Digital Divide• Jan van Dijk and Kenneth Hacker (2003) distinguish four barriers to access to digital services.• Lack of elementary digital experience• No possession of computers and network connections• Lack of digital skills• Lack of significant opportunities -> In the case of Rwanda there is a lack of usage access.• http://vis4.net/blog/posts/mapping-internet-and- population/
Beeping by Donner• Mobile’s feature is connectivity. The benefits are both positive economic and social changes.• powerful technique to maximize the benefits of a mobile whilst minimizing money expenditure
• In Rwanda users have taken this to next level by diversifying this practice. There are three kinds of beeping• Call back• Pre-negotiated instrumental• Relational
• allowing users to feel connected.• It is a “phatic communication” signaling the existence of a relationship or communication channel.
mobiles are rewriting the spatial and temporalconstraints of all manner of humancommunications – whether for working family,or recreation and entertainment• http://www.cnn.com/2012/09/27/tech/mobil e-culture-usage/index.html
However…However:• Smart phones are still not fully exploited• no location based services (LBS) – which makes navigation, maps, google maps relies on LBS to find destinations• lack of apple-supported networks e.g. Iphones do not recognize phone number if it comes with a country code – comes up with ID-mismatch• Lack of app development – more work on SM based solutions to help similar phones do things like buying power, use twitter, interact with banks.• Andriod is more popular• Combined with limited number of people with purchasing power to buy apps.
Discussion• 1. Form groups 2. discuss with class• When you wake up in the morning how long is it until you use your mobile or Internet?• How would you feel if your mobile and Internet was taken off you for 3 days?• Do you think you could organize your life without your mobile?• Choose one question and• Tweet #MDIA5003 your answer
bibliography• Mobile Telephony in Rwanda: An Ownership/Access Typology, Kowledge, Technology, & Policy, 2006, vol.19, No.2,pp.17-28••• Donner, J (2007), The rules of beeping: Exchanging messages via international “missed calls” on mobile phone, Journal of Computer Mediated Communication, 13(1), article 1.http://jcmc.indiana.edu/vol13/issue1/donner.html•• Jan van Dijk & Kenneth Hacker (2003): The Digital Divide as a Complex and Dynamic Phenomenon, The Information Society: An International Journal, 19:4, 315-326•• Aisch, G , ‘Visualiziing the Global Digital Divide by Mapping Internet and Population’, 21/10/2011,accessed 5/10/2012, http://vis4.net/blog/posts/mapping-internet-and-population/• our bibliography should look something like this – LastName, FirstName.(Month Day, Year).Title of the Article Retrived Month Day, Year from the website: http://www.abcde.com••• TheVJMovement, ‘Rwandan Farmers Empowered by Mobile Access to Market Prices’, April 12, 2011, accessed 4/10/2012 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_lOSL1KyeG0••• Canton N, 20120, ‘Cell phone culture: How cultural differences affect mobile use’, September 28, 2012, accessed 4/10/2012,http://www.cnn.com/2012/09/27/tech/mobile-culture-usage/index.html•• December 12, 2011, Smartphone Penetration Rates by Country, accessed 7/10/12, shttp://communities- dominate.blogs.com/brands/2011/12/smartphone-penetration-rates-by-country-we-have-good-data-finally.html•• Bight E, 2012, ‘Smartphone still not fully exploited in Rwanda’, Monday April 30th 2012, accessed 7/10/12• http://focus.rw/wp/2012/04/smartphones-still-not-fully-exploited-in-rwanda/