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Bioweapons 2
Bioweapons 2
Bioweapons 2
Bioweapons 2
Bioweapons 2
Bioweapons 2
Bioweapons 2
Bioweapons 2
Bioweapons 2
Bioweapons 2
Bioweapons 2
Bioweapons 2
Bioweapons 2
Bioweapons 2
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  • 1. BIOWEAPONS
  • 2. CONTENTS • • • • • • INTRODUCTION HISTORY TYPES PREVENTIVE MEASURES ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES
  • 3. WHAT ARE BIOWEAPONS  Toxic materials or pathogenic substances(usually microbes).  Biological weapons are potentially deadlier than chemical weapons.  These substances work to kill or incapacitate the host.  Biological weapons may be used to target living organisms such as humans, animals or vegetation.
  • 4. HISTORY AT A GLANCE  In 1942, British bioweapons trials severely contaminated Gruinard Island in Scotland with anthrax spores.  In 1979, the Soviet Union accidently released airborne anthrax, killing 66 people in the process.  1939-1949—Second World War, Japanese army poisoned more than 1,000 water wells in Chinese villages to study cholera and typhus outbreaks.
  • 5. MOST POTENTIAL BIOWEAPONS • • • • • CHIMERA NIPAH VIRUS BOTULINUM TOXIN TULERAMIA ANTHRAX
  • 6. ANTHRAX  Anthrax is an acute disease caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis.  The bacteria live in the soil, where grazing animals typically come into contact with spores while rooting around for food.  Symptoms are fever, respiratory problems, fatigue, muscle aches, enlarged lymph nodes, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea.  1945: Iran  outbreak causes 1 million sheep deaths. WHY USE ANTHRAX  Relatively easy to acquire, in vitro growth (any lab media @ 37 C) and induction of sporulation is easy.
  • 7. TULERAMIA  Tularemia also known as rabbit fever is a serious infectious disease caused by the bacterium Francisella tularensis.  Humans typically acquire the disease through contact with infected animals, infected insect bites, the consumption of contaminated foods or the inhalation of the bacteria in aerosol form.  Symptoms  fever, headache, diarrhea, muscle aches, joint pain, dry cough and progressive weakness.  Outbreak of tularemia among German soldiers-siege of Stalingrad was due to the release of F. tularensis by Soviet forces. WHY USE TULERAMIA  It is easy to aerosolize  It is highly infective; between 10 and 50 bacteria are sufficient to infect victims.
  • 8. BOTULINUM TOXIN  Botulinum toxin is a protein and neurotoxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium Botulinum.  Clostridium botulinum can kill in 24 to 72 hours, which makes it a harmful bioweapon.  Symptoms Blurred vision, vomiting and difficulty swallowing.  In 1990 the Japanese cult Aum Shinrikyo released an aerosol of the toxin.
  • 9. NIPAH VIRUS The virus naturally occurs in fruit bats. Symptoms fever, muscle pains or inflammation of the brain. The outbreak occurred in the Nipah region of Malaysia, infecting 265 and killing 105.
  • 10. CHIMERA  In Greek and Roman mythology, the chimera combined elements of lion, goat and serpent into one monstrous form.  In modern genetic science, a chimeric organism is a life form that contains genes from a foreign species.  Chimera, which combines the common cold with polio, may help cure brain cancer.  1980 Soviet Union's Chimera Project(combining of Smallpox and Ebola).
  • 11. Defense against biological agents • Military defense – good protective mask equipped with filters-blocking bacteria, virus – effective biological weapon sensors-alarms to make sure of overgarments, gloves. • Civil defense – improved since the September 11, 2001, attacks in the United States. – Ex. the U.S. government incorporated smallpox vaccine for every military personel. – Long-term medical research-improved vaccines.
  • 12. ADVANTAGES  Small amount needed  Extremely toxic  Easy/inexpensive to grow  Large amount produced in short period of time  Potential for panic
  • 13. DISADVANTAGES  Quality control – Particles must be aerosolized .  Delivery problems – Rain, wind, UV light – Bombs, and shells produce poor, localized aerosols – Heat and shock waves (explosions) kill most organisms  Poor storage survival

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