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Nations, States, Sub-nationalism, etc.

Nations, States, Sub-nationalism, etc.

Published in: News & Politics

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  • 1. Nation States
  • 2. What are Nation States?  Why are there so many separate countries?
  • 3.  Humans have always partitioned space to separate themselves from other human groups  This is similar to other species (think of a dog marking its territory)  The creation of territory is the basis for political organization and action
  • 4.  Most states are recognized as such by other states, and their territory is respected: they are governed by a recognizable body, with rules for the administration of the state.  What state do you live in?  Who recognizes your state?  What is the body that governs your state?
  • 5.  Individuals are therefore tied to a state and subject to its rules (citizens)  A Nation is not the same as a state. A nation is  Cultural group which is based on variables such as  Language – Example:  Religion – Example:  Ethnicity – Example:  These factors give people a sense of identity.
  • 6.  A State is  Formally defined political territory  Clearly Defined Set of Instutitions  Including Rule Making and Enforcement  Claims Exclusive Jurisdiction over all the people and activities within the state.  A Nation State state is a combination of both…  A Clearly defined cultural group (nation) occupying a defined territory (a state)
  • 7. How did the Nation State arise?  Required the concept of Nationalism (belief that the nation and the state should be the same), and that there is no other appropriate way to delimit a nation state. It is therefor the natural political unit.  It has also been argued that nationalism also means  All members of the nation have the right to live within the the borders of the state.  That it may be inappropriate for other national groups to live within the borders.  The gov’t must be in the hands of the dominant group.
  • 8.  In 19th Century Europe, Nationalism became the dominant criteria for defining a nation in the 19th century. Before that, most people tended to just accept whatever empire or leader was in charge.  What caused this to change???
  • 9.  Four possible explanations for the emergence of the nation state:  Response to political philosophers, especially Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778)  Desire to be closer to people of similar cultural background  Transition from feudalism to capitalism  People who benefitted from the means of production wanted a stable state (Marxist Idea)  Collapse of local communities (because of industrialization) and the need for coordination of a larger group I am Jean Jacques Rousseau, and I Approve this Message.
  • 10. Not all states are Uni-National  Despite the rise of nationalism, the world has many examples of multinational and bi-national states.  What are some examples? Why do they meet this criteria?
  • 11. Multi and Bi-National States  African countries whose boundaries were drawn by Europeans without considering African national cultural groups.  Many multinational state are unstable in Africa.  Bi-national states include Canada and Belgium, both of which suffer internal stresses due to differing political desires of dominant cultural groups.
  • 12. Cultural Sub Nationalism  Cultural Sub Nationalism  When the entire population of the state is not bound by the same sense of nationialism, but is split among local primary allegiances.  This can lead to civil war or international disputes.  Example: Sri Lanka’s civil war just ended in 2009. The LTTE wanted to create a separate independent state in the North. India became involved sending troops into Sri Lanka.
  • 13. Sub-Nationalism  Sub-nationalism is one of the centrifugal forces that pull nation apart, as compared to centripetal forces (like a strong sense of nationalism) which tend to bind a state together.  Sub-nationalism has led to strong authoritarian rulers in some states, especially Africa, who argue it is the only way to keep the country intact.