Poetry is a literary formthat combines theprecise meanings ofwords with theiremotional associations,sounds, and rhythms inorder to paint a picturein the reader‟s mind. Itcan tell a story, expressfeelings and thoughts,or describe things. Furthermore poetry is agenre that is verydifferent from proseand drama. Wordsworth definedpoetry as "thespontaneous overflowof powerful feelings"
The „paragraph‟ in apoem is called a stanzaor a verse. Poetry doesnot necessarily have tohave ordered/regularstandards. Poetry is evocative. Ittypically evokes in thereader an intenseemotion: joy, sorrow,anger and love Predominant use ofimagery which appealsto the senses - of sight,hearing, touch, tasteand smell. You mightbe interested in theterminology of thedifferent imagery.They are as follows: Visual imagery – senseof sight e.g. It was as strangeas an ocean withoutwater
Poems contain figurativelanguage (e.g. simile,metaphor, personification,hyperbole, etc.) Poems may includerhythm (the regularrecurrence of stressed andunstressed beats) Poems may contain rhyme Poems contain sounddevices (e.g. assonance,alliteration, consonance tosupport the content of apoem
The term poetic formindicates the way thata poem is structuredby recurrent patternsof rhythms andwords. We must look atstanzas (meter, linelength and rhyme)and verse (blank orfree
Blank Verse: Unrhymed iambicpentameter (5 feet/line) Blank means that thepoetry is not rhymed.Iambic pentameterrefers to the fact thateach line contains fiveiambs, or metrical feet,consisting of a stressedsyllable followed by anunstressed syllable. Free Verse : Also called open formverse Yet it still keeps linedivisions deliberatewhich separates it fromprose.
A couplet has a pair ofrhymed lines of thesame length andmeter. It can also embodyrhymed pairs of linesin Iambic Pentameterare termed heroiccouplets.
Is a group of three lines,usually sharing the samerhyme. Whenas in silks my Juliagoes, Then, then, methinks, howsweetly flows, The liquefaction of herclothes. (“Upon Julia‟s Clothes” byRobert Herrick) The line length may be thesame or it may vary
Consists of four linesand is the mostcommon stanza formin English poetry. May use a variety ofmeter and rhymeschemes. The mostfrequent rhymescheme is that inwhich the second andforth line rhyme(abcb)http://tinyurl.com/6o7tvhw
Is a word, a phrase, ora group of linesrepeated at intervalsin a poem. It is a common featureof folk ballads and ofElizabethan songs Is a Lyric poem,written in a singlestanza that usuallyconsists of fourteenlines of iambicpentameter.
Italian sonnet: Named after Petrarch,an Italian poet whointroduced the formin the early fourteenthcentury. Divided into anopening octave- agroup of eight lines,and a concludingsestet-a six line unit. The rhyme scheme isusually fixed. Theopening octave isabba abba, but that ofthe sestet may vary(ced ced, or cdc cdc,or cdc dcd.
Nicknamed after it‟smost famouspractitioner. Features threequatrains and a finalcouplet. Rhyme schemeusually goes ababcdcd efef gg.http://tinyurl.com/cq33s3s
The elements in prose and poetry are similar.The table below illustrate the terminology usedwhere the elements are concerned.PROSE/DRAMA POETRYPlot Subject matterTheme Subject matterCharacterization Very rarelyPoint of view Voice/personaTone ToneMood Mood
Poems can beinterpreted at twolevels: - Literal level -thebasic, originalmeaning of a poem Figurative level – thedeeper, imaginativemeaning of a poem
Theme Represents the mainsubject or idea of apoem. A poem can havemore than one themebecause differentpeople wouldinterpret the samepoem in various ways Style and Language Refer to how the poetuses the language toconvey his or herideas. This wouldaffect the tone, moodand meaning of apoem
Mood Refers to the feeling a poem creates for thereaders Tone Reflects the poet‟s attitude towards the subjectof the poem.
Literary devices are common structures used inwriting. These devices can be either literaryelements or literary techniques. Literaryelements are found in almost every story andcan be used to analyse and interpret (e.g.protagonist, setting, plot, theme). Literarytechniques, on the other hand, constructions inthe text, usually to express artistic meaningthrough the use of language (e.g. metaphor,hyperbole).
Alliteration – is therepetition of the initialconsonant sounds inwords close together. Furthermore it can alsobe defined as when lotsof words in a poemstart with the sameletter it is calledalliteration. The implications orthe effect it has onadvancing the poetsargument is that Thisgives the line a specialbeat like a rhythm.Thus reiterating hismain points in aparticular stanza.
Poets use metaphors tocompare two apparentlyunlike things withoutusing the words like, as,than, or resembles. Examples: “The sky is a patchworkquilt” “Thomas is a bear on thefootball field” “She cried a sea of tears” “Cause its a bittersweetsymphony, this life Examples: “The sky is a patchworkquilt” “Thomas is a bear on thefootball field”
A simile is a directcomparison betweentwo unlike things usingthe words like or as. Examples: “The sky is like apatchwork quilt” “She sang like a bird” “You are as tough asleather” “He runs like the wind” The poet creates apicture by comparingtwo things using thewords „like‟ or „as. Example: “As snug as a gun”
This happens when thepoet intentionally giveshuman qualities to non-human objects orthings. I wandered lonely as acloud‟ – The cloud isdescribed as if it is aperson wanderingaround „.
When a word imitates the sound it isdescribing it is called onomatopoeia. Example:“Snap, Crackle, and Pop”The three creepy gnomes on Rice Krispiesboxes
- Involves our senses, e.g: visual, smell andsound.- Draws the reader into an experience bystimulating their senses which contributes tothe mood of the poem. It is intended to show rather than just tell
The repetition of a vowel sound in two ormore words in the line of a poem. Examples:- their soaky clothes tornand approached the stove. I know/ this rose is only/ an ink-and-paperrose/ but see how it grows and goes/ ongrowing.
– Is the repetition of identical consonant soundspreceded by different vowel sounds.Example: “live and love”-Home-Same-Lime
Is the repetition of identical or similar sounds instressed syllables. A pattern of end rhymes iscalled a rhyme scheme. Therefore rhyme fallsunder the category of sound effects. A rhyme scheme is the pattern of rhyming lines ina rhyming poem or in lyrics for music. It is usuallyreferred to by using letters to indicate which linesrhyme. For example, “abab” indicates a four-line stanza inwhich the first and third lines rhyme, as do thesecond and fourth.
Perfect rhyme: Refersto the immediatelyrecognizable norm:true/blue,mountain/fountain. Imperfect rhyme: Refersto rhymes that areclose but not exact:lap/shape,glorious/nefarious Eye rhyme: This refersto rhymes based onsimilarity of spellingrather than sound.Often these are highlyconventional, andreflect historicalchanges inpronunciation:love/move/prove,why/envy
Assonant rhyme:Rhyming with similarvowels, differentconsonants: dip/limp,man/prank Consonant rhyme:Rhyming with similarconsonants, differentvowels: limp/lump,bit/bet. Internal rhyme, ormiddle rhyme, isrhyme which occursin a single line ofverse. Internal rhymeoccurs in the middleof a line.- Examples:"In mist or cloud, onmast or shroud"from “The Rhyme ofthe Ancient Mariner”by Samuel TaylorColeridge
Is the return of a word, phrase, stanza form, oreffect in any form of literature. Examples: Back off from this poem It has drawn in your feet Back off from this poem It has drawn in your legs Back off from this poem It is a greedy mirror
Along the years poetry just like any other artform has evolved from medieval times poetryto the renaissance and the Victorian poets andhas reached a modern contemporary. Poetryhas taken different attributes and forms andhas incorporated slang and rap thus these nextslides shall discuss the different elements ithas.
Self-consciousness,experimentation New techniques suchas the Stream ofConsciousness Fragmentation instructuring literaryworks Lack of a singleauthoritativeviewpoint Could be replaced byunreliable narrator ormultiple points ofview.
Also known as openform or vers libre Lineated but notorganised by meter orany other strictpatterning device Most free verse hasirregular line lengthsand lacks rhyme Remember: dontconfuse free verse withblank verse! Blankverse is unrhymingiambic pentameter. It can help to think ofbroad differentcategories of free verse:
Braindoolan. (2010). http://www.slideshare.net/Briandoolan/the-language-of-poetry. Retrieved 03 19, 2013, from www.slideshare.co.za:http://www.slideshare.net/Briandoolan/the-language-of-poetry SC, F. S. (2010). http://www.slideshare.net/FenwaySoxSSC/poetic-forms. Retrieved 03 19, 2013, from www.slideshare.co.za:http://www.slideshare.net/FenwaySoxSSC/poetic-forms Megarrison. (2011). slideshare. Retrieved 03 19, 2013, from slideshare:http://www.slideshare.net/megarrison/poetry-elements aw, S. (2011). slideshare. Retrieved 03 19, 2013, from slideshare:http://www.slideshare.net/SarahLaw/modernism-and-free-verseCktan84. (2011). slideshare. Retrieved 03 19, 2013, from slideshare:http://www.slideshare.net/cktan84/what-is-poetry-6890333 Apliter7. (2012, 04). slideshare. Retrieved 03 19, 2013, from slideshare:http://www.slideshare.net/aplitper7/poetic-styles-and-forms