Contents• History of Android• Acquisition by Google• Open GL• Linux• Unix• Linux Kernel• Features• Architecture
HISTORY• Android, Inc. was founded in Palo Alto, California, United States in October, 2003 by Andy Rubin (co-founder of Danger), Rich Miner (co-founder of Wildfire Communications, Inc.), Nick Sears (once VP at T-Mobile), and Chris White (headed design and interface development at WebTV)
What is Android ?• Android is an operating system for mobile devices such as smartphones and tablet computers. It is developed by the Open Handset Alliance led by Google.
Acquisition by Google• Google acquired Android Inc. in August 2005, making Android Inc. a wholly owned subsidiary of Google Inc. Key employees of Android Inc., including Andy Rubin, Rich Miner and Chris White, stayed at the company after the acquisition.
What is an Open GL?• OpenGL (Open Graphics Library) is a standard specification defining a cross-language, cross- platform API for writing applications that produce 2D and 3D computer graphics.• OpenGL was developed by Silicon Graphics Inc. (SGI) in 1992 and is widely used in CAD , virtual reality, scientific visualization, information visualization, flight simulation, and video games.
Open GL contd.• OpenGL is managed by the non-profit technology consortium Khronos Group.• Open GL serves two main purposes: 1. Hide complexities of interfacing with different 3D accelerators by presenting a single, uniform interface. 2. Hide differing capabilities of hardware platforms by requiring support of the full OpenGL feature set for all implementations (using software emulation if necessary).
Created By Open Handset Alliance FIRST• Android brings Internet-style innovation and openness to mobile phones SECOND• Android™ delivers a complete set of software for mobile devices: an operating system, middleware and key mobile applications
LINUX• In April 1991, Linus Torvalds, a 21-year-old student at the University of Helsinki, Finland started working on some simple ideas for an operating system. He started with a task switcher in Intel 80386 assembly language and a terminal driver.• Linux is a computer operating system which is based on free and open source software.
UNIX• The Unix operating system was conceived and implemented in 1969 at AT&Ts Bell Laboratories in the United States by Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, Douglas McIlroy, and Joe Ossanna.• It was first released in 1971 and was initially entirely written in assembly language, a common practice at the time.• Later, in a key pioneering approach in 1973, Unix was re-written in the programming language C by Dennis Ritchie (with exceptions to the kernel and I/O).
What is Kernel ?• In computing, the kernel is the main component of most computer operating systems; it is a bridge between applications and the actual data processing done at the hardware level.• The kernels responsibilities include managing the systems resources (the communication between hardware and software components).
Linux kernel• The Linux kernel is an operating system kernel used by the Linux family of Unix- like operating systems.• Relies on Linux version 2.6 for core system services such as security, memory management, process management, network stack, and driver model.• The kernel also acts as an abstraction layer between the hardware and the rest of the software stack.
• Application framework enabling reuse and replacement of components.• Dalvik virtual machine (DVM) optimized for mobile devices• Optimized graphics powered by a custom 2D graphics library; 3D graphics based on the OpenGL ES 1.0 specification (hardware acceleration optional)
• Media support for common audio, video, and still image formats (MPEG4, H.264, MP3, AAC, AMR, JPG, PNG, GIF)• Camera, GPS, compass, and accelerometer (hardware dependent)• Rich development environment including a device emulator, tools for debugging, memory and performance profiling, and a plugin for the Eclipse IDE