EFL Writing for Digital Natives: Reimagining instruction for new realities.


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Action research was carried out to study the effects of providing opportunities for EFL digital native
students to reflect about their writing by means of scaffolded Web 2.0 activities in a wiki. Online
tools, materials, activities and student text samples will be presented. Results and
pedagogical implications will be discussed.

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  • From the times of Vigotsky, Paulo Freire (70) Rebeca Oxford and more recently Merryl Swain and her output hypothesis and open vision of sociocultural theory:
  • Through literacies we can teach students key skills for their future and make them aware in which technology is going to influence their future. (Mark Pegrum video in evomlit2010) http://goodbyegutenberg.pbworks.com/2010_Week3 Traditional print literacy is important and should not be neglected. But be aware of how language is changing Netspeak, or textspeak and different kinds of punctuation. You don't read hypertext the same way you read or write traditional print text. Mark arrays a spectrum of literacy skills into four "literacy groups" 1- Language literacies (how we express through language) 2- Information literacies (access and assess it; technological filters, where to find the experts) 3- Connection literacies e.g. Participatory literacies (potentially "dangerous" - why? examples? Political campaigns, Twitter, Facebook, coordinate actions/get message out and protesters have suffered consequences) How you link into networks, contribute and influence them) advantages and dangers 4- Remix literacies (younger generation but not necessarily) It holds together all the other literacies and it provides layout of commentary circulating around the world. It pulls all the others together We don´t have enough attention span to pay attention to everything, we pay attention to everything but full attention to nothing
  • The creation of environments to motivate students learning beyond the classroom should be part of the role of technology in the 21st Century education and a responsibility for foreign language teachers who prepare students to think critically, take social responsibility, analyze problems and provide possible solutions to them. The role of the teacher is crucial in the creation of new learning environments and in bridging distances between those who have wide access to technology and those who do not in an era where everybody needs technology since we seem to be heading towards a future of technology-mediated jobs. Educators must not feel comfortable when being categorized as “technophobes” or “digital immigrants” whose marked accent hinders communication with their students. On the contrary, it must be the role of educators to try to bridge , if not eliminate, the digital divide in our educational institutions and our students. “ educators must become ―digital multipliers or ―people who find creative solutions that bring every student into the digital world, Prensky 2009
  • http://tefltecher.wordpress.com/2010/02/15/dont-fear-the-reaper/ Ian James, british efl in Barcelona February 15, 2010 Most teachers are neither technophiles nor technophobes. They are more likely to be teachers who are willing to experiment with new technology, but who don’t want it to make their life more difficult than it already is. They want technology to be functional and user-friendly, and do not want to spend hours at the cutting edge. Although they probably find the speed of technological change excessive, they do their best to keep abreast of the most important innovations and make an effort to incorporate some of them into their teaching.
  • It is not enough to be able to read and write but that we also have to be able to read more critically all the different digital channels which have emerged recently. Digital technologies are set to play a major role in the future of education. Education must also play a major role in the future of digital technologies. The decisions we make today about education, technology, and technology in education must be informed by a consideration of the long-term social, sociopolitical and ecological consequences: in short, what kinds of stories – individual, local, national and global – they’ll enable us to write. It’s up to us to make sure we shape our technologies as much as they shape us. And, given the pace of ongoing technological development, we have to start now. The term multiliteracies was coined by the New London Group (1996) to highlight two related aspects of the increasing complexity of texts: (1)the world becoming smaller, communication between other cultures/languages is necessary to anyone. The usage of the English language is also being changed. While it seems that English is the common, global language, there are different dialects and subcultures that all speak different Englishes. The way English is spoken in France, or in South Africa or any other country is different from how it is spoken in the US. (2) The second way to incorporate the term multiliteracies is the way technology and multimedia is changing how we communicate. These days, text is not the only and main way to communicate. Text is being combined with sounds, and images and being incorporated into movies. Billboards, almost any site on the internet, and television. All these ways of communication require the ability to understand a multimedia world. A new multimodal literacy is required in order to find our way around the emerging world of meaning. http://multilit2fit.blogspot.com/2005/09/what-is-multiliteracies.html Buthania AlOlthman Multiliteracies is a multiple-form of knowledge, including print, images, video, combinations of forms in digital contexts, which we are required to represent in an equally complex way. Multiliteracies is a revolution in education leading to inevitable major shifts or changes in pedagogy related to technology and human values. It’s about the nature and future of learning, new teachers and new teaching, formal and informal learning settings, and hopes of developing more dynamic and engaging learning environments or learning in communities of practice or action. Multiliteracies in the millennium is what was literacy in the “60s” for the 20th century. The purpose of multiliteracies is to extend literacy teaching for our new times, i.e. creating lifelong learners who are FIT (Fluent in Information Technology) and able to live with confidence in a new constantly changing world.
  • Help students self-diagnose and recognize their most common content, fluency and grammar errors. Apply grammar rules to their texts learned from online exercises. Develop strategies to summarize, paraphrase and constructively criticize the texts of others and even raise the level of formality of their texts.
  • Flesch-Kincaid Readability Score: Flesch Reading Ease (0-100%), and the Flesch–Kincaid Grade Level (For most documents, aim for a score of approximately 7.0 to 8.0. ) Web Vocabulary Profiler (WVP)
  • Welcome to ID5128* Introduction to EFL Writing 2008 wiki (April 21-July 11, 2008) Participants : Intermediate engineering and basic sciences students, ages 18-22, in Caracas, Venezuela. Facilitator : Prof. Bertha Leiva, office EGE 209-B, phone: 906 3792 Schedule : Tuesdays 11:30-1:30 at CB1-lab, first floor. COURSE DESCRIPTION Writing is a personal and challenging process. In this course we will work on developing our own process through a variety of assignments which may include autobiographical pieces, reflections, CVs, letters of recommendation, statement of purpose, university application forms, essays or even the creation of a video or slide show. You will work in small workshop groups to help one another improve your writing. Ideas for your assignments may come from discussions we have as we read given texts or any other source we deem appropriate. In order to get a top grade in this class, you must be actively involved by participating in class/online discussions, openly sharing your writing with your peers, and respectfully helping your classmates improve their own writing. Your writing and that of your peers are the true materials of this class. The course has been designed for Universidad Simon Bolivar students who already have a certain knowledge of the English language and need to improve their writing skills. You will progresively develop your writing from the basic composition of a paragraph to longer pieces with an introduction, body and conclusion as well as summaries that reflect your capacity to understand, synthesize and present information. You will hopefully learn to write by writing extensively and revising constructively the writing of peers. GENERAL OBJECTIVES: 1. To recognize yourself as a writer, able of trying several syles and capable of improving your writing through the process of peer feedback, multiple drafts and teacher conferences. 2. To have frequent opportunities to write extensively in English through formal and informal writing assignments. 3. To focus writing as a way of generating and organizing ideas on a given topic. 4. To practice writing in a collaborative social environment where the key element is authentic communication with a real audience. 5. To place yourself in the role of a critical reader. 6. To learn to learn by taking your learning process in your hands. SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES: 1. To use basic elements to write and develop a coherent paragraph. 2. To follow steps to build a complete and cohesive text. 3. To express yourself in a clear and coherent way, either orally or in writing. 4. To review your work and edit it to improve its form and/or content. 5. To give constructive and effective feedback to peers when evaluating their work. 6. To use several online tools to share your work with the class and a larger audience. METHODOLOGY This course follows the principles of sociocultural theory whereby learners have opportunities to work collaboratively and exchange ideas with each other, the teacher and perhaps a wider audience to develop linguistically and communicatively out of social interaction. Although writing will be the main skill to practice, there will also be the integration of reading, listening and speaking as input for composing written text. The teacher will mostly be a facilitator who will create learning scenarios and guide participants through the course. Text correction will be generally addressed through self, peer and group review. There will be individual student-teacher consultation conferences several times during the term. Students are expected to write weekly reflective diaries on their process of becoming better writers and language learners. Some of the content will be developed as the term progresses depending on the needs and interests of participants who may want to design course activities themselves. Getting Started: Username and Password Our wiki can be seen by everyone, but only ID5128 participants can edit or create new pages. Click the JOIN THIS SPACE in the top left sidebar. After your registration has been approved, you will click the SIGN IN link in the top right corner of this page and enter your username and password from there onwards. Try to use the same email account, username and password when you sign up in our online spaces. Check out our tutorial page in the sidebar to join in our fun. Participants will have to create new pages as a means to share their work with the rest of the group and possible visitors, as well as to write their reflections on the process of becoming better writers. Please click on the links in the sidebar to view our weekly materials/activities and participant pages. Thank you! * This Wiki course format follows Tesol-Electronic Village Online Workshop designs.
  • Read online article Watch video or slideshow Upload pictures and videos Make screencast Work with wiki, blog, tags
  • Truscott, 2004 : St. limit language use to avoid errors when they know they will be corrected. St will be limited in experimenting with language if they do not take risks and simply write simple, correct short texts. Teachers dedicate too much time to corrections wasting valuable instruction time.Grammar correction is ineffective because students acquire different linguistic aspects at different moments (teacher correcting present perfect when student is trying to master the past). If st. is not ready, teacher is wasting time. Noticing the differences on how they write and how they should write is a period of linguistic consciousness ( Schmidt, 2001 ). When students have this awareness, they will benefit from corrections but teachers don´t always know when they have reach this stage. Thus, grammar correction will work when the error is checked at the adequate moment and in the convenient way. Truscott y Hsu ( 2008 ) in a recent study found again that the decrease in the number of errors during revision is not a predictor of learning, at least for corrective feedback. The improvements made during revisions are not evidence of the effectiveness of correction to improve learner´s writing. Ferris , on the other hand, supports grammar correction and says that it can help students if it is selective, clear, with some sort of priority and not overwhelming. In a study with Roberts in 2001 , they found out that under three conditions: coded feedback, underlined error and no feedback, students with feedback did better than those with no feedback at all, but coded and uncoded feedback had no significant differences. Bitcherner, Young y Cameron (2005 ) tried to observe the effects of different types of feedback (discussion of errors, illustrated examples, and written corrections) and they found out that the integration of several evaluation methods had better results than the simple correction of students´ texts. It seems, then, that teachers should vary the type of feedback they give to their students. Traditionally teachers have: 1) corrected all errors; corrected errors selectively; 3) mark errors so students would correct them (coded or not); or 4) let students identify and correct their own errors.
  • Extensive personal comments in response to content Emphasis on content over form ( Readers get involved with content and notice form less frequently, unless they are teachers ) Teacher's revisions in Googledocs (modeling for future peer and self revisions following a rubric) http://docs.google.com/View?docid=ddf65987_4dfgdpvgr
  • Transfer … moved Beginning stage where it was important to know participants and show them I was interested in what they wrote. Lots of personal comments. I am a mechanical engineering student since 2004 Choose, chose Hobbie -hobbies Residency – dorm Ligue - league
  • Constructive feedback. Mention something the writer did well.
  • Student at keyboard, teacher sitting beside student close to mouse. Several windows open: Wikispaces, Wordreference, Google search, others as needed. COHORT; scenic fear/ stage fright; enter (into) or nothing, especially a country.
  • Though controversy continues as to whether error feedback helps L2 student writers to improve the accuracy and overall quality of their writing (Ferris, 1999a; Truscott, 1996, 1999), most studies on error correction in L2 writing classes have provided evidence that students who receive error feedback from teachers improve in accuracy over time . One issue which has not been adequately examined is how explicit error feedback should be in order to help students to self-edit their texts. In an experimental classroom study, 72 university ESL students' were investigated differing abilities to self-edit their texts across three feedback conditions: (1) errors marked with codes from five different error categories; (2) errors in the same five categories underlined but not otherwise marked or labeled; (3) no feedback at all. They found that both groups who received feedback significantly outperformed the no-feedback group on the self-editing task but that there were no significant differences between the “codes” and “no-codes” groups. They conclude that less explicit feedback seemed to help these students to self-edit just as well as corrections coded by error type.
  • Eliminating the grading factor may allow students to concentrate more in composing, revision and discussion of texts with peers, teacher and self-revisions. Essays did receive an estimate grade according to standards required in exams such as Toefl or Ielts. --- Instead of practicing writing in solitary situations in a closed classroom, students could learn about learning by interacting with thers by means of dialogues, vocalizing the process about their writing practices, etc. The way students are supported in this interactive environment affects their level of appropriation, aplication, internalization and transformation of knowledge and discourse in a second or foreign language.
  • All professionals suffer from technology overload . This load is not as heavy for teachers as it is in other professions, e.g. medical, engineering, chemistry, physics. Yet, teachers of students going into these professions are responsible for training students how to learn. Students need autonomous learning skills in order to keep on top of their professions when they get out in the real world. Since teachers are expected to model the adaptive skills needed, no teacher can rest on a static skill set (Vance Stevens, 2007). In our era, knowledge is no longer so much a matter of internalization of facts as it is the ability to locate facts when needed, utilizing a network of peers who can help you access information. The job of a teacher is in some respects to learn along with the students, partly by connecting with other teachers also learning how to use technology to re-learn how to learn .
  • Lack of knowledge about these tools caused initial fear to use them: some students took longer to learn how to handle them, others were cautious or shy when writing comments as these would be read by their classmates.
  • Alvin Toffler (born October 3 , 1928 ) is an American writer and futurist , known for his works discussing the digital revolution , communications revolution , corporate revolution and technological singularity . A former associate editor of Fortune magazine, his early work focused on technology and its impact (through effects like information overload ). Then he moved to examining the reaction of and changes in society . His later focus has been on the increasing power of 21st century military hardware, weapons and technology proliferation, and capitalism . He is married to Heidi Toffler , also a writer and futurist. They live in Los Angeles . They wrote the books credited to "Alvin Toffler" together.[ citation needed ] Accenture, the management consultancy, has dubbed him the third most influential voice among business leaders, after Bill Gates and Peter Drucker . He has also been described in the Financial Times as the "world's most famous futurologist ". People's Daily classes him among the 50 foreigners that shaped modern China Alvin Toffler (nacido el 3 de octubre de 1928 ) es un escritor y futurista estadounidense doctorado en Letras, Leyes y Ciencia, conocido por sus discusiones acerca de la revolución digital , la revolución de las comunicaciones y la singularidad tecnológica. Sus primeros trabajos están enfocados a la tecnología y su impacto (a través de efectos como la sobrecarga de información ). Más tarde se centró en examinar la reacción de la sociedad y los cambios que ésta sufre. Sus últimos trabajos han abordado el estudio del poder creciente del armamento militar del siglo XXI, las armas y la proliferación de la tecnología y el capitalismo . Entre sus publicaciones más famosas se destacan La revolución de la riqueza , El cambio de poder , El shock del futuro y La tercera ola . Está casado con Heidi Toffler, también escritora y futurista. La tercera ola [ editar ] Artículo principal: La tercera ola En su libro La tercera ola , Toffler introduce un concepto de ola que engloba todas las consecuencias biológicas, psicológicas, sociales y económicas que se derivan de cada una de las civilizaciones verdaderamente distintivas. Dentro de estas civilización describe: La primera ola como la revolución agrícola. Una civilización basada en el autoabastecimiento que origina toda una ola de consecuencias culturales. Dura miles de años. La segunda ola como la revolución industrial. Una civilización que escinde la figura del productor de la del consumidor. Las consecuencias culturales son la uniformización, la especialización, la sincronización, la concentración, la maximización y la centralización. El poder en esta segunda ola es ostentado por los que llama integradores que son aquellos que se ocupan de coordinar y optimizar los procesos de producción. En todas las sociedades en las que predomine la segunda ola, surgen de forma natural la burocracia y las corporaciones . La tercera ola es la sociedad post-industrial . Toffler agrega que desde fines de la década de 1950, la mayoría de los países se han alejado del estilo de Sociedad de Segunda Ola tendiendo hacia Sociedades de Tercera Ola. Acuñó numerosos términos para describir este fenómeno y cita otras como Era de la Información creadas por otros pensadores. En una simplificación de la historia de la humanidad, sitúa en el centro de la evolución de cada sociedad la coexistencia y el reemplazamiento entre "olas".
  • EFL Writing for Digital Natives: Reimagining instruction for new realities.

    1. 1. Efl/Esl writing for Digital Natives: Re-imagining instruction for new realities Bertha Leiva Universidad Simon Bolivar Maggie Heeney University of Waterloo http://www.slideshare.net/bleiva2003
    2. 2. Priming <ul><li>Teachers ' wish list: What do we want? </li></ul><ul><li>New reality: Digital natives. </li></ul><ul><li>Objective of the action research study. </li></ul><ul><li>Online tools, materials, activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Student text samples, revisions, error correction, evaluation. </li></ul><ul><li>Findings and pedagogical implications. </li></ul><ul><li>References. </li></ul>
    3. 3. <ul><li>Empower students. </li></ul><ul><li>Give them more freedom and responsibility about their own learning </li></ul><ul><li>Provide an environment for socio-cultural and collaborative interaction. </li></ul><ul><li>Foster autonomous learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Help students learn how to learn . </li></ul>What do we want?
    4. 4. <ul><li>Digital Natives vs. Digital immigrants </li></ul>New reality
    5. 5. <ul><li>Widespread Internet and Social Network use. </li></ul><ul><li>Frequent and sometimes obsessive use of video games and electronic gadgets. </li></ul><ul><li>Wider digital socio- economic divide. </li></ul>New digital reality
    6. 6. <ul><li>Less writing on paper. </li></ul><ul><li>Extensive use of computers and cell phones for text messaging, chatting and twittering. </li></ul><ul><li>Countless numbers of hours spent writing online. </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to multitask. </li></ul><ul><li>Use of technology transparently, without marveling at it, or wondering about how it works. </li></ul>New digital reality
    7. 7. New digital reality “ My smmr hols wr CWOT. B4, we used 2go2 NY 2C my bro, his GF & thr 3 :- @ kids FTF. ILNY, it's a gr8 plc Bt my Ps wr so {:-/ BC o 9/11 tht they dcdd 2 stay in SCO & spnd 2wks up N. Up N, WUCIWUG - O. I ws vvv brd in MON. O bt baas & ^^^^^. AAR8, my Ps wr :-) -- they sd ICBW, & tht they wr ha-p 4 the pc&qt…IDTS!! I wntd 2 go hm ASAP, 2C my M8s again. 2day, I cam bk 2 skool. I feel v O:-) BC I hv dn all my hm wrk. Now its BAU. (2003)
    8. 8. Education in the 21st century http://www.unesco.org/education/educprog/wche/declaration_eng.htm WORLD DECLARATION ON HIGHER EDUCATION FOR THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY * *
    9. 9. Digital literacies … Multiliteracies Digital technologies are changing education, identity and society. Mark Pegrum
    10. 10. Where do we stand? <ul><li>Are we really helping our students acquire and/or practice those skills which will be crucial in their future </li></ul><ul><li>personal, </li></ul><ul><li>social or </li></ul><ul><li>professional </li></ul><ul><li>activities? </li></ul>
    11. 11. <ul><li>Are we really using learning resources that </li></ul><ul><li>will provide them with opportunities to connect socioculturally among themselves, learn to interrelate </li></ul><ul><li> with one another </li></ul><ul><li> and with other groups? </li></ul>What should we do?
    12. 12. What should we do about writing instruction? <ul><li>Have students write on paper during class? </li></ul><ul><li>Let them share ideas only with their teacher? </li></ul><ul><li>Use the same traditional instruction methods? </li></ul><ul><li>Correct every mistake or error we find? </li></ul><ul><li>Worry fossilization will take place if we don't correct everything? </li></ul>
    13. 13. Objective of the study Provide opportunities for EFL digital native students to reflect about their writing by means of scaffolded Web 2.0 activities in a wiki .
    14. 14. Context <ul><li>University EFL blended writing course (12 weeks) </li></ul><ul><li>7 intermediate students </li></ul><ul><li>Elective/extraplan </li></ul><ul><li>Engineering majors </li></ul><ul><li>Ages: 19-22 </li></ul>
    15. 15. Course activities/evaluation <ul><li>No cumulative grading but percentage of completed tasks. </li></ul><ul><li>Qualitative feedback aimed at helping students become aware of their errors. </li></ul>
    16. 16. Tools Google docs Wikispaces http://writingatusb.wikispaces.com Others: Google search Wordreference LexTutor, WVP Word
    17. 17. SIDEBAR Wiki
    18. 18. Each action got recorded
    19. 19. More tools Chat: Cbox Tags: Delicious Goggle Docs Aggregation: Pageflakes
    20. 20. Support pages Tutorials Web Tips Calendar Grammar
    21. 21. For each week <ul><li>General introduction, </li></ul><ul><li>online materials, </li></ul><ul><li>activities to be carried out, </li></ul><ul><li>list of benchmarks to check task completion. </li></ul>
    22. 22. Plagiarism Introduction: About me Me as a writer … and reader The brain Digital immigrant or native? Me as a learner and teacher Web 2.0 First impressions About my life Procrastination How this course has affected me as a writer, reader … Moving abroad or staying home Improving my community Sample Topics
    23. 23. Sample student page http://writingatusb.wikispaces.com/
    24. 24. International collaborations Sisterclasses: Argentina, Brazil, Hungary, Kuwait, Romania, Sudan, USA, Venezuela
    25. 25. International collaborations
    26. 26. Truscott : “The state of the evidence, especially regarding grammar errors, points to a clear conclusion: Correction is a bad idea.” Ferris: “Students who receive error feedback from teachers improve in accuracy over time … Less explicit feedback seems to help students to self-edit just as well as corrections coded by error type.” Error feedback controversy
    27. 27. Teacher's comments Self-revisions Peer revisions f2f student-teacher conferences Feedback Methods
    28. 28. Teacher's content comments Content comments but paraphrasing corrected mistakes. In later corrections quotation marks were placed for noticing . Challenge Find two sentences where you missed the verb to be
    29. 29. Follow-up of teacher's content comments
    30. 30. Comments : Your message is quite understandable and the highlighted words are elements to be improved , especially when they are related to grammar and word usage . All sentences in English must have a subject. Do all of your sentences have one ? A reader may get the point you are trying to get through but a professor at a graduate program or an employer will not regard those typos or mistakes favorably. They can be fixed rather easily and I hope you are able to figure out their correct forms. You are also missing some commas here and there. Try to find out where they would go . Keep up the good work! Revised by Teacher Modeling by teacher in Googledocs before peer revisions
    31. 31. Peer revisions in Googledocs <ul><li>Comments: You express your idea well and I understand pretty much everything that you put in your text about plagiarism. I really liked when you searched another website to complement the concept of plagiarism because it wasn't completely clear for you. The things that could be improved in your text, I think it could be the vocabulary part and the spelling , for example you need to correct some words like &quot;becouse, allways, becarfull&quot;. You may find the link about &quot;sentences&quot; on the week 2 assigments very helpful. Try to find something about auxiliaries in English. Revised by E . </li></ul><ul><li>2) Comments: added ( green ), removed  ( blue ) could be changed  ( yellow ), comments (in red ). Congratulations! You've done a great job! Your text is pretty good. I think you only have to check for some run-on sentences , that way it would be easier to read . Revised by: J. </li></ul><ul><li>3) Comments :  I find the text understandable and enjoyable because is very funny. Is a bit informal and I might have passed some mistakes ( let's wait for the teacher to re-revise it ). You could improve your vocabulary and spelling  a little bit and the order in your sentences another little bit.  What I think are mistakes are the words and phrases in lilac , and  my corrections are in pink . Based on the rubric  that the teacher gave us for the peer revision I'll give you the following: 1) Content: 4; 2) Organization: 3; 3) Form: 2; 4) Main Idea: 3 Revised by: M </li></ul>
    32. 32. Student-teacher conferences <ul><li>3-4 individual sessions. </li></ul><ul><li>45-90 minutes each. </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher's office computer. </li></ul><ul><li>No previously set procedure. </li></ul><ul><li>Student at keyboard. </li></ul><ul><li>Several windows open. </li></ul>Wow !!!
    33. 33. Survey results 7 28.6% (2) 28.6% (2) 14.3% (1) 28.6% (2) 0.0% (0) When you revised the texts of your peers 7 14.3% (1) 14.3% (1) 14.3% (1) 57.1% (4) 0.0% (0) Peer revisions and comments 6 0.0% (0) 0.0% (0) 0.0% (0) 33.3% (2) 66.7% (4) Student-teacher conference at teacher's office 6 0.0% (0) 16.7% (1) 0.0% (0) 16.7% (1) 66.7% (4) Specific indications for corrections by teacher in DT 7 0.0% (0) 14.3% (1) 14.3% (1) 42.9% (3) 28.6% (2) Paraphrasing of your corrected mistakes by teacher in DT 7 0.0% (0) 0.0% (0) 0.0% (0) 57.1% (4) 42.9% (3) General content comments by teacher in discussion tab (DT) Response 1 2 3 4 5   Which feedback method was most effective for you ? (mark 5 as the most effective and 1 as the least)
    34. 34. Survey results 6 0.0% (0) 0.0% (0) 0.0% (0) 100% (6) revising texts at student-teacher conferences 6 0.0% (0) 0.0% (0) 16.7% (1) 83.3% (5) getting comments from teacher about your texts 7 14.3% (1) 14.3% (1) 71.4% (5) 0.0% (0) getting corrections of texts by classmates 6 16.7% (1) 50.0% (3) 33.3% (2) 0.0% (0) correcting the texts of classmates 6 16.7% (1) 50.0% (3) 33.3% (2) 0.0% (0) self-correcting texts Response Not at all little somehow very   Were the following types of feedback helpful ?
    35. 35. Results on revisions <ul><li>Teacher-student conferences most helpful form of revision. </li></ul><ul><li>Specific indications for corrections by teacher in the wiki discussion tab. </li></ul><ul><li>General comments from teacher, paraphrasing of corrected errors and peer revisions. Giving feedback to their peers was considered the least useful. </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple revision methods </li></ul><ul><li>more opportunities to notice language, clear up doubts, get a variety of explanations and examples, and maybe increase the chances of identifying those mistakes in the future. </li></ul>
    36. 36. Findings* <ul><li>Extended listening, reading and writing practice. </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforcement of writing strategies. </li></ul><ul><li>Development of background knowledge: content learning and vocabulary preview. </li></ul><ul><li>Content generated and shared by students. </li></ul><ul><li>Constant contact with classmates and teacher. </li></ul><ul><li>Scaffolding: Peer help. </li></ul><ul><li>Learning about wikis, blogs and other online resources (videos, dictionaries, concordancers, Googledocs, Slideshare, etc.) </li></ul>* Student survey, st.-teacher conferences, last evaluation essay
    37. 37. <ul><li>Sense of community and ownership towards the virtual site where the course took place and the exchanges were made. </li></ul><ul><li>A real audience was established who read and wrote about given topics which were interesting, personal, challenging, thought-provoking, reflective. </li></ul><ul><li>Students were motivated to find other sources of information in the Web (use of search engines, articles, photos, videos, etc.) </li></ul>More findings
    38. 38. Pedagogical Implications <ul><li>Web 2.0 tools can help ESL/EFL students practice reflective writing in a collaborative and sociocultural environment. </li></ul><ul><li>The gap between those who have not used these social tools before and those who have is narrowed. </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers come to a middle ground between digital natives and digital immigrants becoming digital multipliers . </li></ul>
    39. 39. Pedagogical Implications <ul><li>There are certain digital skills we should be taking into account as we prepare our students to become 21st century professionals in an ever changing world. </li></ul><ul><li>As teachers, we don´t need to be masters in technology but should provide students with opportunities to integrate digital tools in their learning. </li></ul>
    40. 40. Technology overload; autonomous learning skills; no static skill set . Knowledge is the ability to locate facts when needed, utilizing a network of peers who can help you access information. Learn along with students, connect with other teachers also learning how to use technology to re-learn how to learn. Vance Stevens, 2007 Pedagogical Implications
    41. 41. Some limitations <ul><li>Lack of knowledge about tools -> </li></ul><ul><li>initial fear, shyness, caution. </li></ul><ul><li>Too much teacher time required to: </li></ul><ul><li>- find interesting/motivating materials </li></ul><ul><li>- give continuous feedback </li></ul><ul><li>- maintain st. attention, curiosity and </li></ul><ul><li>willingness to carry out activities in </li></ul><ul><li>the wiki and other sites. </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulties in setting up international collaborations: timing, proficiency level, motivation, etc. </li></ul>
    42. 42. <ul><li>“ The illiterate of the Twenty-first century will not be those who cannot read or write but those who cannot learn to learn, unlearn and relearn ” </li></ul><ul><li>Alvin Tofler </li></ul>A final thought
    43. 43. ? & comments [email_address] [email_address]
    44. 44. References <ul><li>Abdullah, M. (2003). The Impact of Electronic Communication on Writing . ERIC Digest, ED477614.ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading English and Communication Bloomington IN. Available at http://www.ericdigests.org/2004-1/impact.htm </li></ul><ul><li>Bitcherner. J., Young. S., and Cameron. D . (2005). The effect of different types of corrective feedback on ESL student writing. Journal of Second Language Writing , 14, 191-205. </li></ul><ul><li>Cumming, A. (2007). Assessment. In I.Leki, A.Cumming, and T. Silva, A synthesis of research on second language writing: 1980 to 2005. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. </li></ul><ul><li>Ferris, D. (1999a). The case for grammar correction in L2 writing classes: A response to Truscott (1996). Journal of Second Language Writing , 8, 1-11. </li></ul><ul><li>Ferris, D. and Roberts, B. (2001). Error feedback in L2 writing classes: How explicit does it need to be? Journal of Second Language Writing , 10, 3, 161-184. </li></ul><ul><li>Jukes, I. (2007). Understanding the new digital landscape, kids & the new ―Digital Divide‖. The Info Savvy Group (pp. 1-12). Retrieved July 17, 2009, from http://web.mac.com/iajukes/thecommittedsardine/Articles_files/ndl.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>Jukes, I., & McCain, T. (2008, May). Closing the digital divide: 7 things education & educators need to do. The Info Savvy Group (pp. 1-31). Retrieved July 18, 2009, from http://www.committedsardine.com/handouts/ctdd.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>Prensky, M. (2009). Let´s be &quot;Digital Multipliers&quot;: Eliminating the digital divide is something educators can do. Educational Technology (in press). Available at </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.marcprensky.com/writing/Prensky-Lets_Be_Digital_Multipliers-ET-01-09.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>Truscott, J. and Hsu, A. (2008). Error correction, revision and learning. Journal of Second Language Writing. In press. Available at http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6W5F-4T2S010-2&_user=10&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view=c&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=6c0d7d2366f04c5195e9c26427eeb09c </li></ul><ul><li>UNESCO. (1998, October 9).World declaration on higher education for the twenty-first century: Vision and action. Retrieved October 11, 2008, from http://www.unesco.org/education/educprog/wche/declaration_eng.htm </li></ul>