Digital Divide• Jan van Dijk and Kenneth Hacker (2003) distinguish four barriers to access to digital services.• Lack of elementary digital experience• No possession of computers and network connections• Lack of digital skills• Lack of significant opportunities -> In the case of Rwanda there is a lack of usage access.• http://vis4.net/blog/posts/mapping-internet-and- population/
Beeping by Donner• Mobile’s feature is connectivity. The benefits are both positive economic and social changes.• powerful technique to maximize the benefits of a mobile whilst minimizing money expenditure
• In Rwanda users have taken this to next level by diversifying this practice. There are three kinds of beeping• Call back• Pre-negotiated instrumental• Relational
• allowing users to feel connected.• It is a “phatic communication” signaling the existence of a relationship or communication channel.
• mobiles are rewriting the spatial and temporal constraints of all manner of human communications – whether for working family, or recreation and entertainment• http://www.cnn.com/2012/09/27/tech/mobil e-culture-usage/index.html
Discussion• 1. Form groups 2. discuss with class• When you wake up in the morning how long is it until you use your mobile or Internet?• How would you feel if your mobile and Internet was taken off you for 3 days?• Do you think you could organize your life without your mobile?• Choose one question and• Tweet #MDIA5003 your answer
• Bibliography:•• Donner J,(2006), The Social and Economic Implications of• Mobile Telephony in Rwanda: An Ownership/Access Typology, Kowledge, Technology, & Policy, 2006, vol.19, No.2,pp.17-28••• Donner, J (2007), The rules of beeping: Exchanging messages via international “missed calls” on mobile phone, Journal of Computer Mediated Communication, 13(1), article 1.http://jcmc.indiana.edu/vol13/issue1/donner.html•• Jan van Dijk & Kenneth Hacker (2003): The Digital Divide as a Complex and Dynamic Phenomenon, The Information Society: An International Journal, 19:4, 315-326•• Aisch, G , ‘Visualiziing the Global Digital Divide by Mapping Internet and Population’, 21/10/2011,accessed 5/10/2012, http://vis4.net/blog/posts/mapping-internet-and-population/• our bibliography should look something like this – LastName, FirstName.(Month Day, Year).Title of the Article Retrived Month Day, Year from the website: http://www.abcde.com••• TheVJMovement, ‘Rwandan Farmers Empowered by Mobile Access to Market Prices’, April 12, 2011, accessed 4/10/2012 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_lOSL1KyeG0••• Canton N, 20120, ‘Cell phone culture: How cultural differences affect mobile use’, September 28, 2012, accessed 4/10/2012,http://www.cnn.com/2012/09/27/tech/mobile-culture-usage/index.html