CURRENT THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP• CHARISMATIC LEADERSHIP THEORY: (GREAT MAN THEORY)• VISIONARY LEADERSHIP:• TRANSACTIONAL LEADERSHIP AND TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP THEORIES:
CHARISMATIC LEADERSHIP THEORY: (GREAT MAN THEORY)• Charisma is a God gifted attribute• “A leader is born and not made”• Charismatic leaders are those who inspire followers• Someone with charisma is more successful in influencing others than those who do not have charisma• Appropriate when the followers task has an ideological component• Ideal for pulling an organization through a crisis
Characteristics of Charismatic Leaders• They have very high levels of referent power.• High level of self-confidence.• High level of debating and persuasive skills.• High level of dominance• Very strong conviction in their beliefs.• They communicate a vision or higher level goal.• High expectations for follower’s performance.• They demonstrate consistency and focus in the pursuit of their vision.• They are perceived as unconventional.• They know their own strengths and capitalize on them.
VISIONARY LEADERSHIP:• Visionary leadership is the ability to create and articulate a realistic, credible, attractive vision of the future for an organization or organizational unit that grows out of and improves upon the present.• Visionary leaders have a vision and aim to implement it.• They also help prepare people to assume greater responsibility.
Skills of a Visionary Leader• The ability to explain the vision to others.• The ability to express the vision not just verbally but through the leaders behaviour.• The ability to extend the vision to different leadership contexts.
Managerial Grid:• It is based on the styles of "concern for people (Relation Oriented)" and "concern for production (Task Oriented)."
Managerial Grid:• (a)-1,1 management - often called ‘impoverished management — shows a minimum of concern for either people or production.• (b)-9,1 management is concerned only with the work and has little interest in people.• (c)-5,5 management balances the necessity to produce with maintaining morale at a 5 story level in order to achieve adequate organisational performance.• (d)-1,9 management is all about the people and shows little concern for getting the work done. This is sometimes called ‘country club management”.• (e)-9,9 management is seen as the ideal. The manager gets the work accomplished by committed people.
Autocratic Style:There are three types of autocratic leaders:• Strict Autocrat: - His method of influencing subordinates behaviour is through negative motivation i.e. by criticizing subordinates, imposing penalty etc.• Benevolent Autocrat: - He also centralized decision making power in him but his motivation style is positive.• Incompetent Autocrat: - Sometimes superiors adopt autocratic leadership style just to hide their incompetence. Cannot be used for a long time.
Advantages of Autocratic Leadership:• Many people prefer to work under centralized authority structure and strict discipline.• Provides strong motivation and reward to a manager exercising this style.• It permits very quick decision making.• Less competent subordinates also have scope to work in the origination under his leadership style as they do very little planning, organizing and decision making.Disadvantages:• People dislike it when it is strict and the motivational style is negative.• Employees lack motivation.• Frustration, low morale and conflict develop, reducing organizational effectiveness• There is more dependence and less individuality in the organization and future leaders don’t develop.
Democratic Leadership Style:• Involves employees in decision making, delegates authority, encourages participation, and uses feedback to coach employees.• A democratic-consultative leader seeks input but makes the final decision.• A democratic-participative leader often allows employees to have a "say."
Advantages of Democratic Leadership:• It is a highly motivating technique to employees as they feel elevated when their ideas and suggestions are considered in decision making.• Employee productivity is high as they are party to the decision.• They share the responsibility with the superior and try to safeguard him also.• Provides organizational stability by raising morale and attitudes of employees favourably.Limitations of Democratic Leadership:• Complex nature of organization requires a thorough understanding of its problems which lower level employees may not be able to do.• People who want less interaction with others get discouraged by this style.• Participation can be used covertly to manipulate employees.
Laissez-faire (Free Rein):• Means giving complete freedom to subordinate.• Once the manager determines policy, programmes and limitation for action, the entire process is left to subordinates.• It is suitable to situations where the manager can leave a choice to his group.• It helps subordinates to develop independent personality