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Engineering techniques, developed
with the hope of curing genetic
diseases, could also be used to
cause harm. Knowledge of the
structure of the human genome will
increasingly lead to knowledge of its
function, and this knowledge will
make it possible to manipulate.
Modern biotechnology thus presents
humanity with both a great
promise, to better health and life in
peace, and a great peril, to multiply
sickness and death in war.
In response to suspected biological warfare development
in Nazi Germany, the U.S., U.K., and Canada initiated a
biological warfare development program in 1941 that resulted
in the development of anthrax, brucellosis, and botulism toxin.
Fear of the German program turned out to be vastly
exaggerated. The center for U.S. military biological warfare
research was Fort Detrick, Maryland. The biological weapons
developed during that period were tested at the Dugway
Proving Grounds in Utah. Research carried out in the U.K.
during World War II left Gruinard Island in Scotland
contaminated with anthrax for the next 48 years.
Special attention has to be laid on future experiments (of
concern) that……….

1.

2.

3.


4.

5.
Anthrax
A bacterial agent that, although not contagious, is lethal if inhaled.

Smallpox
A highly contagious viral agent. It has a very high death rate and travels
through air easily.

Plague
Another bacterial agent but this one is highly contagious. It causes a
type of pneumonia that is lethal if not caught early. Has an incubation
period of 1-5 days.
Ebola
A fever caused by a viral agent. This is extremely lethal and leads to
bleeding from all organs. There is no cure or treatment.
Botulinum
A toxin that causes muscular paralysis resulting in death.
In the US in 2001, botulin was sent through the post to addresses such
as senators and newspapers. Although this did indeed lead to the
deaths of five people, the resulting panic throughout the country
showed just how quickly an attack could destabilize a nation.
The threat of bioterrorism should
be included in every country’s plan
and structure to deal with
disasters. These plans should be
multispectral and supported by
training of all sectors and desktop
simulation exercises. These plans
should cover detection, diagnosis
and response. Plans should include
an inventory of the human and
physical resources available.
Anthrax does not spread from person to person, but
can
be made into a powder that can, with relative
ease, be made into a form that is easily dispersed.
A network of laboratories is necessary to identify
the infectious agent.
Currently, a good anthrax vaccine is not
available. The
United States of America has stepped up its
research on new anthrax vaccines. Now the best
response to exposure is prophylaxis with antibiotics
for 60 days after exposure. Anthrax is greatly
sensitive to a wide array of antibiotics other than
ciprofloxacin. Penicillin and doxycycline are
recommended.
USE OF BIOLOGICAL
             WEAPONS ACT
                      1992
BIOLOGICAL WEAPONS
ANTI-TERRORISM ACT
               1989
Engineering techniques could cause harm or cure diseases
Engineering techniques could cause harm or cure diseases

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Engineering techniques could cause harm or cure diseases

  • 1.
  • 2.
  • 3.
  • 4.
  • 5.
  • 6.
  • 7.
  • 8. Engineering techniques, developed with the hope of curing genetic diseases, could also be used to cause harm. Knowledge of the structure of the human genome will increasingly lead to knowledge of its function, and this knowledge will make it possible to manipulate. Modern biotechnology thus presents humanity with both a great promise, to better health and life in peace, and a great peril, to multiply sickness and death in war.
  • 9. In response to suspected biological warfare development in Nazi Germany, the U.S., U.K., and Canada initiated a biological warfare development program in 1941 that resulted in the development of anthrax, brucellosis, and botulism toxin. Fear of the German program turned out to be vastly exaggerated. The center for U.S. military biological warfare research was Fort Detrick, Maryland. The biological weapons developed during that period were tested at the Dugway Proving Grounds in Utah. Research carried out in the U.K. during World War II left Gruinard Island in Scotland contaminated with anthrax for the next 48 years.
  • 10. Special attention has to be laid on future experiments (of concern) that………. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
  • 11. Anthrax A bacterial agent that, although not contagious, is lethal if inhaled. Smallpox A highly contagious viral agent. It has a very high death rate and travels through air easily. Plague Another bacterial agent but this one is highly contagious. It causes a type of pneumonia that is lethal if not caught early. Has an incubation period of 1-5 days.
  • 12. Ebola A fever caused by a viral agent. This is extremely lethal and leads to bleeding from all organs. There is no cure or treatment. Botulinum A toxin that causes muscular paralysis resulting in death. In the US in 2001, botulin was sent through the post to addresses such as senators and newspapers. Although this did indeed lead to the deaths of five people, the resulting panic throughout the country showed just how quickly an attack could destabilize a nation.
  • 13.
  • 14. The threat of bioterrorism should be included in every country’s plan and structure to deal with disasters. These plans should be multispectral and supported by training of all sectors and desktop simulation exercises. These plans should cover detection, diagnosis and response. Plans should include an inventory of the human and physical resources available.
  • 15. Anthrax does not spread from person to person, but can be made into a powder that can, with relative ease, be made into a form that is easily dispersed. A network of laboratories is necessary to identify the infectious agent. Currently, a good anthrax vaccine is not available. The United States of America has stepped up its research on new anthrax vaccines. Now the best response to exposure is prophylaxis with antibiotics for 60 days after exposure. Anthrax is greatly sensitive to a wide array of antibiotics other than ciprofloxacin. Penicillin and doxycycline are recommended.
  • 16. USE OF BIOLOGICAL WEAPONS ACT 1992 BIOLOGICAL WEAPONS ANTI-TERRORISM ACT 1989