Forms of ArgumentationA Few Quick Terms to Discuss with Pages 479-481 (The Prentice Hall Reader)
Inductive Reasoning Specific Evidence Generalized Conclusion Focuses on examples “Hides” the thesis until the reader is involved. Works well for a thesis that may automatically be rejected by readers.
Deductive Reasoning Claim or Assumption Evidence and Support Gives thesis early and then provides the support for that conclusion. Runs the risk of alienating readers. Use the introduction to engage readers.
Syllogism Simplest form of deductive argument. Asserts that a major premise/assumption is true. A minor premise/assumption is also true. This means that the logical conclusion is proven to be true. Example: Major Premise = All people should have equal opportunities. Minor Premise = Minorities are people. Conclusion = Minorities should have equal opportunities.
Notes on Syllogisms Most arguments cannot be reduced to a syllogism. This is the most basic logic, and we rarely work that way. Although a syllogism may not be the framework for an argument, it can often be integral to the argument. Break down deductive arguments to look for a basic syllogism.
Endings END DECISIVELY! Call to Action Reinforce thesis Thought-provoking question Powerful image Final reminders