Perspectives on digitization of music in music academy libraries: problems and challenges <br />NMALC Copenhagen 2010<br />Ole Bisbjerg, State and University Library, Aarhus - Denmark<br />
agenda<br />Why digitize? Is digitization relevant for music academy libraries? <br />My aim – to give you an overview of some of the current challenges and subjects to address, when/if you plan to digitize and then preserve the digital data in your institution<br />
agenda<br />Digitization – in principle<br />what´s the purpose? <br />Preservation, protection and/or access / makin available?<br />Institutional repositories or out of the house?<br />
Digitization - in principle<br />Digital Is the opposite of analogue. <br />At present not very precise : digital library, digital culture etc<br />The change from analogue media to digital media > letters, numbers, sound, video is transferred to a universal computer readable language – <br />communication, processin, transportation, storage and retriving <br />Convergence, which means the the bits/bytes can be used/reused (copied!!) – played/manipulated on many different platforms<br />The smartphone! <br />
digitization – audiovisual materials<br />The original condition is threatened !<br />Sound and video in many many different formats<br />the media is fragile and the equipment will soon become obsolete too! Examples: <br />Vax cylinders - in principle can only be played once!<br />Acetate records, the surface can suddenly cracle<br />Private magnetic reels (tape) cassette <br />DAT-tapes in proprietaty formats<br />
An optimal digitization process requires a thorough knowledge of the relevant media and the technology for digitization !<br />It is crucial that the process results in files in the right format and right quality so they can be reused and secured for the future!<br />Use only: open, internationally acknowledged standards<br />
Challenges!<br />Challenges:<br />Formats : <br />Compressed or uncompressed ?<br />Lossless eller lossy ?<br />Proprietære or open source ?<br />Metadata - which standard? Remembering, in the best way<br />Copyrights and DRM<br />Not having IP rights to something may mean<br />you can’t preserve/digitize it.<br />Organizational commitment: Digitization& preservation costs a lot money - There is only one answer: I.POLICY – you have to make a case first ! <br />
Makin a case/plan for digitization – and most important (at the same time) a case/plan for the preservation of the digital data! <br />Need to know first:<br />why you’re digitizing/preserving - what you’re d/p, and<br />what you’re d/p it against.<br />At our scale, many problems are solvable?<br />
Digital preservation<br /> 20 years ago <br />we saved documents on floppys 5.25 ?<br />documents were written in word-prefect ?<br />For eternity, which is…maximum 10 years<br />Digital preservation is fundamentally 2 things<br />Bitpreservation<br />Secure that bits stay the same the next X years<br />Storage technologies of today has a lifespan of 5 max 10 år<br />Logical preservation<br />secure that we can read and understand our saved bits <br />Formats and programs develop very quickly <br />Popularity change over time <br />
Bit preservation beware of Bit rot<br />We demand more of storage/backup<br />Autenticity<br />100% identical with the original<br />more copies of all material<br />Minimum 3 copies – 2 on disc + 1 tape 0r 1 disc + 2 tapes - not in the same place !<br />Checksums! A file is, fundamentally, a great big number. Do math on the number file. Store the result as metadata<br />Check of tapes on a routine schedule<br />migration to new (disc)-systems<br />Trusted repository : excellent dokumentation of all facets/ rutines / tasks<br />Bit preservation is the easy part! <br />
Logical preservation, 2<br />This is the hard part <br />3 strategies<br />Migration: move the file into a new format<br />Emulation: create a modern hardware/software environment that can deal with the old format – iPhone !!<br />Technology museum = preserving the original platforms<br />If you own the format : migration strategi is logical<br />Internet preservation: emulation <br />Thank God - its an international problem!<br /> 2 EU-projects<br />PLANETS (http://www.planets-project.eu)<br />DPE (http://www.digitalpreservationeurope.eu)<br />
Questions – for workshop tomorrow!<br />Could/should we cooperate on a nordic level in this field? advantages? disadvantages? <br />Discuss which case could be the most relevant for music academy libraries ? <br />3. Best practices for us? <br />4. Should we / could we develop joint repositories? <br />
links<br />http://www.disc-uk.org/docs/guide.pdf<br />http://www.tape-online.net/<br />http://www.mndigital.org/digitizing/standards/<br />http://www.viddler.com/explore/CCAHA/videos/10/<br />Books:<br />Oya Y. Rieger: Preservation in the age of Large-Scale preservation, CLIR, 2008<br />Kevin Bradley: Guidelines on the production and preservation og digital audio objects, IASA, 2nd ed. 2009<br />Dietrich Schüller: Audio and video carriers, TAPE 2008<br />
Thanks for your attention! <br />Slidesshow is available on slideshare.com<br />Contact: Ole Bisbjerg / email@example.com<br />0045 4064 9783<br />
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