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1
ANDROID
MOBILITY-MAGIC-MARVEL
Speaker:
SUNIL JI GARG
MD, Sunmitra
A Programme Under the Gyanmitra Sabha Series
Copyright...
2
Outline
• What is Android
• Background
• Power of Android
• Competes with Whom
• Features
• Android Market/Play
• Androi...
3
What is Android
Are we talking of
Robots
like ASIMO or CHITTI
4
Overview
• An operating systems for mobile devices.
• Open Source (Fully customizable)
• Free under ASL – Apache Server ...
5
Why Its So Great
• Needs less processing capacity to Run.
• Supports Third Party Applications
(Applications written by o...
6
Some Background
Great Things Start Small
7
The Birth
• Android, Inc. was founded
in Palo Alto, California,
United States in October,
2003 by Andy Rubin, Rich
Miner...
8
A Truly Open Alliance
• Android distribution in 2007 was
announced with the founding of the Open
Handset Alliance (OHA)
...
9
Android Open Source Project
• The Android Open Source Project (AOSP) is
led by Google, and is tasked with the
maintenanc...
10
Power of Android
Its Tech Power or Human Power,
Decide for Yourself
Power of Android - 1
• OS is similar to Windows that controls your
desktop or laptop personal computers.
• Google fully de...
Power of Android - 2
• Parts of one application can be used in another
in ways not originally envisioned by the
developer....
13
Competes with Whom
Competition is always good for the
end-users.
14
Other Mobile Operating Systems
• iOS (Apple)
• Blackberry (Research In Motion)
• Windows 8 (Microsoft)
• Symbian (Nokia...
Market Share Analysis
Smartphone OS shipments
17
Who Will Sustain in Future
• Android
• iOS
• Windows 8 (Microsoft supports tablet along with
PCs, Mobile support soon)
...
18
Android Market/Google Play
Free Lunch Coupons,
Drinks will have a price tag.
19
Go for Shopping, Return as a
Player
• Android Market started in October 2008.
• Rebranded as Google PLAY in March
2012....
20
Android Apps
• Android has a large community
of developers writing
applications ("apps") that
extend the functionality ...
21
What's in the count
• As of Sep 2012 there were more than
675,000 apps available for Android .
Should Hit 1 Million by ...
22
Web is getting diverted to APPS
23
Android Architecture
Even a high riser starts from
foundation only.
Overall Architecture
Applications
• Android will ship with a set of
core applications including an
email client, SMS program,
calendar, maps, b...
View System
• A rich and extensible set of Views that can
be used to build an application, including
lists, grids, text bo...
Content Providers
• Content Providers that enable applications to
access data from other applications (such as
Contacts), ...
Resource Manager
• A Resource Manager, providing
access to non-code resources such
as localized strings, graphics, and
lay...
Activity Manager
• An Activity Manager that manages the
lifecycle of applications.
Notification Manager
• Enables all applications to display
custom alerts in the status bar.
Location Manager
• These services allow applications
to obtain periodic updates of the
device's geographical location.
Libraries
• Media Libraries - the libraries
support playback and recording of
many popular audio and video
formats, as wel...
Libraries
• Surface Manager - manages access
to the display subsystem and
seamlessly composites 2D and 3D
graphic layers f...
Libraries
• SQLite - a powerful and lightweight
relational database engine available
to all applications.
Libraries
• OpenGL|ES- OpenGL® for embedded
systems is a royalty-free, cross-
platform API for full-function 2D and
3D gra...
Libraries
• FreeType- A font rasterization engine.
It works with Truetype, Type 1 and
Opentype fonts.
Libraries
• WebKit- An open source browser
engine. It powers browsers like safari
and chrome.
FYI: Internet Explorer is po...
Libraries
• SGL- Skia Graphics Library. It is a
compact, open source graphics library
originally from Skia Inc. later acqu...
Libraries
• SSL- Secured Socket Layer. The
encryption method used for
transaction of e-commerce data.
Libraries
• libc- Standard Library to support C
Programs.
Android Runtime
• Every Android application runs in its own process, with its own
instance of the Dalvik virtual machine.
...
Linux Kernel
• Android relies on Linux version 2.6 for
core system services such as security,
memory management, process
m...
44
Development
• Android applications can be developed by
installing Android SDK from its official site.
• You can also pu...
45
Android Features
The most distinguishing feature of
winners is their intensity of
purpose.
46
Features
• Handset layouts
– The platform is adaptable to larger, VGA, 2D graphics library, 3D
graphics library based o...
47
Features
• Java support
– While most Android applications are written in
Java, there is no Java Virtual Machine in the
...
48
Features
• Media support
– Android supports the various media formats:
MPEG-4 SP, AMR, AMR-WB, MP3, MIDI,
FLAC, WAV, JP...
49
Features
• Multi-touch
– Android has native support for multi-touch which was
initially made available in handsets such...
50
Features
• Video calling
– Android does not support native video calling, but
some handsets have a customized version o...
51
Features
• Tethering
– Android supports tethering, which allows a
phone to be used as a wireless/wired Wi-Fi
hotspot. B...
52
Uses
• The open and customizable nature of the Android operating
system allows it to be used on most electronics, inclu...
53
Security
• Android applications run in a
sandbox, an isolated area of the
operating system that does not have
access to...
54
Different Flavours of Android
Software people are usually fond
of eating desserts.
55
Delicious tastes
• Each version is named, in
alphabetical order, after a dessert.
– Cupcake (Version 1.5)
– Donut (Vers...
56
Taste Analysis - 1
• 1.5 (Cupcake) – 30Apr09, First version based on
Linux. Featured Youtube, Piccasa Uploads.
• 1.6 (D...
57
Taste Analysis - 2
• 2.3 (Gingerbread) – 6Dec10, Linux Kernel 2.6.35, SIP for
VoIP, Video conferencing, Instant Messagi...
58
Taste Analysis - 3
• 4.2 (Jelly Bean) –13Nov12, Gesture Typing, MutiUser,
360 Deg. Image Capture with Photosphere, Wire...
59
Taste Analysis - 4
• 4.4 (Kit Kat) –3Oct13, API Level 19. Improved Interface,
Wireless Printing, Can Emulate smart card...
60
Android Version Distribution As of Oct 2013
61
Future
Technologists often defy forecasts
and bring features earlier than
expected.
62
Future
63
Bibliography
• http://en.wikipedia.org
• http://developer.android.co
m
• http://play.google.com
• http://source.android...
64
Thanks.
Discussion Follows…
• Keep visiting www.sunmitra.com for
programme updates.
• Please keep interacting using the...
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Android Fundamentals, Architecture and Versions

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This is one presentation which tells about entire overview of Android operating system from its reasons of popularity, comparison with other operating systems, its architecture and its various versions.

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Android Fundamentals, Architecture and Versions

  1. 1. 1 ANDROID MOBILITY-MAGIC-MARVEL Speaker: SUNIL JI GARG MD, Sunmitra A Programme Under the Gyanmitra Sabha Series Copyright 2012-13 © Sunmitra Education Technologies Limited, India
  2. 2. 2 Outline • What is Android • Background • Power of Android • Competes with Whom • Features • Android Market/Play • Android Architecture • Flavours • Future.
  3. 3. 3 What is Android Are we talking of Robots like ASIMO or CHITTI
  4. 4. 4 Overview • An operating systems for mobile devices. • Open Source (Fully customizable) • Free under ASL – Apache Server License (Customised Components can remain proprietary) • Designed for Smart phones and Tablet computer etc. • Utilises core service (kernel) of Linux Operating System. • Provides features specific for Mobile Devices. Calls, Messaging, Networking and extends its usage as a computing and entertainment device. Truly an ICE device (Information- Communication-Entertainment device)
  5. 5. 5 Why Its So Great • Needs less processing capacity to Run. • Supports Third Party Applications (Applications written by others). 1st mobile OS to do it on a big scale. • Anyone can write applications for it and earn money. • Some Java skills are enough to create applications around it • Makes smart-phones/tablets available to masses. • Price of Android based smartphones/tablets are far lower than other equivalents.
  6. 6. 6 Some Background Great Things Start Small
  7. 7. 7 The Birth • Android, Inc. was founded in Palo Alto, California, United States in October, 2003 by Andy Rubin, Rich Miner, Nick and Chris White. • Google acquired Android Inc. on August 17, 2005, making Android Inc. a wholly owned subsidiary of Google Inc.
  8. 8. 8 A Truly Open Alliance • Android distribution in 2007 was announced with the founding of the Open Handset Alliance (OHA) • The Open Handset Alliance (OHA) is a consortium of many firms to develop open standards for mobile devices. • This alliance includes Mobile Operators, Handset Manufacturers, Semiconductor companies, Software Companies, Commercialization companies.
  9. 9. 9 Android Open Source Project • The Android Open Source Project (AOSP) is led by Google, and is tasked with the maintenance and development of Android. • According to the project "The goal of the Android Open Source Project is to create a successful real-world product that improves the mobile experience for end users. " • This project is responsible for distributing the android source to its users through its website http://source.android.com . • Application developers will however be going to http://developer.android.com for most of their needs.
  10. 10. 10 Power of Android Its Tech Power or Human Power, Decide for Yourself
  11. 11. Power of Android - 1 • OS is similar to Windows that controls your desktop or laptop personal computers. • Google fully developed Android and make it into an Open Source. • Now, any phone manufacturer can use Android without expensive license fee from Google. Because it is Open, manufacturer can modify Android without restriction, allowing it to fit the device they are making - total freedom. • This makes it a big incentive for any device manufacturers to adopt Android. • The ability to run tens of thousands of apps is another big incentive.
  12. 12. Power of Android - 2 • Parts of one application can be used in another in ways not originally envisioned by the developer. You can even replace built-in components with your own improved versions. • Location based services use GPS to let you customise the user experience depending on where you are. • Automatic management of the application life cycle. Android is optimised for low power, low memory devices in a fundamental way that no previous platform has attempted. • Portability across a wide range of current and future hardware.
  13. 13. 13 Competes with Whom Competition is always good for the end-users.
  14. 14. 14 Other Mobile Operating Systems • iOS (Apple) • Blackberry (Research In Motion) • Windows 8 (Microsoft) • Symbian (Nokia) • Bada (Samsung) • webOS (HP) • Brew (Qualcomm) • LiMo 4 (Limo Foundation)
  15. 15. Market Share Analysis
  16. 16. Smartphone OS shipments
  17. 17. 17 Who Will Sustain in Future • Android • iOS • Windows 8 (Microsoft supports tablet along with PCs, Mobile support soon) • Blackberry (With Blackberry 10) • Meltemi (From Nokia, Opensource) • Tizen (From Intel, Samsung, LiMo) • Aliyan (Alibaba brings cloud functionality) • Boot2Gecko (Mozilla)
  18. 18. 18 Android Market/Google Play Free Lunch Coupons, Drinks will have a price tag.
  19. 19. 19 Go for Shopping, Return as a Player • Android Market started in October 2008. • Rebranded as Google PLAY in March 2012. • Makes available APPS, GAMES, PHOTOS, RINGTONES, WALLPAERS, MOVIES, MUSIC and BOOKS. • Can be used from Android Device only. • Available at play.google.com
  20. 20. 20 Android Apps • Android has a large community of developers writing applications ("apps") that extend the functionality of the devices. • Developers write primarily in a customized version of Java. • Apps can be downloaded from Google Play or other third party sites.
  21. 21. 21 What's in the count • As of Sep 2012 there were more than 675,000 apps available for Android . Should Hit 1 Million by June 13. • As of Sep 2012 estimated number of applications downloaded from the Android Market exceeded 25 billion. Gaining about 1.5 Billion/Month. May hit 40 billion by June 13.
  22. 22. 22 Web is getting diverted to APPS
  23. 23. 23 Android Architecture Even a high riser starts from foundation only.
  24. 24. Overall Architecture
  25. 25. Applications • Android will ship with a set of core applications including an email client, SMS program, calendar, maps, browser, contacts, and others. All applications are written using the Java programming language.
  26. 26. View System • A rich and extensible set of Views that can be used to build an application, including lists, grids, text boxes, buttons, and even an embeddable web browser
  27. 27. Content Providers • Content Providers that enable applications to access data from other applications (such as Contacts), or to share their own data
  28. 28. Resource Manager • A Resource Manager, providing access to non-code resources such as localized strings, graphics, and layout files
  29. 29. Activity Manager • An Activity Manager that manages the lifecycle of applications.
  30. 30. Notification Manager • Enables all applications to display custom alerts in the status bar.
  31. 31. Location Manager • These services allow applications to obtain periodic updates of the device's geographical location.
  32. 32. Libraries • Media Libraries - the libraries support playback and recording of many popular audio and video formats, as well as static image files, including MPEG4, H.264, MP3, AAC, AMR, JPG, and PNG
  33. 33. Libraries • Surface Manager - manages access to the display subsystem and seamlessly composites 2D and 3D graphic layers from multiple applications.
  34. 34. Libraries • SQLite - a powerful and lightweight relational database engine available to all applications.
  35. 35. Libraries • OpenGL|ES- OpenGL® for embedded systems is a royalty-free, cross- platform API for full-function 2D and 3D graphics on embedded systems – including phones, appliances and vehicles.
  36. 36. Libraries • FreeType- A font rasterization engine. It works with Truetype, Type 1 and Opentype fonts.
  37. 37. Libraries • WebKit- An open source browser engine. It powers browsers like safari and chrome. FYI: Internet Explorer is powered by Trident (Microsoft), Firefox is powered by Gecko (Mozilla), Opera is powered by Presto (Opera).
  38. 38. Libraries • SGL- Skia Graphics Library. It is a compact, open source graphics library originally from Skia Inc. later acquired by Google. It is also used to render graphics in Chrome and Firefox. It is implemented on the top of OpenGL.
  39. 39. Libraries • SSL- Secured Socket Layer. The encryption method used for transaction of e-commerce data.
  40. 40. Libraries • libc- Standard Library to support C Programs.
  41. 41. Android Runtime • Every Android application runs in its own process, with its own instance of the Dalvik virtual machine. • The Dalvik VM executes files in the Dalvik Executable (.dex) format. • The Dalvik VM relies on the Linux kernel for underlying functionality such as threading and low-level memory management. • The VM is register-based, and runs classes compiled by a Java language compiler that have been transformed into the .dex format by the included "dx" tool.
  42. 42. Linux Kernel • Android relies on Linux version 2.6 for core system services such as security, memory management, process management, network stack, and driver model. The kernel also acts as an abstraction layer between the hardware and the rest of the software stack.
  43. 43. 44 Development • Android applications can be developed by installing Android SDK from its official site. • You can also publish your apps in Android Market. • One can also begin to work on creating own applications for the platform by using • http://code.google.com/android
  44. 44. 45 Android Features The most distinguishing feature of winners is their intensity of purpose.
  45. 45. 46 Features • Handset layouts – The platform is adaptable to larger, VGA, 2D graphics library, 3D graphics library based on OpenGL ES 2.0 specifications, and traditional smart-phone layouts. • Storage – Sqlite, a lightweight relational database, is used for data storage purposes. • Connectivity – Android supports connectivity technologies including GSM/EDGE (Global System for Mobile/Enhanced Datarate for GSM Evolution), IDEN (Integrated Digital Enhanced Network), CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access), EV-DO(Evolution-Data Optimised), UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecom System), Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, LTE (Long Term Evolution), NFC(Near Field Communication) and WiMAX, Miracast - WifiDirect. • Messaging – SMS and MMS are available forms of messaging, including threaded text messaging and now Android Cloud To Device Messaging (C2DM) is also a part of Android Push Messaging service.
  46. 46. 47 Features • Java support – While most Android applications are written in Java, there is no Java Virtual Machine in the platform and Java byte code is not executed. Java classes are compiled into Dalvik executables and run on Dalvik, a specialized virtual machine designed specifically for Android and optimized for battery-powered mobile devices with limited memory and CPU.
  47. 47. 48 Features • Media support – Android supports the various media formats: MPEG-4 SP, AMR, AMR-WB, MP3, MIDI, FLAC, WAV, JPEG, PNG, GIF, BMP, etc. • Multiple language support – Android supports multiple languages. • Additional hardware support – Android can use video/still cameras, touchscreens, GPS, accelerometers, gyroscopes, barometers, magnetometers, dedicated gaming controls, proximity and pressure sensors, thermometers, etc.
  48. 48. 49 Features • Multi-touch – Android has native support for multi-touch which was initially made available in handsets such as the HTC Hero. The feature was originally disabled at the kernel level (possibly to avoid infringing Apple's patents on touch-screen technology at the time). Google has since released an update for the Nexus One and the Motorola Droid which enables multi-touch natively. • Bluetooth – Supports sending files , accessing the phone book, voice dialing and sending contacts between phones. Keyboard, mouse and joystick support is available in Android 3.1+, and in earlier versions through manufacturer customizations and third-party applications.
  49. 49. 50 Features • Video calling – Android does not support native video calling, but some handsets have a customized version of the operating system that supports it. • Multitasking – Multitasking of applications is available. • Voice based features – Google search through voice has been available since initial release. Voice actions for calling, texting, navigation, etc. are supported on Android 2.2 onwards.
  50. 50. 51 Features • Tethering – Android supports tethering, which allows a phone to be used as a wireless/wired Wi-Fi hotspot. Before Android 2.2 this was supported by third-party applications or manufacturer customizations. • Screen capture – Android supports capturing a screenshot by pressing the power and volume-down buttons at the same time.
  51. 51. 52 Uses • The open and customizable nature of the Android operating system allows it to be used on most electronics, including but not limited to: smart-phones, fixed phones, laptops, net-books, smart-books, tablet computers, E-book readers, TVs (Google TV), wristwatches, headphones, Car CD and DVD players, digital cameras, Portable media players and other devices.
  52. 52. 53 Security • Android applications run in a sandbox, an isolated area of the operating system that does not have access to the rest of the system's resources, unless access permissions are granted by the user when the application is installed. Before installing an application, Android Market displays all required permissions.
  53. 53. 54 Different Flavours of Android Software people are usually fond of eating desserts.
  54. 54. 55 Delicious tastes • Each version is named, in alphabetical order, after a dessert. – Cupcake (Version 1.5) – Donut (Version 1.6) – Éclair Pastry (Version 2.0, 2.1) – Frozen Yogurt (Version 2.2) – Gingerbread Man (Version 2.3) – Honeycomb with a bee (Version 3.0, 3.1, 3.2) – Icecream Sandwich (Version 4.0) – Jelly Bean (Version 4.1, 4.2,4.3) – Kit Kat (Version 4.4)
  55. 55. 56 Taste Analysis - 1 • 1.5 (Cupcake) – 30Apr09, First version based on Linux. Featured Youtube, Piccasa Uploads. • 1.6 (Donut) – 15Sep2009, Version with speech synthesis. • 2.0,2.1 (Eclairs) – 26Oct09, 3Dec09, Multi-touch, Live wallpapers. • 2.2 (FROYO) – 20May2010, Most common version that gave all basic features with speed and performance. Flash Support. USB Tethering. Wifi Hotspot.
  56. 56. 57 Taste Analysis - 2 • 2.3 (Gingerbread) – 6Dec10, Linux Kernel 2.6.35, SIP for VoIP, Video conferencing, Instant Messaging, NFC – Near field communication. 2.3.4 with Google talk, 2.3.5 – Improved Gmail. 2.3.6-7 Bug solution, Google Wallet. • 3.0, 3.1. 3.2 (Honeycomb) – 22Feb11, Linux Kernel 2.6.36, Tablet Only. Multi-browser tabs, Video Calling. 3.1, 3.2 Added USB accessory connection, Keyboard, Mouse, Joystick connection, Media from SD card. • 4.0 (Ice-cream Sandwich) – 19Oct11, Linux Kernel 3.0.1, Face Recognition, Photo Editor, Virtual buttons, Drag and Drop Folders, HD Video, Unified Social Networking Contacts. • 4.1.x (Jelly Beans) –9July12, Linux Kernel 3.1.10, UI Improvement, Project Butter based, bidirectional text, Android beam based on NFC and Bluetooth, Multichannel Audio, USB Audio, Gapless Playback.
  57. 57. 58 Taste Analysis - 3 • 4.2 (Jelly Bean) –13Nov12, Gesture Typing, MutiUser, 360 Deg. Image Capture with Photosphere, Wireless display with miracast (Tablet2TV) WifiDirect, Daydream screensavers to show info. when idle. • 4.2.1 (Jelly Beans) –27Nov12, Bug Fixes, Bluetooth gamepads and joysticks. • 4.2.2 (Jelly Bean) –11Feb13, Bug Fixes, % time left to download shown. Long pressing on/off in quick settings, new sounds, New gallery app. • 4.2.3 (Jelly Bean) –24Jul13/22Aug2013, Bug Fixes, called even sweeter jelly been. Open GL ES 3.0 for better gaming. Dial-Pad auto complete. Urdu and other RTL languages supported.
  58. 58. 59 Taste Analysis - 4 • 4.4 (Kit Kat) –3Oct13, API Level 19. Improved Interface, Wireless Printing, Can Emulate smart cards, SMS app can be specified, Full Screen Support, Edge Swipe gesture
  59. 59. 60 Android Version Distribution As of Oct 2013
  60. 60. 61 Future Technologists often defy forecasts and bring features earlier than expected.
  61. 61. 62 Future
  62. 62. 63 Bibliography • http://en.wikipedia.org • http://developer.android.co m • http://play.google.com • http://source.android.com • http://www.youtube.com
  63. 63. 64 Thanks. Discussion Follows… • Keep visiting www.sunmitra.com for programme updates. • Please keep interacting using the email sunmitraeducation@gmail.com . • Please subscribe us when you get a facebook invitation from sunmitra.

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