Biochips

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Biochips

  1. 1. OVERVIEW INTRODUCTION HISTORY COMPONENTS OF BIOCHIP WORKING OF BIOCHIPS BIOCHIP IMPLANT APPLICATIONS ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES FUTURE CONCLUSION REFERENCES
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION• Collection of miniaturized test sites(microarrays) arranged on a solid substrate.• Permits many tests to be performed at the same time.• Surface area is no longer than a fingernail.• Perform thousands of biological reactions in a few seconds.• Used to analyze organic molecules associated with living organisms.• Help in identifying gene sequences, environmental pollutants, airborne toxins, or other biochemical constituents.
  3. 3. Biochip
  4. 4. HISTORY•Developed in 1983 for monitoring fisheries.•Large scale development of biochips in the 1990s.•Today, a large variety of biochip technologies areeither in development or being commercialized.•Invented in 4G generation & the development is stillcontinued.•In 1980 Fred Sanger and Walter Gilbert wereawarded Nobel Prize for their pioneering DNAsequencing approach.•In 1983, Kary Mullis was awarded Nobel Prize for hisPolymerase Chain Reaction(PCR) which allowed toamplify minute amounts of DNA to quantities.
  5. 5. •In 1986, Leroy Hood gave fluoresence-based DNAsequencing which facilitated the automation of readingDNA sequence.
  6. 6. COMPONENTSBiochip implant system consists of two components:-•Transponder•Reader or scanner.
  7. 7. TRANSPONDER•Actual biochip implant.•Two types of transponder – passive or active.•Communication between biochip and reader is vialow-frequency radio waves.•Transponder consists of four parts:-Computer microchipAntenna coilTuning capacitorGlass capsule
  8. 8. •Computer Microchip:- The microchip stores a uniqueidentification number from 10 to 15 digits long.•Antenna Coil:-This tiny, primitive, radio antenna"receives and sends" signals from the reader or scanner.•Tuning Capacitor:-This capacitor is charged by thesmall (1/1000 of a watt) signal sent by the reader.•Glass Capsule:- “houses” the microchip, antenna coiland capacitor. It is made of biocompatible material suchas soda lime glass.
  9. 9. READER OR SCANNER•Consists of an “exciter” coil which createselectromagnetic field.•Provide energy to “activate” the implanted biochip.•Also carries a receiving coil to receive ID number.•Contains the software and components to decodethe receive code and display the result in an LCDdisplay.
  10. 10. WORKING•Reader transmits a low-power radio signal andactivates the implanted biochip.•ID number transmitted by the transponder andreceived by the reader.•Reader displays the ID number on the reader’s LCDdisplay.
  11. 11. BIOCHIP IMPLANT•Injected by a hypodermic syringe beneath the skin.•Injection is safe and simple.•Anesthesia is not required.•Usually injected behind the neck in dogs and cats.
  12. 12. APPLICATIONS•With a biochip tracing of a person/animal, anywherein the world is possible.•A biochip can store and update financial, medical,demographic data, basically everything about aperson.•A biochip leads to a secured E-commerce systems.•Biochips are really potent in replacingpassports,cash, medical records.•Medicinal implementation of biochips-as glucosedetector; as oxygen sensor; as an blood pressuresensor.
  13. 13. ADVANTAGES•To rescue the sick.•To find the lost people.•To identify person uniquely.•In monitoring health condition of individuals in whichthey are specially employed.•They can perform thousands of biological reactions ina few seconds.•Increase speed of diagnosis of unknown pathogens.•Ability to detect multiple viral agents in parallel.
  14. 14. DISADVANTAGES•They raise critical issues of personal privacy.•They mark the end of human freedom and dignity.•There is a danger of turning every man, womenand child into a controlled slave.•They can be implanted into ones body withouttheir knowledge.
  15. 15. FUTURE•A chip implanted somewhere in human bodies mightserve as a combination of credit card, passport, driverslicense, personal diary.•No longer would it be needed to worry about losing thecredit cards while traveling.•A chip inserted into human bodies might also give usextra mental power.
  16. 16. CONCLUSIONBiochips are:-•Fast,•Accurate,•Miniaturized,•expected to become economically advantageousattributes that make them analogous to computerchip.
  17. 17. REFERENCEShttp://www.slideshare.net/zacksoul/bio-chip-project-report.http://www.slideshare.net/guestac67362/bio-chip-paper-presentation.http://www.scribd.com/doc/48235390/BioChips-ppt-slide-show.Google images.

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