Perspectives on digitization of musicPresentation Transcript
Perspectives on digitization of music in music academy libraries: problems and challenges NMALC Copenhagen 2010 Ole Bisbjerg, State and University Library, Aarhus - Denmark
agenda Why digitize? Is digitization relevant for music academy libraries? My aim – to give you an overview of some of the current challenges and subjects to address, when/if you plan to digitize and then preserve the digital data in your institution
agenda Digitization – in principle what´s the purpose? Preservation, protection and/or access / makin available? Institutional repositories or out of the house?
The digital present
Digitization - in principle Digital Is the opposite of analogue. At present not very precise : digital library, digital culture etc The change from analogue media to digital media > letters, numbers, sound, video is transferred to a universal computer readable language – communication, processin, transportation, storage and retriving Convergence, which means the the bits/bytes can be used/reused (copied!!) – played/manipulated on many different platforms The smartphone!
digitization – audiovisual materials The original condition is threatened ! Sound and video in many many different formats the media is fragile and the equipment will soon become obsolete too! Examples: Vax cylinders - in principle can only be played once! Acetate records, the surface can suddenly cracle Private magnetic reels (tape) cassette DAT-tapes in proprietaty formats
An optimal digitization process requires a thorough knowledge of the relevant media and the technology for digitization ! It is crucial that the process results in files in the right format and right quality so they can be reused and secured for the future! Use only: open, internationally acknowledged standards
Challenges! Challenges: Formats : Compressed or uncompressed ? Lossless eller lossy ? Proprietære or open source ? Metadata - which standard? Remembering, in the best way Copyrights and DRM Not having IP rights to something may mean you can’t preserve/digitize it. Organizational commitment: Digitization& preservation costs a lot money - There is only one answer: I.POLICY – you have to make a case first !
Makin a case/plan for digitization – and most important (at the same time) a case/plan for the preservation of the digital data! Need to know first: why you’re digitizing/preserving - what you’re d/p, and what you’re d/p it against. At our scale, many problems are solvable?
Formats for preservation and access
Digital preservation 20 years ago we saved documents on floppys 5.25 ? documents were written in word-prefect ? For eternity, which is…maximum 10 years Digital preservation is fundamentally 2 things Bitpreservation Secure that bits stay the same the next X years Storage technologies of today has a lifespan of 5 max 10 år Logical preservation secure that we can read and understand our saved bits Formats and programs develop very quickly Popularity change over time
Bit preservation beware of Bit rot We demand more of storage/backup Autenticity 100% identical with the original more copies of all material Minimum 3 copies – 2 on disc + 1 tape 0r 1 disc + 2 tapes - not in the same place ! Checksums! A file is, fundamentally, a great big number. Do math on the number file. Store the result as metadata Check of tapes on a routine schedule migration to new (disc)-systems Trusted repository : excellent dokumentation of all facets/ rutines / tasks Bit preservation is the easy part!
Logical preservation, 2 This is the hard part 3 strategies Migration: move the file into a new format Emulation: create a modern hardware/software environment that can deal with the old format – iPhone !! Technology museum = preserving the original platforms If you own the format : migration strategi is logical Internet preservation: emulation Thank God - its an international problem! 2 EU-projects PLANETS (http://www.planets-project.eu) DPE (http://www.digitalpreservationeurope.eu)
Questions – for workshop tomorrow! Could/should we cooperate on a nordic level in this field? advantages? disadvantages? Discuss which case could be the most relevant for music academy libraries ? 3. Best practices for us? 4. Should we / could we develop joint repositories?
links http://www.disc-uk.org/docs/guide.pdf http://www.tape-online.net/ http://www.mndigital.org/digitizing/standards/ http://www.viddler.com/explore/CCAHA/videos/10/ Books: Oya Y. Rieger: Preservation in the age of Large-Scale preservation, CLIR, 2008 Kevin Bradley: Guidelines on the production and preservation og digital audio objects, IASA, 2nd ed. 2009 Dietrich Schüller: Audio and video carriers, TAPE 2008
Thanks for your attention! Slidesshow is available on slideshare.com Contact: Ole Bisbjerg / email@example.com 0045 4064 9783