale with grief…—Shakespeare’sRomeo and JulietWhat is being compared throughout the above lines?
EXAMPLE 2Hope by Emily DickinsonHope is the thing with feathersThat perches in the soul,And sings the tune–without the words,And never stops at all,And sweetest in the gale is heard;And sore must be the stormThat could abash the little birdThat kept so many warm.I’ve heard it in the chillest land,And on the strangest sea;Yet, never, in extremity,It asked a crumb of me.What is hope compared to throughoutthe poem?
IRONYThe result of a circumstance is the opposite of what might beexpected.Verbal Irony: the meaning intended by a speaker differs fromthe meaning understood by one or more characters.Situational Irony: actions often have an effect exactlyopposite of what is intended.Dramatic Irony: the reader or audience knows what ishappening while one or more characters do not know. http://www.slideshare.net/larchmeany1/4- ironyverbalsituationaldramatic
IMAGERYAny description meant to appeal to the senses. Used tocreate tone in writing."And then I see her, the blood drained from her face, handsclenched in fists at her sides, walking with stiff, small stepsup toward the stage, passing me, and I see the back of herblouse has become untucked and hangs out over her skirt.‖-Suzanne Collins, The Hunger GamesCan you picture it? Then it is imagery. What tone is created inthe sentences used above?
SATIREA literary work that seeks to criticize and correct the behaviorof human beings and their institutions (religious,government) by means of humor, wit, and ridicule.South Park and The Simpsons heavily use satire in theirepisodes to criticize or make fun of what is happening insociety, government, and religion.
EXAMPLESIn “Harrison Bergeron”, KurtVonnegut uses satire to criticizegovernments that promoteequality like communism.
SYMBOLISMExpressing the invisible or intangible like love with tangibleobjects.Symbolism in The Hunger Games:The mockingjay represents defiance in the novel, with thebird’s symbolism deriving initially from its origins. Themockingjay, we learn, came about as a result of a failedproject by the Capitol to spy on the rebellious districts, andsince then the bird has served as a reminder of this failureand the districts’ recalcitrance—Katniss describes them as―something of a slap in the face to the Capitol.‖
PUNA play on words that sound thesame (or at least similar) buthave different meanings.
I told the board ofEXAMPLES education, I was bored of education (Chino XL) Energizer Bunny arrested -- charged with battery.
TONEAttitude toward the audience and/or subject matter by theauthor. Your tone of voice lets people know how you feel. Inthe same way, an author uses words to convey how he or shefeels about a subject."Heres much to do with hate, but more with love," – Romeoand Juliet by William Shakespeare. Set at the beginning ofthe play, this sentence indicates that the story will be a lovestory but it will be one with a somber or sad note, rather thana happy ending.
EXAMPLEThe Road Not Taken In leaves no step had trodden black.By Robert Frost Oh, I kept the first for another day!Two roads diverged in a yellow wood, Yet knowing how way leads on to way,And sorry I could not travel both I doubted if I should ever come back.And be one traveler, long I stood I shall be telling this with a sighAnd looked down one as far as I could Somewhere ages and ages hence*:To where it bent in the undergrowth; Two roads diverged in a wood, and I—Then took the other, as just as fair, I took the one less traveled by,And having perhaps the better claim, And that has made all the difference.Because it was grassy and wantedwear; *in the futureThough as for that the passing thereHad worn them really about the same,And both that morning equally lay
POETIC DEVICESAssonance: the repetition of vowel sounds in words that don’t rhymeExample: We could find the end of a road, meet the sky on out Seventeenth…Consonance: the repetition of consonant sounds within and at the end of wordsExample: Softly, in the dusk, a woman is singing to me; Taking me back down the vista of years,till I seeRepetition: a sound, word, phrase, or line that is repeatedI loved her and sometimes she loved me too. She loved me, sometimes I loved her too.Line breaks in poetryEnd-stopped: lines of poetry end at a normal speech pause, as in these lines form ―Tonight I CanWrite…‖The same night whitening the same trees.We, of that time, are no longer the same.This emphasizes the line endings and makes a reader view each line as a complete unit ofmeaning.Enjambed: lines of poetry that run on without a natural pause, as in ―Fifteen‖South of the bridge on SeventeenthI found back of the willows one summerday a motorcycle with engine runningIambic pentameter: five units of iambs. 1 iamb= one unstressed syllable followed by a stressedsyllable.