This is one presentation which tells about entire overview of Android operating system from its reasons of popularity, comparison with other operating systems, its architecture and its various versions.
• What is Android
• Power of Android
• Competes with Whom
• Android Market/Play
• Android Architecture
What is Android
Are we talking of
like ASIMO or CHITTI
• An operating systems for mobile devices.
• Open Source (Fully customizable)
• Free under ASL – Apache Server License
(Customised Components can remain
• Designed for Smart phones and Tablet
• Utilises core service (kernel) of Linux
• Provides features specific for Mobile Devices.
Calls, Messaging, Networking and extends its
usage as a computing and entertainment
device. Truly an ICE device (Information-
Why Its So Great
• Needs less processing capacity to Run.
• Supports Third Party Applications
(Applications written by others). 1st mobile
OS to do it on a big scale.
• Anyone can write applications for it
and earn money.
• Some Java skills are enough to
create applications around it
• Makes smart-phones/tablets
available to masses.
• Price of Android based smartphones/tablets
are far lower than other equivalents.
• Android, Inc. was founded
in Palo Alto, California,
United States in October,
2003 by Andy Rubin, Rich
Miner, Nick and Chris
• Google acquired Android
Inc. on August 17, 2005,
making Android Inc. a
wholly owned subsidiary of
A Truly Open Alliance
• Android distribution in 2007 was
announced with the founding of the Open
Handset Alliance (OHA)
• The Open Handset Alliance (OHA) is a
consortium of many firms to develop open
standards for mobile devices.
• This alliance includes Mobile Operators,
Handset Manufacturers, Semiconductor
companies, Software Companies,
Android Open Source Project
• The Android Open Source Project (AOSP) is
led by Google, and is tasked with the
maintenance and development of Android.
• According to the project "The goal of the
Android Open Source Project is to create a
successful real-world product that improves
the mobile experience for end users. "
• This project is responsible for distributing the
android source to its users through its
website http://source.android.com .
• Application developers will however be going
to http://developer.android.com for most of
Power of Android
Its Tech Power or Human Power,
Decide for Yourself
Power of Android - 1
• OS is similar to Windows that controls your
desktop or laptop personal computers.
• Google fully developed Android and make it into
an Open Source.
• Now, any phone manufacturer can use Android
without expensive license fee from Google.
Because it is Open, manufacturer can modify
Android without restriction, allowing it to fit the
device they are making - total freedom.
• This makes it a big incentive for any device
manufacturers to adopt Android.
• The ability to run tens of thousands of apps is
another big incentive.
Power of Android - 2
• Parts of one application can be used in another
in ways not originally envisioned by the
developer. You can even replace built-in
components with your own improved versions.
• Location based services use GPS to let you
customise the user experience depending on
where you are.
• Automatic management of the application life
cycle. Android is optimised for low power, low
memory devices in a fundamental way that no
previous platform has attempted.
• Portability across a wide range of current and
Competes with Whom
Competition is always good for the
Other Mobile Operating Systems
• iOS (Apple)
• Blackberry (Research In Motion)
• Windows 8 (Microsoft)
• Symbian (Nokia)
• Bada (Samsung)
• webOS (HP)
• Brew (Qualcomm)
• LiMo 4 (Limo Foundation)
Who Will Sustain in Future
• Windows 8 (Microsoft supports tablet along with
PCs, Mobile support soon)
• Blackberry (With Blackberry 10)
• Meltemi (From Nokia, Opensource)
• Tizen (From Intel, Samsung, LiMo)
• Aliyan (Alibaba brings cloud functionality)
• Boot2Gecko (Mozilla)
Android Market/Google Play
Free Lunch Coupons,
Drinks will have a price tag.
Go for Shopping, Return as a
• Android Market started in October 2008.
• Rebranded as Google PLAY in March
• Makes available APPS, GAMES,
PHOTOS, RINGTONES, WALLPAERS,
MOVIES, MUSIC and BOOKS.
• Can be used from Android Device only.
• Available at play.google.com
• Android has a large community
of developers writing
applications ("apps") that
extend the functionality of the
• Developers write primarily in a
customized version of Java.
• Apps can be downloaded from
Google Play or other third party
What's in the count
• As of Sep 2012 there were more than
675,000 apps available for Android .
Should Hit 1 Million by June 13.
• As of Sep 2012 estimated number of
applications downloaded from the Android
Market exceeded 25 billion. Gaining about
1.5 Billion/Month. May hit 40 billion by
• Android will ship with a set of
core applications including an
email client, SMS program,
calendar, maps, browser,
contacts, and others. All
applications are written using
the Java programming
• A rich and extensible set of Views that can
be used to build an application, including
lists, grids, text boxes, buttons, and even an
embeddable web browser
• Content Providers that enable applications to
access data from other applications (such as
Contacts), or to share their own data
• A Resource Manager, providing
access to non-code resources such
as localized strings, graphics, and
• An Activity Manager that manages the
lifecycle of applications.
• Enables all applications to display
custom alerts in the status bar.
• These services allow applications
to obtain periodic updates of the
device's geographical location.
• Media Libraries - the libraries
support playback and recording of
many popular audio and video
formats, as well as static image files,
including MPEG4, H.264, MP3, AAC,
AMR, JPG, and PNG
• Surface Manager - manages access
to the display subsystem and
seamlessly composites 2D and 3D
graphic layers from multiple
• SQLite - a powerful and lightweight
relational database engine available
to all applications.
• OpenGL|ES- OpenGL® for embedded
systems is a royalty-free, cross-
platform API for full-function 2D and
3D graphics on embedded systems –
including phones, appliances and
• FreeType- A font rasterization engine.
It works with Truetype, Type 1 and
• WebKit- An open source browser
engine. It powers browsers like safari
FYI: Internet Explorer is powered by Trident
(Microsoft), Firefox is powered by Gecko (Mozilla),
Opera is powered by Presto (Opera).
• SGL- Skia Graphics Library. It is a
compact, open source graphics library
originally from Skia Inc. later acquired
by Google. It is also used to render
graphics in Chrome and Firefox. It is
implemented on the top of OpenGL.
• SSL- Secured Socket Layer. The
encryption method used for
transaction of e-commerce data.
• libc- Standard Library to support C
• Every Android application runs in its own process, with its own
instance of the Dalvik virtual machine.
• The Dalvik VM executes files in the Dalvik Executable (.dex) format.
• The Dalvik VM relies on the Linux kernel for underlying functionality
such as threading and low-level memory management.
• The VM is register-based, and runs classes compiled by a Java
language compiler that have been transformed into the .dex format
by the included "dx" tool.
• Android relies on Linux version 2.6 for
core system services such as security,
memory management, process
management, network stack, and driver
model. The kernel also acts as an
abstraction layer between the hardware
and the rest of the software stack.
• Android applications can be developed by
installing Android SDK from its official site.
• You can also publish your apps in Android
• One can also begin to work on creating
own applications for the platform by using
The most distinguishing feature of
winners is their intensity of
• Handset layouts
– The platform is adaptable to larger, VGA, 2D graphics library, 3D
graphics library based on OpenGL ES 2.0 specifications, and traditional
– Sqlite, a lightweight relational database, is used for data storage
– Android supports connectivity technologies including GSM/EDGE
(Global System for Mobile/Enhanced Datarate for GSM Evolution),
IDEN (Integrated Digital Enhanced Network), CDMA (Code Division
Multiple Access), EV-DO(Evolution-Data Optimised), UMTS (Universal
Mobile Telecom System), Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, LTE (Long Term Evolution),
NFC(Near Field Communication) and WiMAX, Miracast - WifiDirect.
– SMS and MMS are available forms of messaging, including threaded
text messaging and now Android Cloud To Device Messaging (C2DM)
is also a part of Android Push Messaging service.
• Java support
– While most Android applications are written in
Java, there is no Java Virtual Machine in the
platform and Java byte code is not executed.
Java classes are compiled into Dalvik
executables and run on Dalvik, a specialized
virtual machine designed specifically for
Android and optimized for battery-powered
mobile devices with limited memory and CPU.
• Media support
– Android supports the various media formats:
MPEG-4 SP, AMR, AMR-WB, MP3, MIDI,
FLAC, WAV, JPEG, PNG, GIF, BMP, etc.
• Multiple language support
– Android supports multiple languages.
• Additional hardware support
– Android can use video/still cameras,
touchscreens, GPS, accelerometers,
gyroscopes, barometers, magnetometers,
dedicated gaming controls, proximity and
pressure sensors, thermometers, etc.
– Android has native support for multi-touch which was
initially made available in handsets such as the HTC
Hero. The feature was originally disabled at the kernel
level (possibly to avoid infringing Apple's patents on
touch-screen technology at the time). Google has
since released an update for the Nexus One and the
Motorola Droid which enables multi-touch natively.
– Supports sending files , accessing the phone book,
voice dialing and sending contacts between phones.
Keyboard, mouse and joystick support is available in
Android 3.1+, and in earlier versions through
manufacturer customizations and third-party
• Video calling
– Android does not support native video calling, but
some handsets have a customized version of the
operating system that supports it.
– Multitasking of applications is available.
• Voice based features
– Google search through voice has been available
since initial release. Voice actions for calling, texting,
navigation, etc. are supported on Android 2.2
– Android supports tethering, which allows a
phone to be used as a wireless/wired Wi-Fi
hotspot. Before Android 2.2 this was
supported by third-party applications or
• Screen capture
– Android supports capturing a screenshot by
pressing the power and volume-down buttons
at the same time.
• The open and customizable nature of the Android operating
system allows it to be used on most electronics, including but
not limited to: smart-phones, fixed phones, laptops, net-books,
smart-books, tablet computers, E-book readers, TVs (Google
TV), wristwatches, headphones, Car CD and DVD players,
digital cameras, Portable media players and other devices.
• Android applications run in a
sandbox, an isolated area of the
operating system that does not have
access to the rest of the system's
resources, unless access
permissions are granted by the user
when the application is installed.
Before installing an application,
Android Market displays all required
Different Flavours of Android
Software people are usually fond
of eating desserts.
• Each version is named, in
alphabetical order, after a dessert.
– Cupcake (Version 1.5)
– Donut (Version 1.6)
– Éclair Pastry (Version 2.0, 2.1)
– Frozen Yogurt (Version 2.2)
– Gingerbread Man (Version 2.3)
– Honeycomb with a bee (Version 3.0, 3.1, 3.2)
– Icecream Sandwich (Version 4.0)
– Jelly Bean (Version 4.1, 4.2,4.3)
– Kit Kat (Version 4.4)
Taste Analysis - 1
• 1.5 (Cupcake) – 30Apr09, First version based on
Linux. Featured Youtube, Piccasa Uploads.
• 1.6 (Donut) – 15Sep2009, Version with speech
• 2.0,2.1 (Eclairs) – 26Oct09, 3Dec09, Multi-touch,
• 2.2 (FROYO) – 20May2010, Most common
version that gave all basic features with speed
and performance. Flash Support. USB
Tethering. Wifi Hotspot.
Taste Analysis - 2
• 2.3 (Gingerbread) – 6Dec10, Linux Kernel 2.6.35, SIP for
VoIP, Video conferencing, Instant Messaging, NFC –
Near field communication. 2.3.4 with Google talk, 2.3.5 –
Improved Gmail. 2.3.6-7 Bug solution, Google Wallet.
• 3.0, 3.1. 3.2 (Honeycomb) – 22Feb11, Linux Kernel
2.6.36, Tablet Only. Multi-browser tabs, Video Calling.
3.1, 3.2 Added USB accessory connection, Keyboard,
Mouse, Joystick connection, Media from SD card.
• 4.0 (Ice-cream Sandwich) – 19Oct11, Linux Kernel 3.0.1,
Face Recognition, Photo Editor, Virtual buttons, Drag
and Drop Folders, HD Video, Unified Social Networking
• 4.1.x (Jelly Beans) –9July12, Linux Kernel 3.1.10, UI
Improvement, Project Butter based, bidirectional text,
Android beam based on NFC and Bluetooth,
Multichannel Audio, USB Audio, Gapless Playback.
Taste Analysis - 3
• 4.2 (Jelly Bean) –13Nov12, Gesture Typing, MutiUser,
360 Deg. Image Capture with Photosphere, Wireless
display with miracast (Tablet2TV) WifiDirect, Daydream
screensavers to show info. when idle.
• 4.2.1 (Jelly Beans) –27Nov12, Bug Fixes, Bluetooth
gamepads and joysticks.
• 4.2.2 (Jelly Bean) –11Feb13, Bug Fixes, % time left to
download shown. Long pressing on/off in quick settings,
new sounds, New gallery app.
• 4.2.3 (Jelly Bean) –24Jul13/22Aug2013, Bug Fixes,
called even sweeter jelly been. Open GL ES 3.0 for
better gaming. Dial-Pad auto complete. Urdu and other
RTL languages supported.
Taste Analysis - 4
• 4.4 (Kit Kat) –3Oct13, API Level 19. Improved Interface,
Wireless Printing, Can Emulate smart cards, SMS app
can be specified, Full Screen Support, Edge Swipe
Android Version Distribution As of Oct 2013
Technologists often defy forecasts
and bring features earlier than
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