Internationalising Internet Studies


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Internationalising Internet Studies

  1. 1. Chapter 1: Internationalizing Internet Studies Beyond Anglophone Paradigms Gerard Goggin and Mark McLelland Information Society & Multiculturalism Professor Han Woo Park Presented by Azman Bidin 2009.9.10
  2. 2. Content <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Is Internet International? </li></ul><ul><li>Internet’s Different Histories </li></ul><ul><li>The Implications For Internet Studies </li></ul><ul><li>Directions For Future Research </li></ul>
  3. 3. 1. Introduction <ul><li>Tokyo Vs Palestine – gadget fetishism and technofashion & market driven. Not by business elite. Different “technoscapes” </li></ul><ul><li>Downloading Music over Mobile Phone </li></ul><ul><li>Choice of Language over the Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Digital Divide </li></ul><ul><li>” .. Setting up Internet facilities in disadvantaged areas of the globe does very little to empower local populations that lack the cultural and social capital to render such facilities intelligible and useful” Tawil-Souri. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Geert Hofstede Cultural Dimensions
  5. 5. Description of Geert Hofstede Cultural Dimensions <ul><li>Power Distance Index (PDI) that is the extent to which the less powerful members of organizations and institutions (like the family ) accept and expect that power is distributed unequally . </li></ul><ul><li>Individualism (IDV) on the one side versus its opposite, collectivism, that is the degree to which individuals are integrated into groups . </li></ul><ul><li>Masculinity (MAS) versus its opposite, femininity, refers to the distribution of roles between the genders which is another fundamental issue for any society to which a range of solutions are found. </li></ul><ul><li>Uncertainty Avoidance Index (UAI) deals with a society's tolerance for uncertainty and ambiguity ; it ultimately refers to man's search for Truth. </li></ul><ul><li>Long-Term Orientation (LTO) versus short-term orientation: I t can be said to deal with Virtue regardless of Truth </li></ul>
  6. 6. 2. Is Internet International? <ul><li>Shift to non English has not been registered. Work done in non-English hardly get translated. Isolated worlds. </li></ul><ul><li>Many useful studies but remain in English-language cyberspace. (e.g. The Cybercultures Readers, The Internet in Everyday Life) </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of research on Non-Roman alphabet (Chapter 10). Chinese characters (Chapter 18 & 19) </li></ul><ul><li>Internet going multilingual. Focus sociolinguistic. (e.g. The Multilingual Internet ) </li></ul><ul><li>The book focuses on: bring together understanding of culture, politics, community, use and the social shaping of technology – profound implication of internationalization approach towards the internet </li></ul>
  7. 7.
  8. 8. 2. Is Internet International? <ul><li>US “the supposed vanguard of the information society”. – ICANN (Washington DC) Vs ITU (Geneva) </li></ul><ul><li>“ we assume that people in other countries, using other languages, are probably doing the things with Internet technology that are pretty similar to those applications that we are familiar with. This book shows how wrong that assumption is” ( Japanese Cybercultures ) </li></ul><ul><li>“ The reverse flow is relatively rare” though Japanese researchers familiar with Anglophone. </li></ul><ul><li>Western Countries PC high penetration and high bandwidth availability encouraged Internet development from mid 1990’s </li></ul><ul><li>Blog is not just for the Anglophone users. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Korean blogs function as a socialization tool rather than as a venue for social activism.. Blogs in Korea are used more for interaction with others and passing the time than grassroots journalism” (Chapter 14) </li></ul><ul><li>Instant Messenger; MSN, QQ (China). Photo sharing; MySpace, Flicker and YouTube or Cyworld (Korea). Web 2.0 UGC role of the users with different cultures. </li></ul>
  9. 9. 3. Internet Histories <ul><li>West-Internet access PC-based. East, due to different characters PC penetration was low, mobile internet is more dominant (Japan 3G 53% of mobile users in 2006) </li></ul><ul><li>Started as US military communication platform for sharing research data among scientists. Original language-English QWERTY keyboard. </li></ul><ul><li>Problems of translation i.e. NOKIA in Hindi. Alta Vista in Chinese. </li></ul><ul><li>“ The iPhone is so yesterday in Asia” Eunice Yoon </li></ul>
  10. 10. 3. Internet Histories <ul><li>Korea population ¾ live in 7major cities. All are connected. PC bangs. </li></ul><ul><li>Internet enabled mobile phone. Cyworld “mini-hompy”. Going abroad is inconvenient for Korean students </li></ul><ul><li>Problems of translation i.e. NOKIA in Hindi. Alta Vista in Chinese. </li></ul><ul><li>Internet deals with different histories and experiences. Not a single phenomenon with simple history </li></ul>
  11. 11. 4. Implications for Internet Studies <ul><li>Various “cultures” contribute to broader, ongoing assessment to the internet and culture at more general levels </li></ul><ul><li>Internet as eminent global technology, yet international instantiations were not realised. i.e. mobile phone phenomenon </li></ul><ul><li>Role of bodies like WSIS in shaping the internet </li></ul>
  12. 12. 5. Future Research Directions Though diminishing, English still remain dominant
  13. 13. 5. Future Research Directions <ul><li>International meetings to promote discussion among researches i.e. 2005 International Conference on Mobile Communication and Asian Modernities in Hong Kong </li></ul><ul><li>Concerned raised on US-centrism. Research funds and market for publication. </li></ul><ul><li>Non English speaking researchers hard to penetrate “Anglo-American gatekeepers” </li></ul><ul><li>Workshops, conferences, edited collections and other projects would enable transnational dialogues </li></ul><ul><li>To build cross linkages among media studies researchers within and on non-Anglophone cultures globally. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Discussions <ul><li>Thank You </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>