What's wrong with scholarly publishing today? II
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Updated again on 26-06-2009
and again in July 2011.

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  • Excellent slideshow. I've taken a number of the framework graphics and adapted to my startup
    Sharika
    http://winkhealth.com http://financewink.com
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  • On slide 5: Pubfeed ( http://pubfeed.cs.toronto.edu/ ) is worth a look as a potentially very useful aggregator of incoming literature based on a seed corpus. Currently with numerous rough edges, but the folks there are quick in responding to feedback, so it is constantly improving.
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What's wrong with scholarly publishing today? II Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Whatiswrongwithscholarlypublishingtoday?
    Björn Brembs, Freie Universität Berlin
    http://brembs.net
    http://www.slideshare.net/brembs/whats-wrong-with-scholarly-publishing-today-ii
  • 2. Publishing yesterday…
    1665: Onejournal: Philosophical Transactionsofthe Royal Society of London (Henry Oldenburg)
  • 3. Publishing Today
    • 24,000 scholarlyjournals
    • 4. 1.5 millionpublications/year
    • 5. 3% annualgrowth
    • 6. 1 millionauthors
    • 7. 10-15 millionreadersat >10,000 institutions
    • 8. 1.5 billiondownloads/year
    Source: Mabe MA (2009): Scholarly Publishing. European Review 17(1): 3-22
  • 9. Functionality
    19thcenturypublishingfor a 21stcenturyscientificcommunity
  • 10. Functionality
    At least four different searchtoolstobesure not to miss any relevant literature?
  • 11. Functionality
    When we finally find the literature, we have to ask friends with rich libraries to send it to us?
  • 12. Functionality
    We have to re-format our manuscripts every time an ex-scientist tells us to submit to another journal?
  • 13. Functionality
    We have to re-format our manuscripts every time an ex-scientist tells us to submit to another journal?
  • 14. Functionality
    Every homepage has had an access counter since 1993 but we don’t know how often our paper has been downloaded?
  • 15. Functionality
    Nothing happens when we click on the reference after "we performed the experiments as described previously"?
  • 16. Hyperlinks
    Nothing happens when we click on the reference after "we performed the experiments as described previously"?
    First demonstration: 1968
    WWW: 1989
    Stanford Research Institute: NLS
    Tim Berners-Lee: CERN
  • 17. Think…
  • 18. Why?
    Who‘stoblamethatourpublishingsystemis so lame?
  • 19. We, thescientists!
    We decide how and where to publish
  • 20. We, thescientists!
    We are producers and consumers in personal union
  • 21. We, thescientists!
    We chose to outsource scientific communication to publishers
  • 22. Publishers
    A publicgood in private hands
  • 23. Elsevier
    Name from Dutch publisher (1580): “House of Elzevir”
    250,000 articles per year in 2000 journals
    7,000 journal editors, 70,000 editorial board members and 300,000 reviewers are working for Elsevier
    Part of Reed Elsevier group
  • 24. Elsevier
  • 25. Elsevier
    Rofecoxib=Vioxx (Merck)
  • 26.
  • 27. Elsevier
    “Merck paid an undisclosed sum to Elsevier to produce several volumes of [Australasian Journal of Bone and Joint Medicine], a publication that had the look of a peer-reviewed medical journal, but contained only reprinted or summarized articles—most of which presented data favorable to Merck products—that appeared to act solely as marketing tools with no disclosure of company sponsorship.”
    “It was a stealth marketing campaign to Australian doctors under the guise of a regular journal. “
    The Scientist
    “In issue 2, for example, 9 of the 29 articles were about Vioxx, and 12 of the remaining were about another Merck drug, Fosamax. All of these articles presented positive conclusions, and some were bizarre: like a review article containing just 2 references. “
    Ben Goldacre, “Bad Science” The Guardian
    “It has recently come to my attention that from 2000 to 2005, our Australia office published a series of sponsored article compilation publications, on behalf of pharmaceutical clients, that were made to look like journals and lacked the proper disclosures. This was an unacceptable practice, and we regret that it took place.”
    Michael Hansen, CEO Of Elsevier's Health Sciences Division
  • 28. Elsevier
    “Merck paid an undisclosed sum to Elsevier to produce several volumes of [Australasian Journal of Bone and Joint Medicine], a publication that had the look of a peer-reviewed medical journal, but contained only reprinted or summarized articles—most of which presented data favorable to Merck products—that appeared to act solely as marketing tools with no disclosure of company sponsorship.”
    “It was a stealth marketing campaign to Australian doctors under the guise of a regular journal. “
    The Scientist
    “In issue 2, for example, 9 of the 29 articles were about Vioxx, and 12 of the remaining were about another Merck drug, Fosamax. All of these articles presented positive conclusions, and some were bizarre: like a review article containing just 2 references. “
    Ben Goldacre, “Bad Science” The Guardian
    “It has recently come to my attention that from 2000 to 2005, our Australia office published a series of sponsored article compilation publications, on behalf of pharmaceutical clients, that were made to look like journals and lacked the proper disclosures. This was an unacceptable practice, and we regret that it took place.”
    Michael Hansen, CEO Of Elsevier's Health Sciences Division
  • 29. Elsevier
    “Merck paid an undisclosed sum to Elsevier to produce several volumes of [Australasian Journal of Bone and Joint Medicine], a publication that had the look of a peer-reviewed medical journal, but contained only reprinted or summarized articles—most of which presented data favorable to Merck products—that appeared to act solely as marketing tools with no disclosure of company sponsorship.”
    “It was a stealth marketing campaign to Australian doctors under the guise of a regular journal. “
    The Scientist
    “In issue 2, for example, 9 of the 29 articles were about Vioxx, and 12 of the remaining were about another Merck drug, Fosamax. All of these articles presented positive conclusions, and some were bizarre: like a review article containing just 2 references. “
    Ben Goldacre, “Bad Science” The Guardian
    “It has recently come to my attention that from 2000 to 2005, our Australia office published a series of sponsored article compilation publications, on behalf of pharmaceutical clients, that were made to look like journals and lacked the proper disclosures. This was an unacceptable practice, and we regret that it took place.”
    Michael Hansen, CEO Of Elsevier's Health Sciences Division
  • 30. Elsevier
    “Merck paid an undisclosed sum to Elsevier to produce several volumes of [Australasian Journal of Bone and Joint Medicine], a publication that had the look of a peer-reviewed medical journal, but contained only reprinted or summarized articles—most of which presented data favorable to Merck products—that appeared to act solely as marketing tools with no disclosure of company sponsorship.”
    “It was a stealth marketing campaign to Australian doctors under the guise of a regular journal. “
    The Scientist
    “In issue 2, for example, 9 of the 29 articles were about Vioxx, and 12 of the remaining were about another Merck drug, Fosamax. All of these articles presented positive conclusions, and some were bizarre: like a review article containing just 2 references. “
    Ben Goldacre, “Bad Science” The Guardian
    “It has recently come to my attention that from 2000 to 2005, our Australia office published a series of sponsored article compilation publications, on behalf of pharmaceutical clients, that were made to look like journals and lacked the proper disclosures. This was an unacceptable practice, and we regret that it took place.”
    Michael Hansen, CEO Of Elsevier's Health Sciences Division
  • 31. The Big Three (2009/10)
    (includes Springer)
    Source:
    http://www.publishersweekly.com/binary-data/ARTICLE_ATTACHMENT/file/000/000/127-1.pdf
  • 32. Profits
  • 33. Journals Crisis (not just Elsevier!)
    % Change
    Modifiedfrom ARL: http://www.arl.org/bm~doc/arlstats06.pdf, http://www.arl.org/bm~doc/arlstat08.pdf
  • 34. Subscription Pricing
    KIT Library
    10 Most expensive journal subscriptions 2010/11
    http://www.bibliothek.kit.edu/cms/teuerste-zeitschriften.php
  • 35. Subscription Pricing
    SOURCE:LJ PERIODICALS PRICE SURVEY 2010
  • 36. Subscription Pricing
    MPG: 18 Mio €/y forliterature. 95% tothethreemainpublishers.
    UK: 94.6 Mio £/y in subscription (2003/4)
  • 37. What a magnificent ship! What makes it go?
    Cartoon by Rowland B. Wilson
  • 38. Library responses
    Request increased budgets
    Cut subscriptions
    Collective purchase of electronic journals
    Rely on document delivery or ILL
    UC: boycott NPG!
    Ray English
  • 39. Scientific Publishing:
  • 40. Survey: Journal Access
    David Nicholas
  • 41. Publishing yesterday…
  • 42. Scholarship as a Public Good
    Funded by Taxpayers
  • 43. Scholarship as a Public Good
    Supported publicly
  • 44. Scholarship as a Public Good
    Created in the non-profit sector
  • 45. Scholarship as a Public Good
    No profit for article authors
  • 46. Scholarship as a Public Good
    Profit for corporate publishers
  • 47. Scholarship
    A Public Good in Private Hands
  • 48. Scientific Publishing:
  • 49. Think…
  • 50. Onesolution: Open Access
    “Open-access (OA) literature is digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions.”
    Peter Suber
  • 51. Open Access
    Gold OA
    Publishing in an Open Access journal
    Currently 6722peer-reviewed open access journals listed in the Lund Directory of Open Access Journals doaj.org
    Green OA
    Self-archiving in an institutional repository or PubMed Central
    Over 1400 open repositories already established world-wide
  • 52. Digital
  • 53. But: Everything’s Gone Digital!
    www.scopus.com
    www.pubmed.gov
    http://ukpmc.ac.uk
    isiknowledge.com
    scholar.google.com
    Duncan Hull
  • 54. Welcome to Digital
    Isolation
    different disciplines – different information silos
  • 55. Welcome to Digital
    Impersonal and unsociable
    “who the hell are you”?
    Where are “my” papers?
    What are my friends and colleagues reading?
    What are the experts reading?
    What is popular this week / month / year?
  • 56. Welcome to Digital
    Obsolete models of publication
    Not everything fits publication-sized holes
    Micro-attribution
    Mega-attribution
    Digital contributions (databases, software, wikis/blogs?)
  • 57. Welcome to Digital
    Cold
    Identity of publications and authors is inadequate
  • 58. Open Access
    Identity Crisis
    Howcan I find anything?
  • 59. Identity Crisis: Which publication?
    http://pubmed.gov/18974831
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18974831
    http://ukpmc.ac.uk/articlerender.cgi?accid=pmcA2568856
    http://ukpmc.ac.uk/picrender.cgi?artid=1687256&blobtype=pdf
    http://www.ploscompbiol.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pcbi.1000204
    http://www.dbkgroup.org/Papers/hull_defrost_ploscb08.pdf
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1000204
    One paper, many URIs. Disambiguation algorithms rely on getting metadata for each
    Big problem for libraries is these redundant duplicates
    Matching can be done by Digital Object Identifier (DOI) and PubMed ID (PMID);
    these are frequently absent < 5% (Kevin Emamy, citeUlike)
    Duncan Hull
  • 60. Identity Crisis: Whichauthor?
  • 61. Identity Crisis: Whichtopic?
  • 62. Think…
  • 63. Onesolution: Unique identifiers
    Difficult with fragmented information silos
  • 64. Onesolution: Unique identifiers
    Several initiatives
  • 65. Onesolution: Unique identifiers
    Examples: PubMedID, DOI, ORCID, Semantic Web
  • 66. ORCID
  • 67. Semantic Web
    Machine-readablemeaning
    Technically non-trivial
    Promising progress
    Tim Berners-Lee
    http://www.w3.org/2000/Talks/1206-xml2k-tbl/Overview.html
  • 68. The Semantic Web for Dummies (like me)
    URIUniform Resource Identifier, like:
    http://id.archeology.edu/weapon/spear
    + XMLCustomized tags, like:
    <spear>Lance</spear>
    + RDFRelations, in triples, like:
    (Lance) (is_spear_of) (Longinus)
    + OntologiesHierarchies of concepts, like
    weapon -> projectile -> spear-> Lance
    + Inference rulesLike:
    If (person) (owns) (spear), then (person) (throws) (spear)
    = Semantic Web!
  • 69. Digital dystopia
    Information (Overload) Crisis
    Or filter failure?
  • 70. More scientists, morepublications
  • 71. Information Crisis
    1.5 millionpublications per year in 24,000 journals
  • 72. Information Crisis
    Finding ‘my’ publications is impossible!
  • 73. Information Crisis
    PublishorPerish: numberofpublications
  • 74. Information Crisis
    60-300 applicants per tenure-trackposition
  • 75. Information Crisis
    Reading enoughpublicationsisimpossible!
  • 76. Think…
  • 77. Onesolution: JournalRank
    Source Normalized Impact per Paper
    Thomson Reuters: Impact Factor
    Eigenfactor (now Thomson Reuters)
    ScImago JournalRank (SJR)
    Scopus: SNIP, SJR
  • 78. Onesolution: JournalRank
    Onlyreadpublicationsfromhigh-rankingjournals
  • 79. Job applications
  • 80. Job applicationinstructions
    Publikationstätigkeit
    (vollständige Publikationsliste, darunter Originalarbeiten als Erstautor/in, Seniorautor/in, Impact-Punkte insgesamt und in den letzten 5 Jahren, darunter jeweils gesondert ausgewiesen als Erst- und Seniorautor/in, persönlicher Scientific Citations Index (SCI, h-Index nach Web of Science) über alle Arbeiten)
    Publications:
    Completelistofpublications, including original researchpapersasfirstauthor, seniorauthor, impactpoints total and in the last 5 years, withmarkedfirstand last-authorships, personal Scientific Citations Index (SCI, h-Index accordingto Web of Science) for all publications.
  • 81. Metrics
    Lies, damn lies andbibliometrics
  • 82. Show of hands:
    Who knows what the IF is?
    Who uses the IF to pick a journal (rate a candidate, etc.)?
    Who knows how the IF is calculated and from what data?
  • 83. The Impact Factor
    Introduced in 1960’s by Eugene Garfield: ISI
    citations
    articles
    2008 and 2009
    2010
    IF=5
    Articles published in 08/09
    were cited an average of 5 times in 10.
  • 84. The Impact Factor
    Journal X IF 2010=
    All citationsfromTR indexedjournalsin 2010 topapers in journal X
    Numberofcitablearticlespublished in journal X in 2008/9
    €30,000-130,000/yearsubscriptionrates
    Covers ~11,500 journals (Scopuscovers ~16,500)
  • 85. Main Problems withthe IF
    Negotiable
    Irreproducible
    Mathematicallyunsound
  • 86. Negotiable
    PLoSMedicine, IF 2-11 (8.4)(The PLoS Medicine Editors (2006) The Impact Factor Game. PLoS Med 3(6): e291. http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371%2Fjournal.pmed.0030291)
    CurrentBiology IF from 7 to 11 in 2003
    BoughtbyCell Press (Elsevier) in 2001…
  • 87.
  • 88. Not Reproducible
    Rockefeller University Press boughttheirdatafrom Thomson Reuters
    Upto 19% deviationfrompublishedrecords
    Second dataset still not correct
    Rossner M, van Epps H, Hill E (2007): Show me the data. The Journal of Cell Biology, Vol. 179, No. 6, 1091-1092 http://jcb.rupress.org/cgi/content/full/179/6/1091
  • 89. Not MathematicallySound
    Left-skeweddistributions
    Weakcorrelationof individual articlecitation rate withjournal IF
    Seglen PO (1997): Why the impact factor of journals should not be used for evaluating research. BMJ 1997;314(7079):497 (15 February)
    http://www.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/314/7079/497
  • 90. Lord Kelvin
    “Nearly all the grandest discoveries of science have been but the rewards of accurate measurement”
  • 91. Job applications
  • 92. Message:
    Where you publish is more important to us than what you publish!
  • 93. Think…
  • 94. Other solution: social bookmarks
    refworks.com
    zotero.org
    mendeley.com
    hubmed.org
    2collab.com
    connotea.org
    citeulike.org
    Re-couple metadata that has be de-coupled from data
    www.mekentosj.com
    “iTunes for PDF files”
  • 95. Article-level Metrics
    Your article:
    Received X citations (de-duped from Google Scholar, Scopus, and Web of Science)
    It was viewed X times, placing it in the top Y% of all articles in this journal/community
    It received X Comments
    It was bookmarked X times in Social Bookmarking sites
    Experts in your community rated it as X, Y, Z
    It was discussed on X ‘respected’ blogs
    It appeared in X, Y, Z International News media
    Peter Binfield
  • 96.
  • 97.
  • 98.
  • 99. PLoS ONE
    4.5 years old
    Almost doubling in volume each year
    2007: 1,231 articles
    2008: 2,722 articles
    2009: 4,310 articles
    2010: 6,784 articles
    2011: >12,000 articles
    Largest journal in the world
    Over 1,000 Academic editors
    More than 30,000 authors
    Fully peer reviewed
    but the review / acceptance process does not concern itself with ‘impact’, ‘novelty’ (or other subjective measures)
  • 100. Publications by PLoS ONE per quarter since launch
  • 101. Albert Einstein
    "Not everything that can be counted counts, and not everything that counts can be counted."
  • 102. Metrics
    Won‘tgoaway
    Shouldalwaysbe a last resort
    Theyaremuchtoovaluabletobesatisfiedwiththecurrentpitifulstateofaffairs
    Let‘smakethemasgoodaswepossiblycan!
  • 103. My Digital Utopia:
    No more publishers – libraries archive everything according to a world-wide standard
    Single semantic, decentralized database of literature and data
    Personalized filtering
    Peer-review administrated by an independent body
    Link typology for text/text, data/data and text/data links (“citations”)
    Semantic Text/Datamining
    All the metrics you (don’t) want (but need)
    Tagging, bookmarking, etc.
    Unique contributor IDs with attribution/reputation system (teaching, reviewing, curating, blogging, etc.)
    Technically feasible today (almost)
    http://www.slideshare.net/brembs/whats-wrong-with-scholarly-publishing-today-ii